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Full text of "Zoological journal of the Linnean Society"

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THE 



JOURNAL 



THE LINNEAN SOCIETT. 



ZOOLOGY. 



VOL. XII. 



• • ••«••• : : ••• • • 



LONDON: 
SOLD AT THE SOCIETY'S APARTMENTS, BURLINGTON HOUSE: 

AND BY 

LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER, 

AND 

WILLIAMS AND NORGATE. 
1876. 



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* 1 1 H'lfl 



Dates of publication of the sereral Nos. included in this yolume. 

No. 67, pp. 1 to 99 1874, February 11. 

„ 68, „ 100 „ 195 „ NoTembera 

„ 59, „ 196 ,,261 1875,May22. 

„ 60-62, „ 261 „ 407 1876, February 26. 

„ 63, „ 408 „ 614 „ May26. 

„ 64, „ 514 „ 600 „ September 19. 



•»•••• 



PRINTED BY TAYLOB AND FBANCIS, 
RID LION COURT, FLEET STRSKT. 



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LIST OF PAPERS. 



Pag* 

Allman, George James, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., &c, Pres. L.S. 
Diagnoses of new Genera and Species of Hydroida. (Plates 
IX. to XXJH. incluaive.) 261 

Anderson, John, M.D., F.L.S., &c. 

On the Cloaca! Bladders and on the Peritoneal Canals in 

Cheionia 434 

Note on the Plastron of the Gangetic Mud-Turtle (Emyda dura 

of Buchanan Hamilton). (With a woodcut) 514 

Note on Arctomys dichrous. (Plate XXXI.) 679 

Butler, Arthur G., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

Descriptions of five new Species of Gonyleptes. (Plate VIII.) . 161 
Notes on the Lepidoptera of the Family Zygaenid», with De- 
scriptions of new Genera and Species. (Plates XXVII. & 

XXVIII.) 342 

On the Subfamilies Antichlorinse and Charidein® of the Lepi- 
dopterous Families Zyg»nid» and Arctiidae. (Plate XXIX.) 408 

Cobbold, T. Spencer, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c 

On the supposed Rarity, Nomenclature, Structure, Affinities, 
and Source of the large human Fluke (Distoma crassimi, 
Busk). (With a woodcut.) 285 

Davidson, Thou as. 

Note on a new Species of Japanese Brachiopoda 109 

Day, Francis, F.L.S., Surgeon-Major. 

Introduction of Trout and Tench into India 562 

On some of the Fishes of the Deccan 605 

IIi'xley, Thomas IIenby, LL.D., Sec. R.S., FX.S., &c. 

On the Classification of the Animal Kingdom 199 



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IV 

Page 

Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, LL.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S., Treas. Linn. Soc. 

On some species of Japanese Marine Shells and fishes which 
inhabit also the North Atlantic 100 

Lubbock, Sir John, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c, Vice-Chan- 
cellor of the University of London. 

Observations on Bees and Wasps. — Part 1 110 

Observations on Bees, Wasps, and Ants. — Part II 227 

Observations on Ants, Bees, and Wasps. — Part III 445 

MacLachlan, Robert, F.L.S. &c. 

On OnUcigaster Wakcfteldi, the singular Insect from New Zea- 
land, belonging to the Family EphemericUe ; with Notes on 
its Aquatic Conditions. (Plate V.) 189 

Moseley, H. N., M. A., Naturalist to H.M.S. « Chalkngex.' 

Remarks on the Insects of Kerguelen's Land 578 

Pascob, Fbancis P., F.L.S., late Pres. Entom. Soc. 

Contributions towards a Knowledge of the Curculionida. — Part 
IV. (Plates I., II., HI.,IV.) 1 

Romanes, Geobge J., M.A., F.L.S., &c. 

An Account of some new Species, Varieties, and Monstrous 
Forms of Medusaa 524 

Schiodie, J. C, Professor at Copenhagen. 

Notes on the Letters from Danish and Swedish Naturalists con- 
tained in the Linnean Correspondence 19tf 

Skelev, Prof. Habbv Govieb, F.L.S., F.G.S., &c. 

Resemblances between the Bones of Typical living Reptiles and 

the Bones of other Animals 155 

Similitudes of the Bones in the Enaliosauria 290 

Smith, Edgab A., Esq., F.Z.S. 

A List of Marine Shells, chiefly from the Solomon Islands, with 
Descriptions of several new Species, (Plate XXX.) . . .... 5.'J5 

Stebbino, The Rev. T.RR,, M.A., of Tor-Crest Hall, Torquay. 
A new Australian Sphseromid, Cyclura venom ; and notes on By- 
namene rubra and wrirfw. (Plates VI. & VII.) 140 

Wade, Chablbs H., Esq., F.L.S. 

Note on the Venous System of Birds. (With two woodcuts.),. 581 



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Watson, The Rev. R. Booo, F.RS.E. 

Notes on Lowe's MS. List of Webb's Type Shells from the Cana- 
ries (1829), and on the Annotations thereon of D'Orbigny 
(1839) and Lowe (1860) 516 

Welch, Francis H., F.R.C.S., Assist. Prof. Pathol. Netley Hosp. 
The Anatomy of two Parasitic Forms of the Family Tetrarhyn- 
chidie. (Plates XXTV., XXV., XXVI.) 829 



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EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate 



1.1 
tt r 



III 



CufiCULioNiDiS. — Figured of new, rare, or interesting species of Cole- 
optera, and segments of same, to illustrate Mr. F. P. Pascoe's paper 
on these Beetles (Part IV.). 



IV. J 

V. Oniscigastkr Wakefieldi, male and female imago, larva, and nymph, 

with parts of same, to illustrate Mr. B. MacLachlan'a paper on 

this New-Zealand Ephemerid. 

( Oycluba venosa, nat. size and enlarged, with segments of same ; also 

VI. J Dynamene Montagui, D. variant, and Idotea pelagica, to illustrate 

VII. I the Bey. T. B. B. Stebbing*s paper on a new Australian Sphav 

\ romid Ac 

VI 1L Gomyleptbs, five new species, and parts of same, to illustrate Mr. A. 

G-. Butler's paper on the above genus of Harvest-Spiders. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. -I 

XXV. I 
yyvt J f ftmu y Tetrarhynchidae. 

XXVII. 1 Vehatiok, wings or Zygjenid*, to illustrate Mr. A. G. Butler's paper 
XXVIII. J on this family of Lepidoptera. 
XXIX Neuration, illustrating Mr. A. G. Butler's paper on the subfamilies 

Anticldorina) and Cbarideirue. 
XXX. Nkw marine shells, illustrative of specimens described from the 

Solomon Islands &c. by Mr. Edgar A. Smith. 
XXXI. Abctomys D1CHROU8, a new species of Marmot from Kabul, described 
by Dr. J. Anderson. 



Hvdroida, new genera and species from Greenland, Scandinavia, India, 
Japan, New Zealand, &c., to illustrate Professor Allman's paper on 
this group. 



* 1 Anatomy op Cestoida, illustrating Mr. F. H. Welch's paper on the 



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CORRIGENDA ET ADDENDA. 

Page 138, line 18 from top, substitute nine for "three" months. 

— 343, — 15 from top, "Amycks " should there be Anycles — the former 

being Herrich-Schaffer's genus, whereas the latter, Walker's 
genus, was intended. 

— 353, — 12 from bottom, "Trianura n ought to be Trianeiira. 

— 354, — 6 from bottom, for " Syntonis" read Syntomis. 

— 419. The restricted genus Oreatonotus of Herrich-Scbaffer being 

superseded in the typical Arctiidte by a group immediately 
following SpUosoma and allies, it is proposed to call the 
species Sutonocrea incerta. — A. G. Butler, Aug. 1, 1870. 

— 494, line 17 from top,,/br the word " latter " read former. 

— 494, — 18 from top, for the word " former " read latter. 

— 563, — 3 from bottom, "Pyjcara " should be Pykara. 

— 566, — 3 from bottom, for "Rqjahmundy" read Rajahmundry. 

— 570, footnote, top line, for "n. s., n read Cuv. 4' l<il- 



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PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



UNNEAN SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



(SESSION 1872-73.) 



Xorember 7th, 1872. 

George Bentham, Esq., President, in the Chair, 
The Ber. C. W. Pennj was elected a Fellow. 

The President read two letters, in her own hand, from I*d,v 
Smith (now in her 100th year), offering for tho acceptance* of the 
Society serenty-four letters, addressed to its Founder, by tho 
late Alexander M*Leay, Esq., Secretary to tho Society from 
1798 to 1825. The letters were accompanied by a photograph 
from the portrait of Lady Smith, taken by Opie in 1798, signed, 
and bearing the date of her birth, May 11, 1778. Itosolvod, 
that the Special Thanks of the Society be presented to Lady 
Smith for this very valuable and acceptable donation. 

The President then read a letter from Dr. J. Fayror, an- 
nouncing the donation of his magnificent work on tho Poinonou* 
Snakes of India; for which the Special Tbanki of tho Society 
were also ordered. 

Dr. Hooker, V.P.L.S., exhibited, from the Kew Miimmmi, a 
linn. pnoc. — Session 1872-73. h 



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11 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

beautiful series of photographs of trees Ac. taken in the Botanic 
Garden, Brisbane, Queensland. 

The President exhibited, on the part of Mr. Martin Alford, 
a specimen of the " Hen and Chickens " Daisy, found by him 
in September last, apparently wild, at the edge of a grass-field 
near Bridgewater. 

The Secretary exhibited the fruit of a variety of Pyrusjapo- 
nica, grown in the garden of Daniel Edwards, Esq., of Uckfield, 
Sussex. 

The following papers were read, viz. : — 

1. " Note on the Buds developed on Leaves of Malaxit" by 
George Dickie, M.D., F.L.S., Begins Professor at the Univer- 
sity, Aberdeen. 

2. "On a Menispermaceous Plant, called by Velloz Citsam- 
pelo$ VUiiy and figured in his ' Flora Fluminensis,' vol. x.," by 
Senor J. C. De Mello, of Campinas, Brazil ; translated by John 
Miers, Esq., F.B. & L.S. Communicated by Daniel Hanbury, 
Esq., F.B. & L.S. 

3. "Notes on Keropia crastirostri*, Gmel.," by Thomas H. 
Potta,Esq.,F.L.S. 



November 21st, 1872. 
George Bentham, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

Cuthbert Cartwright Grundy, Esq., and Edward Harris, Esq., 
were elected Fellows. 

The following papers were read, viz. : — 

1. " Catalogue of the Composite of Bengal," by Charles Baron 
Clarke, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 

2. * On Hydrotrophu*, a new Genus of Hydrocharidea," by 
the i 



8. " On Diversity of Evolution under one set of External Con- 



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LINHBAN 80CI1TT OF LONDON. Ill 

ditions," by the Bev. John T. Gulick. Communicated by. A. 
E. Wallace, Esq., F.L.S. 



December 5th, 1872. 

George Bentham, Esq., President, in the Chair. 
George T. Porritt, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

The following papers were read, viz. : — 

1. " On the Skeleton of the Aptety*" ty T ^omas Allis, Esq., 
F.L.S. 

2. " On new and rare British Spiders : 2nd Supplement," by 
the Bev. O. P. Cambridge, M. A. Communicated by H. T. Stain- 
ton, Esq., Sec. L.S. 

3. " On two new Species of Mycoporum, Flotow," by the Be?. 
W. A. Leighton, B.A., F.L.S. 

4. "Be vision of the Genus Symphoriearpos" by Asa Gray, 
M.D., F.M.L.S. 

December 19th, 1872. 
George Bentham, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

Frank Champneys, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Mr. W. G. Smith, F.I4.S., exhibited a fine specimen of the rare 
Batarrea phalloides, Pers., one of four found in the .grounds of the 
Earl of Egmont at Epsom. Mr. Smith also exhibited a complete 
series of drawings, in every stage of growth, of the nearly allied 
genera Clathru*, Phallus, Cynophallu*, and Qeasier. 

Mr. T. B. Flower, F.L.S., exhibited specimens of Lobelia urens, 
L., gathered by himself on Kilmington Common, near Axminster, 
S. Devon, in August last. 



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IV PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

The following papers were read, viz. : — 

1. " On the Development of the Flowers of Welwitschia mira- 
bilis, Hook, fil.," by William Earosey M'Nab, M.D., Prof. Bot. 
E. Coll. of Science for Ireland. Communicated by J. D. Hooker, 
M.D., V.P.L.S., &c. 

2. " Remarks on the General Principles of Plant-construction," 
by Maxwell T. Masters, M.D., F.B. & L.S. 

January 16th, 1873, 

George Bentham, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

George Bidie, M.D., Eobert Brown, Esq., the Eev. William 
Davies, Frederick Janson Hanbury, Esq., Norman S. Kerr, M.D., 
John Frederick Adolphus M'Nair, Major E.A., John E. Map- 
plebeck, Esq., and John Shaw, M.D., were elected Fellows. 

Mr. Grote, F.L.S., exhibited drawings of two branched Palms, 
Cocqs nucifera and Phoenix dactylifera. 

Professor Thiselton Dyer, F.L.S., made a verbal communication 
on Termtroemia EJuuyana, Choisy, and exhibited a photograph of 
two flowering plants of Agave americana (over ninety years old) 
which had been presented to the Eoyal Horticultural Society by 
Colonel Jervis. 

The following papers were read, viz. : — 

1. " On the Eecent Synonyms of Brazilian Fern8, ,, by J. G. 
Baker, Esq., F.L.S. 

2. "Note on Nemacladw, Nutt.," by Asa Gray, M.D., F.L.S. 



February 6th, 1873. 
George Bentham, Esq., President, in the Chair. 
The following paper was read, viz. : — 

" Notes on Aristolochiace®," by Maxwell T. Masters, M.D., 
F.E. A L.S. 



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LIKNIAN 80CIKTY OF LOTOOW. V 

February 20th, 1873. 

George Bentham, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

William Philip Hiern, Esq., M.A., John C. Melliss, Esq., C.E., 
John Scott, Esq., and Joseph Smith, Esq., were elected Fellows. 

Mr. "William Sowerby, F.L.S., exhibited specimens of iW*- 
settia pulcherrima, in fruit, from the Garden of the Boyal Botanic 
Society. 

Professor Thiselton Dyer, F.L.S., exhibited a remarkable mon- 
strosity of Lalia elegans, Bchb. fil., with a nearly regular flower ; 
and made some observations on its structure. 

Mr. W. G. Smith, F.L.S., exhibited a specimen of a gelatinous 
Fungus, probably new, of the order Polyporei, which had made its 
appearance on the stem of a Cycad in Mr. Bull's nursery, and 
which was stated to belong to the genus Laschia. 

The following papers were read, viz. : — 

1. " On a new African Genus of Podostemace©," by H. A. 
Weddell, M.D., F.M.L.S. 

2. " Descriptions of Buprestidae collected in Japan by George 
Lewis, Esq.," by Edward Saunders, Esq., F.L.S. 



March 6th, 1873. 

George Bentham, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

Dr. Hooker, V.P.L.S., exhibited a half-ripe cone of Araucaria 
Bidwilliy Hook., which had borne fruit, for the first time in 
England, at the Boyal Gardens Kew, the tree which produced it 
being one of those raised from the seed originally brought to this 
country, from the Brisbane Bange, by Mr. J. T. Bidwill, in 1848. 

The.following paper was read, viz. : — 

"On the Perigynium of Carex" by George Bentham, Esq., 
F.B.S., Pres. L.S. 



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VI PBOCXSDIKQS OF THIS 

March 20th, 1873. 
George Bentham, Esq., President, in* the Chair. 

Henry Sullivan Thomas, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Dr. Hooker, V.P.L.S., exhibited, from the Kew Museum, a 
portion of the wood of the Coffee-tree perforated by the Coffee- 
borer (Jfylotrichtu quadrupet); also specimens of the larvse and 
perfect insects. 

Mr. J. Q-. Baker, F.L.S., exhibited a triandrous form of Salts 
fragUU, a typically diandrous species, sent by Mr. T. R A. 
Briggs from the neighbourhood of Plymouth ; also specimens of 
new and rare British and Australian Alg©, sent by Mrs. Merri- 
field, of Brighton. 

Bead: extracts from a pamphlet (communicated by F. S. 
Dutton, Esq., Agent-General S.A.)"On the ' Take-all • Corn- 
disease of South Australia," by Dr. Carl Miicke ; also from a letter 
" On the ' Take-all ' and ' Bed Bust,' " addressed by the Bev. M. 
J. Berkeley, in December 1868, to Dr. J. H. Gilbert, and from a 
Beport on the same subject to the Directors of the South- Austra- 
lian Company, by Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert (both printed in 
the Journal of the Boyal Horticultural Society, vol. ii. pt. 6). 

The Secretary then read a letter, dated the 10th instant, from 
the Bev. Mr. Berkeley, to whom Dr. Mticke's pamphlet had been 
forwarded by the President ; and a discussion afterwards followed, 
in which Mr. Bentham, Mr. Currey, Mr. M'Lachlan, Mr. A. 
Muller, and Mr. Dutton took part. 

April 3rd, 1873. 

George Bentham, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

William Clarson, Esq., and Arthur Lister, Esq., were elected 
Fellows. 

The President announced that vol. xxviii. pt. 3 of the Transac- 
tions was ready for distribution to the Fellows. 



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LIKKEA3T 8O0TETT OF LOIfDOK. VII 

The foUowing papers were read, viz. : — 

1. "On some new Fishes of India," by Francis Day, Esq. f 
Surgeon, Madras Army, F.L.S., Ac. 

2. "Enumeration of the Fungi of Ceylon," by the Bev. M.J. 
Berkeley, F.L.S., and C. E. Broome, Esq., F.L.S.— Part II., con- 
taining the remainder of the Hymenomycetes, with the other esta- 
blished tribes of Fungi. 

April 17th, 1873. 

George Bentham, Esq., President, in the Chair. 
John Francis "Walker, Esq., M.A., was elected a Fellow. 

The following papers were read, viz. : — 

1. "Notes on the Development of the Perigynium in Carex 
pulic*ri*; y by W. B. M'Nab, M.D. Communicated by the Pre- 
sident. 

2. " On the Morphology of the Perigynium and Seta in Cores" 
by W. T. Thiselton Dyer, Esq., B.A., F.L.S. 

8. " On Burmese Orchide© from the Bev. C. P. Parish," by 
Professor Beicbenbach. Communicated by the President* 

May 1st, 1873. 
George Bentham, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

Professor Carl JSageli, of Munich, was elected a Foreign 
Member. 

Mr. Daniel Hanbury, F.L.S., exhibited cones, with ripe seeds, 
of Bonksia mareetcen*, from the garden of M. Thuret, F.M.L.S., 
at Antibes, South of France. 

The following papers were read, viz. : — 

1. " On the Genus Cinchona," by John Elliot Howard, Esq., 
F.L.S. 

2. " On new Species of European Spiders," by the Bev. O. P. 
Cambridge. Communicated by H. T. Stainton, Esq., Sec. L.S. 



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Vlll PBOCEEDINOS OF THE 

May 24th, 1873. 

Anniversary Meeting. 

George Bentham, Ssq., President, in the Chair. 

This day, the Anniversary of the birth of LinnaBUs, and the day 
appointed by the Charter for the election of Council and Officers, 
the President opened the business of the Meeting with the follow- 
ing Address : — 

Gentlemen, 

Whilst preparing a few notes on the recent progress of the study of 
Vegetable Anatomy and Physiology, I have been struck with the 
observation made by more than one critic in this country, and com- 
mented upon in some foreign journals, that we in England are in 
this respect some way behind our continental neighbours — that, for 
instance, the most important investigations and consequent dis- 
coveries relating to sexual propagation and the incipient history of 
cryptogamic plants and microscopic animals have been made in 
Franoe and Germany — and that we are, in short, comparatively defi- 
cient in what the Germans are pleased specially to distinguish by 
the name of Scientific Botany and Zoology. Without admitting for 
a moment that there is less of science in the study of the compara- 
tive anatomy, the mutual relations and consequent natural arrange- 
ment, and the geographical distribution of the higher animals and 
plants than in that of microscopic structure, we may acknowledge 
that there may be some truth in the remark that, with few excep- 
tions, we have not excelled in that long, patient, and tedious devotion 
to one subject of limited extent from which such discoveries have 
usually resulted ; and the fact may be, in some measure, the result of 
our social habits and ideas. Our early education, the whole ten- 
dency of our lives, is generally directed to the means of advancement 
in the world, if not always to the increase of income, at any rate to # 
the raising of our social position in the eyes of those amongst whom 
we live. If the enormous increase in our commercial and industrial 
wealth be carefully investigated, it will be found to be in many 
respects deeply indebted to the recent progress of pure natural 
science : and yot the necessary study of that pure science will neither 



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LINintAN SOCIETY OF LONDON. IX 

enrich the one who would devote himself to it, nor yet raise him in 
the estimation of his neighbours and associates, whilst it may seri- 
ously interfere with his means of bringing up his family, reduced 
as they become by the rapid increase in the expense of living. 
We have not in this country those numerous small professorships or 
government or municipal places in provincial towns, which give to 
a man of modest requirements sufficient leisure steadily to carry on 
his researches year after year without interruption. Content with 
what he has thus secured, many a continental naturalist looks for 
no further advancement ; he requires no relaxation but perhaps a 
few weeks in summer spent at a bathing-place ; he seeks his reward 
in the publication of the results of his labours in Transactions or 
Journals, or a favourable report, without having to calculate on 
pecuniary results. If we had any such places in this country, few 
Englishmen could be found to sit down in them to rest and be satis- 
fied ; and it has required some moral courage in those of our young 
men who, having enough to live upon, with a passion for science, 
have for its sake renounced all attempts to climb round after round 
on the social ladder. We have had, however, and still have such 
men. With all our social drawbacks we have contributed our fair 
share to the progress of natural as well as of physical, mathematical, 
and other sciences. We have had our Robert Brown, and long before 
him our John Bay. Among our living zoologists and comparative 
anatomists I could name those who yield nothing to any of their 
continental rivals ; and above all we must remember that it is an 
Englishman who has, in this nineteenth century, brought about as 
great a revolution in the philosophic study of organic nature, as that 
which was effected in the previous eentury by the immortal Swede. 
With such names as Linnaeus and Darwin the northern nations can 
well hold their own in the presence of any scientific celebrities of 
Central Europe. 

One instance of the backwardness on our part, to which I have 
alluded, is afforded in the investigation of the progress of growth, 
and especially of the first formation and early development of the 
organized individual, which, under the new lights thrown upon the 
subject by the Darwinian theories, has been shown to have so im- 
portant a bearing on the solution of difficult questions in animal and 
vegetable physiology and affinities. I do not here mean the begin- 
ings of life in the abstract, the supposed creation of organized beings 
out of nothing in the midst of purely inorganic elements ; that per- 
tinaciously disputed proposition does not appear to have changed 

xiwic. pboc. — Session 1872-73. c 



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X PB0CEEDIHG8 OF THE 

its aspect through the volumes that have been published since my 
last year's address. I now refer to the first formation and early 
development in the living plant or animal of those parts which 
are to become distinct organs, buds, or new individuals — the his- 
tory of the gradual outgrowth of an organ or bud, or of a germ 
before and after fecundation, of the separation of the bud or germ 
from the parent, and of the early independent existence of the 
new individual. Organogenesis and Embryogeny, Nutrition and 
Reproduction have undoubtedly of late years been investigated with 
more detail on the Continent than with us ; and although our great 
naturalists may not have been behindhand in studying results, we 
have been indebted for a large number of facts to continental ob- 
servations. 

In considering these observations it may not be uninteresting to 
keep in mind a perceptible difference between our two great scientific 
neighbours, the French and the Germans. Excelling in method, the 
French are unrivalled in clearness of exposition in Natural History, 
as in Mathematics, Jurisprudence, Philosophy, and other abstruse 
subjects. With a great readiness to seize the general bearings of 
the several facts or points they have before them, they will at once 
organize them into systems or theories, often successfully ; but they 
may be sometimes apt too readily to admit into these systems and 
theories elements which they have not verified, or not to wait for a 
sufficient confirmation by repeated observations of the original facts 
upon which they were founded. On the other hand, method and 
exposition are not among the distinguishing characters of German 
naturalists ; they have had no Jussieu, no Be Candolle, no Cuvier, 
nor, in earlier days, had they a Tournefort or a Button ; but they 
are beyond all competition in laborious and patient investigation of 
details upon which all reliable conclusions must be founded ; to them 
also we practically owe the greater number of important compila- 
tions, Genera and Species, Nomenclatures and indexes, Records, 
&c, equally requiring steady labour, with results not brilliant, but 
useful. Again, if the French are good theorists, the Germans are 
great speculators. If French theories may sometimes be found 
defective in detail, so German imagination is apt to wander too 
far from the facts from which it started. And this comparison of 
French method and German detail, of French theory and German 
speculation, will probably be found exemplified not only in their 
physiological researches and elementary works, but also in their 
monographs and other systematic publications. Tou learn more 



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LIVXBAX BOGIBTT OF LOJTDOK. XI 

rapidly from a Frenchman ; the German supplies yon with more 
materials for study ; and thus you derive equal benefit from both. 

The cause of this difference it is not my province to inquire into. It 
may depend as mueh on social habits and language as on idiosyn- 
crasy; or the three may mutually react upon each other ; and there 
are individual exceptions in both countries. Even the same indivi- 
dual may be different according to the country he resides in and 
the associates he is surrounded by. Kunth, at Paris, produced the 
* Nova Genera et Species, 9 a great work, remarkable for the intuitive 
perception of genera and species, often from the most imperfect 
materials. The same Kunth, at Berlin, worked out his ' Enumeratio 
flantarum,' a repertory of individual descriptions, without method 
or contrasting characters. My object, however, in these remarks is 
net the criticism of individuals, but merely to show Hie advantage 
of keeping these national peculiarities in view in judging of the 
results of recent labours in vegetable physiology. 

An important question in vegetable morphology, first brought 
forward by Robert Brown, and a subject of much controversy in 
later times, the gymnospermy of Conifers and their allies, has recently 
been placed in a somewhat new light by a German physiologist. 
The nucleus and, later, the seed proper (that is, the embryo and its 
albumen) are in these plants enclosed in fewer envelopes than in any 
other ph&nogams. Many Monochlamyds or Monocotyledons have no 
perianth or stamens round their female organs ; but in all, except these 
Gymnosperms, the nucleus or embryo is enclosed in a simple or double 
integument within, but distinct or distinguishable from, a carpellary 
envelope. In Conifers and their allies the simple or double integument 
alone covers the nucleus. R. Brown, after a long series of careful ob- 
servations, published, in 1825, his conclusions that this simple or 
double integument corresponded to that of the ovule and seed in other 
Dicotyledons, and that Conifers have no ovary, style, or stigma*. 
Lindley observed, in 1845 (and left the observation unaltered in 
1853), that " about the accuracy of this view there is at this time 
no difference of opinion." Since then, however, Payer and his dis- 
ciple Baillon, founding their conclusions upon organogenesis, have 

* Strasburger, in an historical sketch of the progress of the question, points out 
that Targioni-Tozzetti in 1810 enunciated views very similar to those afterwards 
developed by Brown. Published, however, in a journal which had but very 
little circulation, his notes remained almost unknown till attention was called 
to them by Camel in 1865. Strasburger quotes the passage (with some typo- 
graphical errors), p. 174 of his ' Coniferen.' 

c2 



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Xll PROCEEDINGS OF TUB 

asserted that it is the seed-integument, not the carpellary envelope, 
that is deficient — a view which has been supported by Parlatore and 
others, refuted by Hooker, Caspary, Eichler, and othen, and again 
taken up by Prof, Btrasburger, of Jena, after a series of careful and 
detailed organogenetic observations, combined with genealogical, or, 
as they term it, phylogenetical considerations, in a remarkable essay 
entitled * Die Coniferen und die Gnetaceen.' In the attempt to re- 
concile views apparently so opposite, taken by naturalists whom we 
should all consider of high authority, we must, perhaps, in some 
degree, take also into account a certain bias which may be obser- 
vable on either side. From the well-known accuracy of Brown's 
observations and the soundness of his views in every department of 
botanical science he entered into, there is a great disposition on the 
one side to rely absolutely on his conclusions ; whilst on the other 
hand French organogenesists, having broached theories which have 
proved of great importance in various homological questions, have 
been but too ready to set them up against all authority, without 
sufficient verification of detail. In the present case this verifica- 
tion of detail has been supplied by Strasburger, who has combined 
it with general considerations now first brought to bear on the 
gymnospermy of Conifers. He proves to be an ardent disciple of 
Hackel, the greatest amongst Germanken of Darwinism. The tes- 
timony in favour of the derivative origin of forms and organs has 
certainly received large accessions from the German accuracy and 
copious details of Hackel and his followers, but at the same time 
has been the occasion of a free display of German imagination, 
as I hope presently to show, in considering Strasburger's views of 
the homologies of Conifers, in conjunction with some parts of Hackel's 
last great work, the Monograph of Caicisponges. 

In the first place, we must be careful to consider what we mean 
by homologies of organs. They are of two kinds : — (1) the homo- 
logy of the several appendages to the axis of one and the same plant, 
which in zoology may be compared to the homology of the front and 
hind limbs or of the several vertebra of one and the same animal ; 
and (2) the homology of the organs of two different plants, corre- 
sponding to the homology, for instance, of the wing of a bird with 
the fore leg of a quadruped. To the former class belong the various 
much-vexed questions on the distinction between axis and appen- 
dages, arising in the consideration of the flowers of Conifers as of 
many other orders ; but it is the latter class with which we are now 
more specially concerned in relation to Brown's gymnospermous 



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UKHXAir SOCIETY OJT LONDON. X1U 

theory. In his time this homology of organs was determined solely 
by their similarity in position, development, structure, and other 
characters, as observed in the plants compared ; in the present day 
physiologists have to take into account the evidences, either of their 
hereditary derivation from a corresponding organ in a common parent, 
or of their being an early stage of development of organs which have 
further progressed in plants to which their own race are supposed to 
have given birth. It is in this respect chiefly that the arguments 
put forth by Strasburger differ from those of his predecessors. But 
whilst giving him every credit for his patient and persevering elabo- 
ration of details, we cannot but see in his derivative arguments much 
of purely imaginary mixed up with well-attested evidences. When 
in the higher races of phaenogamous plants we meet with staminodia, 
carpidia, or other rudimentary or anomalous productions, we may 
justly, with Darwin, conclude that they are the hereditary represen- 
tatives of organs normally perfect in some parent race, but which, 
in consequence of other adaptations of the general economy of the 
plant, have, in the course of successive generations, become useless 
and gradually reduced or almost obliterated, if not modified so as to 
perform different functions. So when we find in a species, or group 
of species, some one organ specially modified in adaptation to special 
purposes, and thus differing or progressing from the forms prevalent 
in the genus or order to which it belongs, without retrogression in 
other respects, and if we allow no fallacy to creep in as to what we 
mean by progress or retrogression, we may perhaps conclude that we 
have at the same time a specially modified race and unmodified de- 
scendants of the race it has sprung from. But it is hard to believe 
that Strasburger had any such solid foundations for his argument 
that the envelope of the nucleus of Conifers is genetically the same 
as the carpellary envelope of the higher Phaenogams. He does not, 
as far as I can learn, pretend that this envelope is the reduced re- 
presentative of organs more perfect in previous races ; for the pre- 
sumed ancestors of Conifers are cryptogamic. He rests solely upon 
the supposition that this envelope in Conifers is the first appearance 
of an organ further developed in the outer integument of their de- 
scendants, the Gnetaceae, and perfected in the carpels of their ulti- 
mate progeny, the higher Dicotyledons. But there seems to be very 
little beyond pure imagination upon which to found such a supposed 
pedigree ; and many reasons present themselves against the belief that 
the higher Dicotyledons can have descended from Gnetaceae or 
Gnetaceae from Conifers, or that Conifers ever produced any races 



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XIV PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

now existing out of their own order. As a postulate under the 
Darwinian theory, we may allow all to have had their origin in a 
common parent. We may also, from the scanty evidences supplied 
hy tertiary and cretaceous remains, believe that the parent races of 
some of our species, or perhaps genera, may have remained unchanged 
to the present day in company with their modified offspring. Even of 
two nearly allied orders one may be more altered from the common 
stock than the other, and may be thus in a vague sense said to be 
derived from it and therefore more modern. Thus Cycadeae may be 
supposed to be more ancient than Conifers, Araucariae more ancient 
than other groups of Conifers ; but the common parent of Conifers, 
Gnetacese, and other low Dycotyledons belongs to an age so remote 
as to have left no visible trace to guide us in our conjectures. 

From such conjectures, however, as have been indulged in by phy- 
logenesists, I gather that the supposed earliest progenitor of the 
plant-races was a simple organism multiplying by internal growth 
and division, that at a later stage, besides growth in various direc- 
tions with a tendency to radiation, sexual elements had arisen, at 
first, perhaps, without other arrangement than their proximity. Prom 
that stage the progress towards the more perfect plant became mul- 
tifarious, some of the principal courses followed being the differen- 
tiation of the indefinitely growing axis and its definite appendages — 
the respective arrangement of the male and female element, of the 
female at the end of an axis or of one of its branches, and of the 
male on the appendages — the adaptation of the appendages to the 
various purposes of vegetation, of protection to the sexual elements, 
or of assisting them in their functions — the separation of the male 
from the female element, <fec. I see no arguments to oppose to these 
different modes of gradual progress by means of natural selection 
through a long succession of untold generations ; but they cannot 
have followed the same sequence in all races of plants. In some 
the separation of sexes may have long preceded the development of 
floral envelopes ; in most of the higher Pheenogams the reverse has 
been the case. Phyllotaxy has become highly developed in several 
Cryptogams, whilst in some Pbamogams, far advanced as to sexual 
apparatus, the foliar system has remained in arrear. But in none of 
these courses have we any evidence of retrogression. We have no 
more reason to believe that sexes once separated are brought toge- 
ther again in future generations than that cellular plants should de- 
scend from those in which the vascular system has been perfected*. 

* The apparently exceptional case of unisexual flowers, supposed to bare do- 



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LDnrSAN SOCIETY OF LONDON. XV 

And yet we must believe this if we admit Strasburger's pedigrees. 
We mast suppose that races, after having once secured the advan- 
tages of a total separation of the two sexes and undergone modifica- 
tions suited to their separate requirements, have again returned to 
their primitive state of sexual proximity, and commenced a totally 
different series of modifications destined to counteract the evil effects 
of that proximity. A much more simple hypothesis would be that 
Conifers separated from the parent stock before the development of 
floral envolopes, the higher Dicotyledons before the separation of the 
sexes. The arrangement of the vegetative organs, or phyllotaxy, had 
probably acquired considerable perfection before the separation of 
either of these primary classes of Dicotyledons ; for we have the ver- 
ticillate arrangement in alternating whorls in Frenda, Ephedra, Ca- 
suarina, Calycopeplus, Hippuris, and many others belonging to the 
most widely separated natural orders — the opposite and decussate 
leaves in various genera of Conifers and Gnetaceae, as well as in nume- 
rous orders, whether of Monochlamydeaa, Gamopetalae, or Polype- 
take ; and in Conifers, as in the higher Dicotyledons, the whorled or 
decussate arrangement is variously broken up into the spiral, the al- 
ternate, or the scattered. But the reproductive organs having at that 
early stage taken the two directions of total separation of the sexes in 
the one and their union in the other within a set of floral envelopes, 
their progress was thenceforth in different directions, and homology 
in a great measure disappeared. In Conifers this complete separa- 
tion of the sexes and fertilization through the agency of wind being 
established, natural selection would only promote the development of 
such floral envelopes as might be required for protection and would 
not interfere with the fertilizing process and would necessarily be 
very different in the male and in the female flowers. Accordingly 
one great point established by Strasburger and others is that in Coni- 
fer* and Gnetaceae there is no homology between the male and the 
female flowers. In the higher Dicotyledons the male elements took 
their place around the females, and axial appendages would be early 
established or modified for the various purposes of assisting, protect- 
ing, or controlling fertilization or maturation, all of which arrange- 
ments would become more and more complicated as the plants came 
to be benefited by cross fertilization through insect and other ex- 

gre>n<iH from perfect hermaphrodite ones by the gradual abortion of one of the 
■exnal element*, in which the abortive element is occasionally again perfected, 
m no real retrogression. An occasional perfect stamen in a female Euphorbia- 
ceous flower cannot be said to be a real return to hermaphroditism. 



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XVI FB0CEEDHT66 07 THH 

ternal agencies, or again simplified by partial abortions as the same 
purposes came to be answered by more or less perfect umsexuality 
or other means. 

If, then, we are right in concluding that Gnetace© cannot hare 
descended from Conifers nor the higher Dicotyledons from Gnetacee, 
though all may hare descended from a common stock, we cannot bat 
think that Strosbnrger has failed in proving any genetic homology 
in their floral envelopes. The question returns, therefore, to its old 
phase, to be determined by morphology, position, and functions. 

First, as to morphology. In phamogamous plants, immediately 
around or amongst the sexual elements the outgrowths from the 
floral axis are of two kinds, either continuous and uniform or oblique 
all round the axis, or arising in several separate parts : the former 
are regarded sometimes as mere axial developments, sometimes as 
exceptionally single and one-sided foliar organs ; the latter as ap- 
pendages or leaf-organs, forming part of the general phyllotaxy 
of the plant. To the former class would be referred discs! ex- 
crescences and ovular integuments, to the latter carpellary elements. 
Strasburger shows that the disputed envelope in Conifers most fre- 
quently, though not always, appears at an early stage in the shape 
of two more or less distinct opposite protuberances, that it is con- 
sequently foliar, partaking of the phyllotaxial system of the plant, 
not axial nor exceptionally monophyllous and unilateral, and that 
it is therefore carpellary, not ovular. 

But here we have another element of uncertainty, which has 
recently been the subject of much controversy, and to which I shall 
presently revert. The limits between axial dilatations and regu- 
larly formed appendages are not always definite, and occasionally 
are wholly obliterated; and the present case may be included 
amongst those in which the distinction is ambiguous. Morphologi- 
cally the seminal envelope of Conifers shows a tendency to enter 
into the general phyllotaxial system of the plant ; but in several 
genera it retains the characters of an axial dilatation, or, as Stras- 
burger interprets it, a single leaf. In Qnetum there is a double 
inner integument, which he considers entirely ovular or seminal 
and monophyllous, whilst the outer one is, according to his view, 
carpellary, consisting of two leaf-organs in conformity with the 
general phyllotaxy ; but he admits (p. 119) that the outer one of 
the two ovular integuments is traversed by bundles of vessels 
similar to those of the external carpellary envelope, and " only 
affords a further proof of the morphological connexion of the two." 



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UKNXAK SOCIETY OF LOKDON. Xvtt 

la position, the integument of the coniferous nucleus appears 
to me to be similar to that of the ovular envelope of the higher 
Dicotyledons, dose around and on the axis terminated by the nu- 
cleus, not that of the carpellary leaves, which are on a different axis. 
Whatever be the theoretical origin of the ovule of the higher Dico- 
tyledons, on the margin or in the axil of the carpellary leaf, or on a 
prolongation of the central axis, its funicle, which bears the integu- 
ment as well as the nucleus, is a branch, and therefore a secondary 
axis, and not the main axis of the flower, on which are placed the 
carpellary leaves. 

In function, the integument in question is purely ovular and 
seminal, the protection of the nucleus and embryo, not that of the 
carpellary leaves of the higher Dicotyledons, which bear each a 
separate stigmatic apparatus for the reception and transmission of 
the pollen-tubes to the nucleus. This, however, is a purely adaptive 
character, whose chief value is in respect of practical terminology. 

The result of the above considerations as to the homology of the 
integument of the nucleus of Conifers as compared with those of the 
higher Dicotyledons, if I have put them fairly, would therefore be, that 
genetic homology does not exist, morphological homology is vague and 
doubtful, position indicates rather that of the ovular or seminal than 
of the carpellary integuments, so also does the secondary and adap- 
tive homology of function. Theoretically, therefore, we should say 
that the organ in question is not the exact homological representa- 
tive of either the carpellary or the seminal integument ; but prac- 
tically it is most useful and instructive to treat it as seminal. And 
as to the name of the two great subclasses of Dicotyledons, as all 
are agreed that they are essentially distinct, in that the one is de- 
prived of one of the two envelopes (carpellary and seminal) which 
exist in the other, the received names Gymnosperms and Angio- 
sperms appear to be really appropriate, as denoting a fact admitted 
by both sides, though differently interpreted ; whilst the proposed 
names Archisperms and Metasperms are founded on a theory 
which, under the above views, we cannot but qualify as purely 
imaginary. 

A valuable portion of Btrasburger's essay consists in his detailed 
illustration of the development of the flowers of WdwiUchia, an 
important contribution to the completion of that history of this 
plant so thoroughly worked out by Dr. Hooker, so far as the 
materials at his disposal admitted, in his now celebrated paper in 
the twenty-fourth volume of our Transactions. Hooker had then 



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XTU1 PROCEEDINGS Of THE 

no flower-buds at his command ; and it was only some years later 
that he succeeded in procuring from Mr. Monteiro more satisfactory 
specimens, in various stages of development. The various works he 
was then engaged in prevented his resuming the subject himself ; 
but he transmitted a series of these specimens to Professor de Bary ; 
and it was from these materials that Strasburger was enabled to 
trace the progress of the flowers from the earliest stage. After an 
evidently most careful examination, he has given the results, pp. 91 
and 141 of his 'Coniferen and Gnetaceen.' The accuracy of his 
observations has been confirmed by Professor M'Nab, to whom Br. 
Hooker had also communicated some of Monteiro's specimens, and 
who, after an equally careful independent examination, embodied 
the results in a paper read at our meeting of the 19th December last 
and now in the printer's hands, to which he afterwards added a note 
on the receipt of Strasburger's essay. 

The chief interest attached to this extraordinary plant lies in the 
probability of its being the nearest approach to (the least modified 
amongst the descendants of) the original type or parent stock of 
Dicotyledons which has reached recent geological periods. If, as 
above, we suppose the original parent race of Dicotyledons to have 
been one in which phyllotaxy had already become variously modified 
for the purposes of nutrition, but in which the sexual arrangements 
remained much in arrear, we may conjecture that amongst its 
immediate descendants there was a tendency to vary both in the 
relative arrangement of the sexual elements and in the development 
of floral appendages amongst and around them, combinations arising 
in both directions calculated to promote the welfare of the race. In 
the midst of the varied circumstances in which their descendants 
were placed in the course of their dispersion through successive 
ages, some profited by an increasing complexity in their floral deve- 
lopments counteracting the evils of sexual contiguity, others by a 
total separation of the sexual elements rendering their comparative 
exposure rather beneficial than prejudicial. Prom the former may 
have descended the higher Dicotyledons, from the latter the Conifers — 
the former ever increasing in the complexity of their arrangements, 
so long as they retained their hermaphroditism, simplifying them 
again, perhaps, in some cases by arrest or obliteration as they be- 
came more or less unisexual, the latter retaining rather more of 
their primitive simplicity. Wdwitochia does not absolutely belong to 
either, and may be a race which has come down to us with less of 
alteration from the early descendants of the common stock than 



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LDnrsiv Bocnar o» lohdoh. xix 

either of the others. Some progress had been made in both direc- 
tions. Sexual separation predominated, bat not until some floral 
development had taken place ; and neither had been carried to the 
perfection exemplified in the two great subclasses ; and the race would 
probably have become long since extinct had it not been established 
in a country which has apparently experienced since very early 
times less of the vicissitudes affecting organic life than any other, 
and had it not been at the same time endowed with other constitu- 
tional peculiarities, enabling it better than any other plant to bear 
with the physical conditions surrounding it. 

All this may be rejected as purely conjectural ; but surely Stras- 
burger's genealogical tree is equally so. My object is merely to 
show that the supposition that, of the three races now so distinct, 
Weluritschia, after the first variations, has remained the least modi- 
fied from the common stock, that the Conifers have undergone a 
greater progressive change in one direction, and the higher Dicoty- 
ledons a still greater advance in another direction, is more plausible 
than the assertion that Conifers are the parent race from which 
Gnetacese have directly descended, and that these, again, have en- 
gendered the higher Dicotyledons. 

The establishment of direct pedigrees or genealogical trees, in 
which the parent and descendant races are supposed to coexist in 
the present day, is a favourite speculation of the German school, 
especially since, after Hackel, it has adopted Darwinian views, car- 
ried in many instances far beyond what is warranted by the works 
of the great master himself. In plants at least, such pedigrees 
appear to be wholly inadmissible, so long as we have no geological 
record to justify them. If the image of a tree be really applied to 
the illustration of the parentage of plant-races, it must be very dif- 
ferently conceived. Taking, for instance, the Dicotyledonous class, 
we might suppose a tree, in which the trunk represents the common 
ancestor, forming in successive generations innumerable more or less 
diverging branches, the greater part of which perish either imme- 
diately or in the course of few or many generations, but some re- 
main as branches or common trunks for future ramifications. We 
may suppose the centre of the tree always to consist of those which 
retain most of the ancestral characters, the lateral branches diverging 
more and more as they have become more and more modified. These 
modifications, even the extreme ones, may be for a long time very 
slight ; but in the course of ages (as we may observe in varieties of 
modern species) some of them may have acquired a more marked 



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XX PBOGEEDIHGfi OF THE 

character as well as more or less of fixity. Wo may suppose this to 
be going on through millions of ages, innumerable branches, whether 
near the centre or more or less distant from it, ceasing to grow or 
to branch out, leaving gaps in the upper part of the tree, partially 
filled up, perhaps, in a few instances by returning branches from the 
circumferential ones, and all decaying at the base, leaving only their 
upper extremities to continue the process in future ages. We should 
then have the present races represented by the countless branchlets 
forming the flat-topped summit of the Dicotyledonous tree — a hun- 
dred to a hundred and fifty thousand perhaps if we take into ac- 
count species only, ten times as many if we go into subspecies and 
varieties; the branches which immediately bore these present 
branchlets, as well as the lower more general ramifications, will 
have wholly disappeared from our view, or left only here and there 
the most fragmentary traces ; and the surviving branchlets them- 
selves will be most irregularly placed. Here we should see thou- 
sands crowded into compact patches definitely circumscribed at every 
point (Composite, Orchide®, Gramineae, &c.) ; there we should meet 
with enormous gaps, either quite unoccupied or a few solitary 
branchlets or small clusters isolated in the middle (Moringa, Aristo- 
locJiia, Nepenthes, &c.). In other parts, again, irregular masses 
may be more or less connected by loosely scattered branchlets or 
clusters, obliterating all boundaries we might be disposed to assign 
to them (many of the bicarpellary gamopetalous orders, the several 
curvembryous orders, &c.). In the imaginary construction of such 
a tree, all we can do is to map out the summit as it were from a 
bird's-eye view, and under each cluster, or cluster of clusters, to 
place as the common trunk an imaginary type of a genus, order, or 
class, according to the depth to which we would go. If we believe 
that this type, or original trunk-branch, is exactly represented by 
(has descended unchanged to) one of the present branchlets, we 
place it immediately under that branchlet, as having been directly 
continuous with it, and regard the remainder of the cluster as the 
persistent summits of lateral offsets. If we consider that the direct 
trunk-race of a cluster has become extinct in its precise form, and 
has left descendants only from its branches, we place it under one of 
the gaps in the cluster or under a vacancy outside the cluster, ac- 
cording to the conjectures we may think the most plausible, as de- 
rived from the relative structures, geographical relations, &c. of the 
present branchlets or other evidences we can bring to bear upon the 
question. Such circumstantial evidence will always be exceedingly 



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LnrcnuN society or lowdok. xxi 

vague and inconclusive ; and the assistance we can derive from the 
geological record is so exceedingly slight, especially if we descend 
below those tertiary times in which the ramification was not very 
materially different from that now exhibited, that in the construction 
of our tree much must be left to the imagination. Still, as real 
affinities and geographical relations come to be more carefully 
studied, and as here and there missing links are discovered, either 
among geological remains or still lingering in some unexplored 
region of the globe, we may yet hope gradually to obtain a fair out- 
line of the lost ramifications of our dicotyledonous tree, provided we 
are always on our guard against the common error of treating 
plausible conjectures as established facts. 

Hackel, in his Calcisponges, may have had a much better founda- 
tion for his conjectural pedigrees than Strasburger in the Dicoty- 
ledons ; for many of their races of a very early stage of development 
appear to have descended to us unaltered, together with their primary 
slightly modified branches and many other later and later more and 
more diverging ramifications. The continuity through successive 
ages and geological periods of the medium in which they live (the 
bottom of salt water at moderate depths), their apparently absolute 
independence of climate, may have brought down to as many of 
these first ramifications of the Galcispongian trunk with com-r 
paratively few gaps or well-defined and isolated clusters, thus pro- 
ducing that almost inextricable intricacy and indefiniteness in its 
genera and species which critical botanists of our days observe in 
the subspecies and varieties or minor ramifications of the Rubns 
fruticosus trunk, which Nageli has so well shown to be the case with 
the present species of Hi&radum, or which Carpenter illustrated 
in the genera and species of the very ancient race of Foraminifera. 
Hackel has thus selected an excellent subject for his investigations, 
and, as far as I am able to judge, has carried them through in that 
masterly manner which, as attested by Huxley, characterized his 
former work on Radiolaria. The volume containing the systematic 
exposition and illustration of the Calcisponges bears evidence of the 
most careful and persevering research during the five years he has 
devoted to it, and is preceded by a most detailed account of the 
anatomy, organology, and physiology of the group, upon the merits 
of which it would be out of place for me to give an opinion. He 
has also entered into some general considerations, worthy of the 
study of all naturalists, as to the principles of natural and artificial 
classifications, the former founded on hereditary affinity, to be 



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ZZU FBOCXKDIVea OF THB 

tested chiefly by internal structure, the latter depending on adaptive 
characters influencing outward form. The whole work appears to 
me to be a good illustration of the German peculiarities I have 
above alluded to — a searching investigation of facts, systematic, 
structural, and physiological, with a rather free play given to 
imagination and some confusion of ideas. His pedigrees, although 
more plausible than Strasburger's or Delpino's, are still conjectural 
only, unsupported by geological evidences, of which there appears 
to be none in Calcisponges * ; and if he is right in the necessity of 
keeping up an artificial system where the characters indicating 
natural affinities are too difficult or too vague (perhaps too ima- 
ginary) for practical use, yet I see no advantage in working out in 
detail two sets of genera and species, natural and artificial, with, 
distinct names according to the light in which they are considered. 
I cannot see why the same object should be known to one naturalist 
by the name of OlyrUhus primordialis and to another by that of 
Aseetta primordialis. The general pedigree of the zoological king- 
dom (vol. i. p. 465) in a true heraldic form is certainly a very bold 
stroke; and the two pedigrees of Calcispongian genera (pp. 359 <fc 
360), natural and artificial, quite pass my comprehension. 

The study of organogenesis, which may be said to have been first 
established as a distinct branch of the science in France, has been 
followed up among French naturalists by that of the development 
and course of the vascular system in phtenogamous plants and the 
higher Cryptogams. Casimir de Candolle, in his ' Theorie de la 
Feuille ' and other papers, Tr&ul and Van Tieghem, in various memoirs 
in the ' Annales des Sciences Naturelles,' the ' Comptes Rendus,' and 
other publications, have materially contributed to correct our 
theories of the outgrowth and arrest of development of the various 
parts of the plant as connected with the different functions they are 
called upon to fulfil in its general economy. But here, again, as is 
usually the case where some error has been detected in an esta- 
blished theory, the disposition has been to declare the whole theory 
false. There is no dootrine better established, no one which has 
been found more practically useful in the history of the life and 
relations of plant-races as well as of individuals, than that of the 
homology of appendicular organs as distinguished from the axis — a 
doctrine originally sketched out by Linnaeus f, poetically conceived 

* " No fossil Calcisponge is as yet known** (Hackel, Kalkschw. i. p. Ml). 

f See •• Prolepsis Plantarum," in the Amomitates Academics*, ed. Sohreb. yj. 
324, where Linmeus shows by a number of examples the homology of bud-sosles, 
^eaves, bracts, calyxes, petals, stamens, and pistils. 



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UHK14H SOCWTT OF LOITDOH. XXH1 

by Goethe, and philosophically worked out by several of the most 
eminent botanists. Upon this depends the whole system of phyUo- 
taxy ; and many an important question of affinity must be decided 
by a due discrimination of appendicular and directly axial organs or 
parts. There are, however, cases where such a precise determina- 
tion has proved difficult or impossible. The leaves of Pima, the 
outer casing of inferior ovaries, the floral cop of Myrtauc^ some 
parts of Coniferous flowers above alluded to, the stamens of 
Euphorbia, Ac have led to much controversy as to whether they 
are axial or appendicular. Amongst other arguments it has been 
endeavoured to decide the question by tracing the development and 
course of the vessels. It has been found, however, that the main 
principles of growth and arrangement of the vessels are the same in 
both, and that in fact no positive line of demarcation in this respect 
can be drawn between an axial development and a true appendage. 
It is consequently argued that there is no real difference between a 
leaf-organ (or appendage) and a branch; and Trecul (Comptes 
Bendus, 1872, Ixxv. 655) goes so far as to propose the suppression 
of the former term, and calling all the parts of a plant branches. 
To ignore in Nature all classification where no positive limits can 
be assigned, would be to abolish all method in its study. If we 
treat all the parts of a plant as physiologically the same, and only 
give them distinct names according to their functions, we put an 
end to all study of homologies and affinities, excepting such as are 
based on the very secondary adaptive characters. If a leaf or a 
part of a leaf is capable of being occasionally converted into an 
axis, if the end of an axis may occasionally develop into a definite 
leaf, if there are a few cases in which the exact point where the 
swelling of the axis terminates and the leaf-organ commences can- 
not be fixed, if the differentiation of the axis and its appendages is in 
many Cryptogams imperfect or null, these are not reasons sufficient 
for ignoring the real almost constant and important differences 
exhibited by the two classes in phasnogamous plants generally. 

At the same time, the demonstration cl the suteeptflnHty of rami- 
fication of the leaf-organ, which we chiefly owe to French natu- 
ralists, is a great point gained. If it takes place in a true vegetative 
lea£ it results in its conversion into a true bud-bearing axis ; if in 
the floral organs, they may still retain the determinate appendicular 
character. In this way may, perhaps, be explained the production 
of ovules on the margin or surface of earpeHsry leaves, as suggested 
by Casimir de Candolle, the anomalous multiplication of stamens in 



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XXIV PROCEEDINGS 09 THJt 

certain flowers alluded to by Dr. Masters at one of our last winter 
meetings, the dtdoubhmtnt by which Moquin-Tandon explained the 
position of the four longer stamens of Crucifers as being in fact one 
pair of stamens, each divided into two, a theory carried further by 
Me8chaeff in a recent number of the Moscow Bulletin, who regards 
the four petals as one pair, each similarly divided into two, esta- 
blishing the binal decussate phyllotaxy throughout the flower, and 
several other anomalies which have long been under discussion. 

There is, perhaps, no one of Mr. Darwin's works which within the 
last ten years has called out a greater number of direct observers 
than his essay " On the various contrivances by which Orchids are 
fertilized by Insects." Sprengel's and other previous observations 
had been too little known or held too much in contempt to induce 
any followers ; but now the spell was broken, the facts brought 
forward in a clear and attractive style were so new and curious aa 
to call for general attention ; and whilst they might, on the one 
hand, supply many a datum in support of the theory of evolution, 
they could yet be followed up without directly interfering with 
cherished doctrines of specific and local creation. The consequence 
has been an accumulation of most numerous and varied observations 
made in this country as on the Continent, in South Africa as in 
South America, published in a great variety of detached papers in 
Journals and Transactions in four or five different languages. It had 
become already a matter of difficulty to ascertain whether any appa- 
rently new and startling complication which presented itself to the 
eye had not, in fact, been already recorded, or how far it favoured or 
interfered with any general laws which might have been already 
laid down. A few more general essays had, indeed, been drawn up 
by Delpino in Italy, by F. Hildebrand in Germany, and by Severn 
Axell (in a work I have not myself met with) in Sweden — all three 
from numerous and valuable personal observations, but all three, 
especially Delpino's and Axell's, with a tendency to launch pre- 
maturely into theories and hypotheses. We have now, however, 
within the last fortnight, received from Germany a general work of 
a very different character. Hermann Mueller's * Befruchtung der 
Blumen durch Insecten' proves to be just such a repertory and 
digest of recorded facts supported by original observations as ia 
become absolutely indispensable for the further pursuit of inquiry in 
the same direction. The author is brother to Fritz Mueller, of 
Dosterro in South Brazil, so well known as a judicious and reliable 
observer, and as a warm supporter of Darwinian theories; and 



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LnnnsiK society of lowdof. xxv 

Hermann Mueller himself proves to be an equally persevering and 
indefatigable collector of facts, having for the present purpose the 
great advantage of being evidently as well versed in entomology as 
in botany. It appears also that he has been already assisted by his 
son Hermann. As far as a hasty glance over the work enables me 
to judge, the principal general facts here first brought prominently 
into notice appear to be, the variety of insects which visit the same 
flowers, the variety of flowers visited by the same insects, and the 
number of flowers which an insect, deceived by false appearances, 
visits in search of what is not to be found, all much greater than had 
hitherto been supposed. 

Besides the methodical record of all the facts he has been able to 
collect from German, Italian, Swedish, and British literature, H. 
Mueller commenoeswith a short historical introduction, in which he 
does full justice to his predecessors, and concludes with some general 
considerations of a remarkably sober character. He justly criticises 
the fanciful flights of Delpino's imagination, to which I have myself 
alluded in former Addresses, and Axell's theory that the develop- 
ment of the fertilizing arrangements in Phanerogams has been 
always an advance, and still continues to advance, in one and the 
same direction towards perfection ; and, as far as I can see, his 
own conclusions are none but what are fairly deducible from the 
facts he records. 

With this book in hand, I cannot but strongly recommend the 
further pursuit of an inquiry still in a very early stage, to all 
naturalists residing in the country, and especially to those who may 
be located in regions which, like the Mediterranean, the South 
African, the South-west Australian, the subtropical and extra- 
tropical South American, and the Mexican, appear to maintain at 
once a great variety of locally restricted endemic plant-races, and a 
great number and variety of flower-seeking insects, in order that we 
may ascertain how far these two great supposed facts are confirmed 
by direct observation, and how far they may mutually have influ- 
enced each other. 

The present state of physiological and anatomical botany, with 
reference especially to its recent progress in Germany, is admirably 
expounded in the third edition of Julius Sachs's * Lehrbuch der 
Botanik,' of which I am happy to learn that Mr. A. W. Bennett has 
promised us an English edition. As a repertory of the results of the 
laborious investigations which have been carried on of late years, 
and reported in a great variety of scattered, often inaccessible, pub - 

link. pboc. — Session 1872-73. d 



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XXVI PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

licatioiifl, this text-book is indispensable for those who would follow 
up this important branch of the science. It has evidently been 
worked np throughout with a thorough knowledge of the subject, 
and supersedes the necessity of my entering into any details of the 
rapid advance which has been established in various parts of the 
field* It requires, indeed, but little comment on the present occa- 
sion. The title may, perhaps, be too comprehensive. Great as are 
the questions here treated of, they do not constitute the whole of the 
science. Geographical botany is passed over in silence, and homo- 
logies and affinities are scarcely touched upon. Very little indeed 
is said of systematic botany in general — that branch which, because 
it was once falsely supposed to constitute botany par excellence, is 
now held in utter contempt by too many German physiologists, 
notwithstanding the fresh value imparted to it by the application of 
the theory of evolution. Even the short article devoted to the 
methodizing of Angiospermous Dicotyledons had better have been 
omitted, as it needlessly adds one more to the numerous systems 
which have been only proposed to be abandoned. It is very easy to 
find fault with the Candollean arrangement, but very difficult to 
substitute a better one ; and Julius Sachs's five classes are certainly 
no improvement on De Candolle's three or four. The well-known 
objections to the Monochlamydeeo and to the Calyciflone may be 
perfectly justifiable ; but they are scarcely improved by raising a 
portion of the former into two great primary classes, or by re- 
modelling the latter so as to exclude Saxifrage® and include 
Thymeleae and Proteacee. Various other proposed approximations 
or severances, the exclusion from all classes as incertce sedis of some 
sixteen or eighteen orders, such as Polygenes, Santalacece, Loran- 
thacese, Ficoide®, <fcc, and the total omission of others, such as 
Connaracesa, Vochysiacese, &c., are sufficient to show that inno- 
vation has been attempted without that practical study of the plants 
themselves which could alone have justified it. These observations, 
however, are by no means intended as any disparagement of the 
whole work, but merely as a guard against the notion that there is 
no science in botany, except in the physiology of plants. 

There is one part of Sachs's book which is an illustration of a 
very common readiness to take at once as proved any paradox or 
theory opposed to general belief, when a new discovery appears to 
afford some plausible argument in its favour. In the article Lichens, 
p. 266, he adopts as an established fact Schwendener's view thai 
Lichens are Fungi parasitical upon Algae. This reminds me of the 



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LINNEAN SOCIETY OF LONDON. XXV11 

eagerness with which thirty years ago German botanists accepted 
Schleiden's theory that the pollen-tube constituted the nucleus of 
the ovaiy instead of acting only as its fertilizer, and that the so- 
called male element was really the female, Endlicher at once mo- 
difying accordingly the terminology of the Supplements of his 
• Genera.' Lichens in their internal texture consist of two classes of 
bodies, which have received the names of Hyphae and Gonidia, va- 
riously intermixed or arranged in distinct layers — the outer coating 
of the thallus consisting exclusively of byphae (which, indeed, make 
up the great mass of the thallus), the gonidia being all entirely 
internal The hyphae, it is now said, are the sole constituents of 
the real lichen ; the gonidia are accessory bodies, which, although in 
the thallus intimately connected with the byphae, are in some cases, 
when freed from the lichen, capable of independent existence and re- 
production. It has been shown that these gonidia in that state are 
exactly similar to, and even identical with, certain free bodies 
hitherto classed as Alga? ; therefore, it is said, all lichen-gonidia are 
Algae. It has been seen in a course of careful observations that the 
hyphffl attach themselves to the gonidia they surround, and some of 
these lose the green matter they contained ; therefore, it is added, 
these hyphae which constitute the thallus derive their nutriment 
from the gonidia. Moreover the spores of a lichen (CoUema) have 
been actually and successfully sown by Bees on an alga (Nostoc), 
which has gradually been converted into the CoUema, thus proving 
the parasitism of the one on the other ; therefore, again, it is con- 
cluded, aU lichens are parasitical on Algae, — a series of conclusions 
founded on a very small number of facts. If Bhinanthus is a para- 
site, it does not follow, and no one would contend, that all Scrophu- 
larineflB are so. Admitting in like manner, for argument's sake, the 
parasitism of the CoUema, and that it may be a normal one, that 
does not prove the parasitism of the great mass of lichens, which, 
to say the least of it, must be a very singular one. A true parasite 
feeds and lives upon its victim, without much injury when, as in the 
case of the Mistletoe or of certain epiphyllous fungi, it has fastened 
upon a plant vigorous enough to provide food for itself and its guest, 
as well as to resist the evil effects of the disturbance of its system — 
but more frequently, as in the case of the Orobanche pruinosa in 
Sicilian bean-fields, or of a large proportion of parasitical fungi, to 
the exhaustion and final death of the victim, followed by the pre- 
mature end of the parasite itself, if it has not had time to go through 
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XXVU1 PROCEEDINGS OF THB 

or spores* Here, however, we have the supposed parasite surround- 
ing and enclosing its presumed victim, cutting it off from all com- 
munication with the outer world from which it has to derive its 
nutriment ; and yet we are to believe that the. poor prisoner not 
only sustains its own life and feeds its host, but flourishes, grows, 
and multiplies. If the lichen feeds upon the enclosed gonidia, what 
do the gonidia feed upon ? If there really is parasitism in the case, 
which is very doubtful, might it not be compared to that of Nema- 
todes ? and may not the gonidia be the parasites, the lichen the 
host? or may not the gonidia be mere stages of existence of certain 
lichens falsely ascribed to Algss? The whole question is a very 
curious one ; and the facts ascertained do great credit to the skill 
and acuteness of Schwendener and others ; but they require much 
more observation and study before the conclusions derived from them 
can be taught as an established theory . And whatever be the 
result, the group of lichens is so distinct in its vegetative characters, 
and at the same lime so extensive and varied a one, that it seems 
more methodical to treat it, as heretofore, as a distinct class, than to 
absorb it in that of fungi, notwithstanding the close affinity shown 
by its reproductive organs. 

Sachs's Lehrbuch was above ten months printing ; and during that 
time several important works bearing on some of the questions 
treated of reached him, too late to be made use of. He has taken 
care to refer to them in his Prefaoe ; and still later a considerable 
gap in our knowledge of the reproductive system of the higher cryp- 
togams has been partially filled up by the discovery of very young 
plants of Lycopodium annotinum, reported by J. Pankhauser in the 
first pages of the ' Botanische Zeitung ' for the present year. He 
traced these young plants to an underground prothallium. of which 
he found one still in a sufficiently perfect state to show antheridia 
and traces of the archegonia. It thus became evident that Lyco- 
podia, long associated genetically with Sdagmdla, and which, owing 
to our ignorance of their germinating process, are still allowed to 
remain next to that genus, are, in fact, much more nearly allied to 
Ophioglosses3. I am happy to observe that the Edinburgh Botanical 

* Since writing the above I learn from Professor Dyer that Mr. Archer of 
Dublin has gone through a series of very careful observations with relation to 
this question, and has consigned the results, accompanied by a full history of the 
different views entertained by the various physiologists who have written upon 
it, in an article now printing for she forthcoming part of the • Monthly Mi- 
croscopical Journal' 



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LINN1AN SOCIITT 07 LONDON. XXIX 

8oeiety has offered a premium for the prosecution of this interesting 
inquiry. With the encouragement given by that Society and our 
own, with our London Microscopical Societies, and with such 
observers as Darwin, M'Nab, Dickson, and Dyer, and others, in 
general physiology, and Berkeley, Broome, Currey, Dickie, O'Meara, 
Archer, and others in Cryptogenic structure, we may hope that 
Britain may yet be allowed to distinguish herself in the study of 
vegetable physiology and anatomy, as she has in that of the ana- 
tomy of the higher and of the general history of the lower orders of 
animals. 



It was moved by Dr. Allman, seconded by Dr. Boycott, and 
carried unanimously, that the Thanks of the Society be given to 
Mr. Saunders on his retirement from the Office of Treasurer, with 
an expression of the Society's deep regret on losing his valuable 
services in that capacity. 

It was moved by Dr. Hooker, seconded by Mr. G-rote, and 
unanimously resolved, that the following Address be presented to 
Lady Smith on the completion of her 100th year on the 11th 
instant : — 



De±b Lady Smith, — 

We, the President and Fellows of the Linnean Society of 
London, assembled at the Anniversary Meeting on the 24th of 
May, 1878, beg permission most warmly and sincerely to congra- 
tulate Your Ladyship on the completion of the hundredth Anni- 
versary of Your Ladyship's birth, in health and in the enjoyment 
of all your faculties. The rare occurrence of such an event, so 
happily completed, gives a striking testimony of the value of a 
good constitution, combined with a quiet, useful, and peaceable 
life, and with sustained activity and intelligence of mind, in pro- 
longing life, and in rendering its continuance desirable. We re- 
joice that it has been given to the Widow of our excellent 
Founder and first President, to whose seal, energy, and devo- 
tion we are indebted for our existence, and for the most valu- 
able part of our collections, to survive to so great an age, and to 
testify by her continued interest in the Society, and more parti- 
cularly by her recent present of numerous and valuable Letters, 

linn. pboc. — Session 1872-73. e 



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XXX PROCEEDINGS OF TH1 

her respect both for his Memory and for the Institution of which 
he was the Founder, and which, we are happy to say, still conti- 
nues to prosper under the guidance of his successors. 

That Your Ladyship may long continue to enjoy all the bless- 
ings of which life is capable at your , advanced age is our most 
fervent wish. 

Signed, on behalf of the Meeting, 

Gbobgk Bxhtham, President. 
To Pleaianoe, Lady Smith. 



The Secretary reported that the following Members had died 
since the last Anniversary, vis. : — 

Fellows. 

John Forster, Esq. | Joshua Sutcliffe, Esq. 

Thomas C. Jerdon, Esq. I Friedrich Welwitsch, M.D. 



Bobert MacAndrew, Esq. I Bobert Wight, M.D. 

Foreign Member. 
John Torrey, M.D. 

The Secretary also announced that twenty-three Fellows and 
one Foreign Member had been elected since the last Anniversary. 

At the election which subsequently took place, George Bentham, 
Esq., was elected President; Daniel Hanbury, Esq., Treasurer; 
and Frederick Currey, Esq., and H. T. Stainton, Esq., Secretaries. 
The following five Fellows were elected into the Council, in the 
room of others going* out : — viz., GK J. Allman, M.D., Daniel Han- 
bury, Esq., St.-George J. Mivart, Esq., F. P. Pascoe, Esq., and 
Henry Trimen, M.B. 

Mr. Alfred White, on the part of the Committee appointed to 
audit the Treasurer's Accounts, read the Balance-sheet, by which 
it appeared that the total Beceipts during the past year, inclu- 
ding a Balance of J0197 8*. 4d. carried from the preceding year, 
amounted to 41866 4#. 4J. ; and that the total Expenditure, in- 
cluding the purchase of 4180 Great Indian Peninsula Bailway 
Stock, amounted to £1469 9*. 2d. ; leaving a Balance in the 
bands of the Bankers of 4396 16*. 2d. 



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XXX11 PROdKDnWB OF TBS 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 

The Secretaries then laid before the Society the following Notice* 
of Deceased Members. 

John Fobstbb was born August 4th, 1793, at Lambeth, where his 
father was then practising the medical profession. He was educated 
at St. Paul's School, and afterwards became a student at the then 
United Hospitals of Guy's and St. Thomas's. He remained there 
an unusually long period, during which time he devoted much atten- 
tion to chemistry, and up to his later years he took great interest 
in every thing connected with that branch of science. His name 
will always be associated with the first practical application of 
the salts of strontia and baryta to theatrical purposes. He was 
applied to by the managers of Astley's Theatre to provide, for a piece 
then about to be produced called the " Blood-Red Knight," some 
easier method of burning strontia than the one then in use, and he 
invented what is now known as " red fire." 

Soon after leaving the hospital Mr. Forster commenced to study 
botany ; but his devotion to science was unavoidably of short duration, 
on account of his being compelled to take upon himself the arduous 
duties of a general practitioner, owing to the deaths of his father and 
his brother. 

After 30 years of practice, and when he found that his eldest son 
(now one of the surgeons of Guy's Hospital) did not intend to join 
him, he retired from business ; and in 1851 he left Lambeth and 
thenceforth resided at Notting Hill until his death. During his pro- 
fessional career Mr. Forster was a frequent attendant at the meetings 
of the Linnean Society, and he never found any lack of occupation 
after leaving his profession. He became a member of the Royal 
Institution and a regular attendant at the lectures there. 'Visits to 
the country in search of objects for his microscope, and the study of 
astronomy in company with the late Sir James South, filled up the 
time of a naturally vigorous-minded and healthy man, to whom illness 
was unknown until the attack of pneumonia which carried him oft; 
after a duration of 14 days, on the 10th of April, 1873. 

Mr. Forster was elected a Fellow of this Society on the 7th of 
December, 1819. 

Thomas Cavkrhill Jbbdoiv was the son of Mr. Archibald Jerdon, 
of Bonjedward, Roxburgh, and was born in 1811. In 1835 he 



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mnraui socurr of iono*. xxxm 

entered the service of the Hon. East-India Company as Assistant 
Surgeon in the Presidency of Madras. In 1844 he published his 
first work on zoology, the * Illustrations of Indian Ornithology.' Mr. 
Jerdon's name, however, will be best known to ornithologists by his 
work on the 'Birds of India,' which was published in 1862-64. This 
book has proved of incalculable service in promoting the study of 
ornithology in India. The edition was speedily sold: and it is 
believed that it was the author's intention to have published a second 
edition, incorporating all the materials that he had since collected, 
both by his own observations and those of others. Hie " Supple- 
mentary Notes to the Birds of India," published in < Hie Ibis,' and 
continued down to the end of the TimaliidtB, were intended to prepare 
the way for this second edition. Mr. Jerdon had special facilities 
granted him by the Indian Government to enable him to bring out 
the ' Birds of India ; ' and in collecting the material for his work he 
visited the greater part of India, and also Assam and Burmah. His 
knowledge of birds was very great ; but he studied them not by 
amassing their skins, as is the usual and, perhaps, the best way, but 
by committing, as it were, their peculiarities to memory, with the aid 
of copious notes and sketches. 

Mr. Jerdon was elected an Honorary Member of the Zoological 
Society in 1864 ; and on his return to England, at his own request, 
he was placed on the list of Ordinary Members. He died on the 
12th of June, 1872, at Upper Norwood, after a long and tedious 
illness, originally contracted in Assam, and which not even the change 
to the climate of Europe enabled him to shake off; and by his death 
the science of ornithology has lost one of its most zealous supporters. 
Mr. Jerdon was elected a Fellow of this Society on the 21st of 
January, 1864. 

Robert MacAndrew was born at Wandsworth in March 1802. 
His father, who was a native of Elgin, in Scotland, had settled in 
business in London, and had married in England. The death of his 
father in 1821 caused Robert MacAndrew to inherit a share of his 
business and the accompanying occupation and responsibility early 
in life, in fact very soon after completing his education at Fulham. 

The death of a brother a few years later led to his removing to 
Liverpool, where he resided till 1856, engaged in commercial pursuits. 
He married his cousin, Miss MacAndrew, in 1829, soon after settling 
in Liverpool. About the year 1834, the cares of business engrossing 
less of his attention than before, he began to collect shells, snd soon 

lihw. peoc. — Session 1872-73. / 



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XXXIV PBOCEEDINOS OF TEB 

took a keen interest in the study of their forms and natural history. 
For upwards of ten years before the attention of others was directed 
to his pursuits, and before he had formed the acquaintance of any of 
his scientific friends, he had been working steadily at his favourite 
science. At this period of his life he had to travel much in Spain 
and elsewhere on business. As his collections grew in size, he saw 
the desirability of obtaining specimens by other means than by 
merely collecting on the shore or by searching for land- and fresh- 
water species, and he was one of the first to devote much time to 
deep-sea dredging. He first began with an open boat, then took to 
a sailing-boat, and subsequently fitted out two yachts, in which he 
cruised half the year or more, and in which way he discovered many 
undescribed species of Mellusca. After he had collected for about 
ten years, and when his discoveries began to attract some attention, 
he made the acquaintance of the late Professor Edward Forbes, and 
their friendship was most intimate during Edward Forbes's life. By 
him he was introduced to many oonchologists and others eminent in 
natural history. Mr. MacAndrew attended the meetings of the 
British Association for many years, and was muoh interested in all 
the proceedings in Section D. He continued to collect with unceasing 
assiduity. He cruised in the British seas, Wales, Scotland, the 
Channels, and the deep-sea banks off the Hebrides, Shetland, Ac., 
and he also explored the coasts of Spain, Portugal, the Mediterranean, 
Norway, the Azores, Madeira, the Canary Islands, and the Bed Sea. 
He was constant in his visits to the British Museum, where he was 
assiduous in the comparison of specimens ; and up to the last week 
of his life he worked in arranging and adding to his collections. 
Mr. MacAndrew retired from business in 1867, having, however, for 
many years ceased to take a very active part in commercial pursuits. 
As regards his scientific work he may be said to have been quite self- 
educated. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1853, 
and in 1872 the " Prix Savigny " of the French Academy for 1870 
was divided between him and M. Issel, of Genoa, a gold medal 
being awarded to each, — to Mr. MacAndrew for his Report on the 
Testaceous Mollusca of the Gulf of Sues, published in the < Annals of 
Natural History' in 1870 (vol. vi. p. 429) ; to M. Issel for his work 
• Malacologia del Mar Rosso/ published at Pisa in 1869. Mr. Mac- 
Andrew's contributions to science, contained in numerous detached 
papers, are extremely valuable. In the Proceedings of the Literary 
and Philosophical Society of Liverpool are to be found papers by him 
on marine dredging and on the geographical distribution of Testa- 



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LIXX1AK SOCIETY OF LOKDON. XXXV 

ceous Mollusca in the North-east Atlantic and neighbouring seas. A 
report on the same Mollusca, and on the physical conditions affecting 
their derelopment, was made by him to the British Association in 
1856. To the ' Annals of Natural History ' Mr. MacAndrew contri- 
bated numerous papers on the Mollusca and other marine animals 
observed on the coasts of Spain, Portugal, Barbary, Malta, Southern 
Italy, the Canary Isles, Madeira, and elsewhere ; and also papers on 
the comparative size of marine Mollusca in various latitudes of the 
European seas, and on the division of the European seas into pro- 
vinces with reference to the distribution of marine Mollusca. In 
I860 he furnished the British Association with a list of the British 
Marine Invertebrate Fauna. His extensive and valuable collection 
of shells is bequeathed to the University of Cambridge. Mr. Mac- 
Andrew died at his residence, Isleworth House, on the 22nd of May, 
1873. He was elected a Fellow of this Society on the 6th of April, 
1847. 

Joshua Sutcuffb, of Fir Grove, Burnley, Lancashire, was born at 
TUlifftY, in Yorkshire, on the 10th of April, 1812. He was admitted 
a Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, London, on the 11th of 
May, 1835, but appears to have given up medical practice for many 
yean past Mr. Sutcliffe was one of the oldest Fellows of the Linnean 
8oeiety t having been elected on the 6th of May, 1834. He died on 
the 10th of January, 1873. 

Dr. Jomr Tokbet was born in New York in the year 1796, and 
from his earliest manhood was connected with the institutions of 
and learning in that city. His contributions to botanical 
commenced when he was quite young. His earliest work, 
published by the Lyceum of Natural History in New York, was a 
catalogue of plants growing spontaneously within 30 miles of that 
eity. This work appeared in 1819, at a time when good botanizing- 
ground, now covered with bricks and mortar, was to be found close 
to New York. In 1826, Dr. Torrey published a compendium of the 
flora of the Northern and Middle States, containing generic and 
specific descriptions of all the plants, exclusive of the Cryptogamia, 
theretofore found in the United States north of the Potomac. Dr. 
Torrey then extended his investigations to the Northern States east of 
the Mississippi ; and in 1824 he produced a flora of the northern and 
middle sections of the United States, being a systematic arrangement 
and description of the plants then known in the United States north of 



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XXXVI FB00SBDIN6S OF TO* 

Virginia, Of this work only one volume appeared. Afterwards, in elabo- 
rating Dr. James's collections made in Long's expedition, Dr. Torrey 
opened up the botany of the Colorado Rooky Mountains ; and in 1827 
the results were given in the Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History, 
under the title " Account of a Collection of Plants from the Rocky 
Mountains and adjacent countries." In 1831 he published a Catalogue 
of North-American genera of plants, arranged according to the orders 
of Iindley's introduction to the natural system of botany, and in 
1836 a monograph of North- American Cyperacea, to which is ap- 
pended a monograph of the North- American species of Ehyncho- 
spora by Dr. Asa Gray. In conjunction with Dr. Asa Gray, Dr. 
Torrey prepared a Flora of North America, containing descriptions 
of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing north of 
Mexico, the first volume of which, comprising the polypetalous division 
of the Dicotyledons, was published in 1838. Three parts of a second 
volume, ending with the Composite, appeared between 1841 and 
1843. The first volume of a work entitled ' A Flora of the State of 
New York,' comprising BanunculacecB and Bricacea, was published 
in 1843. Besides the above works other detached papers were pub- 
lished by Dr. Torrey. Amongst others there is in Silliraan's Journal 
a notice of the plants collected by Douglass in 1826 round the great 
lakes and the upper waters of the Mississippi ; and the Proceedings 
of the American Association contain papers on the plants discovered 
by Col. Fremont in California, and on the structure and affinities of 
the genus BatU. In the Smithsonian Contributions (vi. 1854) 
Dr. Torrey published observations on BatU marttima, linn., and on 
DarlingUmia californica, a very curious new species of Pitcher-plant 
from Northern California (1850, 1854). " Plant® Fremontian*," 
or descriptions of plants collected by Col. Fremont in California, also 
appeared in the Smithsonian Contributions. It must not be for- 
gotten, in estimating Dr. Torrey's labours, that although his distin- 
guished position in science was derived from botany, his livelihood 
came from chemistry, which he pursued, if not with equal devotion, 
yet with genuine love. In the year 1824, soon after his marriage, 
he accepted the Chair of Chemistry, Mineralogy, Ac. at West Point ; 
in 1827 he was removed to that of Chemistry and Botany in the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, to which, a few 
years later, were added the duties of a similar chair at Prinoetown 
College. About twenty years ago he relinquished the latter, upon 
an urgent request from the then Secretary of the Treasury to take 
charge of the Assay Department in the Government Assay Office. 



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After this be soon gave up kk sasties at tbe meanest Caller*, 1 

made * trustee of Columbia College, of winch the Medical 

became a department, and to which be gave not only 

semeea, but also bis vast botaancal eoDeefrms asm ebaiae fihrarj. 

To these useful and needful services be gave his days (his 

botanical researches) quite to tbe met. Up to a firr 

his dV^hm light eouU be seen un^ 

of Columbia College ; and until a few days be fo re be died be 1 

although with feeble band, tbe osneial reportof the dafly work at the 

Assay Office, tethfal to evrry duty aid every detiil to ta* last. He 

died from an attack of poenmoaaa on the 1 (Kb of March, 1873. 

Dr. Torrey was elected a Foreign Member of this Society on tbe 
7th of May, 1839. 

Frtjedbich Welwttsch was born in tbe year 1807. He was one 
of a large family, bis father being tbe owner of an extensive mxm, 
and surveyor of a district in Csxinthia, in tbe Austrian Empire. 
When quite a boy, Wehritscb acquired Ids first taste for Botany, 
which he carried with him to school, and need to bring home with 
him in the holidays tbe plants he had found. His father en- 
couraged him and helped him to make out tbe names of bis dis- 
coveries by means of an old herbal, and an apo the car y in tbe town 
where he resided also assisted him in bis early botanical studies. 

In due course he was sent to the University of Vienna, being in- 
tended for the legal profession. Bat the irresistible tendency towards 
natural science drew him from the law, and he made no progress. 
His father in displeasure withdrew his allowance from tbe young 
student, who was then left to himself, and is said to hare for a time 
supported himself by writing critiques on the theatres. With a view to 
a more congenial bring, however, Welwitscfa entered the Medical 
Faculty of the University, and at the same time pursued Botany with 
increased assiduity. His first publication was " Observations on tbe 
Cryptogamic flora of Lower Austria," published in the * Beitrage 
zur Landeskunde' of Vienna for 1834, which obtained a prize 
offered by the mayor of the city. 8om ewher e about tins period be 
was employed by the Government to report on tbe cholera in 8avoy, 
and this mark of confidence reconciled his father to his change of 
profession. For a while Wdwitsch travelled with a nobleman as 
tutor, and then returned to Vienna to complete his studies. In doe 
course he graduated in Medicine, his thesis being " A Synopsis of the 
Nostochineas of Lower Austria," printed in J *36. 



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XUVU1 PB00BXDIira8 OF TBI 

In 1839 Dr. Welwitsch was commiadoned by the Unio Itinenria 
a£ Wiirtemberg, of whioh he was a member, to explore and collect 
the plants of the Azores and Cape-Verd Islands. He aocordinglj 
left Vienna in the summer of that year, and came to England, whence 
lie sailed at once for his destination. In July he arrived at Iisbon, 
where he found himself unavoidably detained ; and ultimately made 
arrangements for remaining in Portugal through the winter instead 
of proceeding to the Atlantic islands. In a few weeks he acquired 
a good knowledge of the Portuguese language, and then devoted 
himself to the investigation of the flora of the country. He never 
returned to Austria, nor, indeed, left the country of his adoption till 
1853, except for short visits to Paris and London. During this 
period he had the care, at different times, of the Botanic Gardens of 
Lisbon and Coimbra, and was superintendent of the Duke of 
Palmella's gardens at Cintra and in Alemtejo, as well as having the 
general supervision of the Duke's gardens throughout Portugal- 
He also explored a great part of the kingdom, and made very large 
collections. No less than 56,000 specimens were sent to the Unio 
Itineraria for distribution, and complete series were deposited in 
the herbaria of the Academy of Sciences at Lisbon and at Paris. 

The lower plants were the objects of Dr. Welwitsoh's special study. 
In the neighbourhood of Lisbon, in the years 1847-52, he added 250 
of the larger Fungi to those enumerated in Brotero's ' Flora ' ; and 
in his zeal after Algae, in which he found the Tagus very rich, he was 
accustomed to spend hours "up to his waist in water" day after 
day. In the second volume of the ' Actas ' of the Lisbon Academy 
(1850) he published the " Genera Phycearum Lusitans," and other 
results of his work in the Cryptogamia were published in 1858 in an 
" Enumeration of the Musci and Hepatic© collected in Portugal in 
] 842-50 by Dr. Welwitsch," by Mr. Mitten, and in " Notes on the 
Fungi," by the Rev. M. J. Berkeley. He himself published little else 
on Portuguese plants; but his working copy of Brotero's 'Flora 
Lusitaniea ' is filled with valuable notes aad additions, Besides his 
botanical investigations, Dr. Welwitsch devoted considerable time to 
the mollusca and insects of Portugal, and formed large collections. 

It was in 1850 that the Government of Queen Dona Maria first 
resolved to explore the Portuguese possessions on the West Coast of 
Africa, with the double object of obtaining scientific information on 
the products of the country and of forwarding its material interests. 
The project was laid before the Cortes in that year, and received the 
royal assent. Dr. Welwitsch was selected to carry out the scientific 



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Li 1S56 Dr. Vefria* left Ga2SQp»~jL&u and tnv&Ibnf; 

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Xl PROCEEDINGS OF THX 

Pedras de Gmnga, the banks of the Lombe and the Cuige, and 
penetrating as far as the islands of Calemba, in the Cuanxa, and the 
immense forests which stretch from Qnisonde to Condo, near the 
cataracts of the river Cuanxa. This point, about 250 miles from the 
coast, was the farthest to the east which was reached. On his way 
back to Pungo-Andongo, Dr. Welwitsch visited the salt lakes of 
Quitage and the magnificent forests on the right banks of the 
Cuanxa, and during a short stay at Pungo-Andongo explored the 
woods beyond the Rio Luzillo and in the direction of Cambambe. 
After this he returned to his old station of Golungo-Alto, and 
ultimately to Loanda, reaching it in August 1857. 

Up to this time the territory explored by Dr. Welwitsch com- 
prised a triangle, of which the base, of about 120 geographical 
miles, occupied the coast, whilst the apex was the point already 
mentioned at Quisonde, on the right bank of the Cuanxa. During 
his period of illness and forced inaction at Loanda, he corresponded 
with botanists ; and in June 1858 drew up a valuable record of his 
travels, in the form of a Mappa Phyto-geographica, or tabular view 
of his botanical collections. This was published at Lisbon, under 
the title of " Apontamentos Phyto-geographioos sobre a Flora da 
Provincia de Angola na Africa Equinocial," in the ' Annaes do 
Conselho Ultramarino ' for December 1858. From this paper we 
learn that he had collected and arranged 3227 species of plants (to 
which 510 were afterwards added) in Angola proper. Under each 
family is given the whole number of species collected, followed, in 
columns, by the number in each of the three regions (littoral, 
montane, and high tableland) into which for scientific purposes he 
divided the country. This is followed by lists of the cultivated 
plants in each family, and notes on the distribution and most 
characteristic species found. Many new species are first mentioned 
or described in the appendix which concludes this concise but com- 
prehensive treatise. 

Successful as had been the scientific results of these travels, they 
had been attained only at the price of shattered health, and rest was 
absolutely necessary. A short trip to the district of Libongo, north 
of Loanda, was the only journey made till June 1859, when his 
health having been somewhat restored, though still suffering from 
fever, Dr. Welwitsch recommenced his explorations in another 
direction. His intention was to investigate the littoral region of 
Benguela and Mossamedes only; but his travels, fortunately for 
science, extended over a greater extent of country. After a short 



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wrmAx society of lojtdoic. xli 

time passed at Benguela, in lat. 12° 30* 8., he proceeded by sea to 
M o ssa m edes (Little Fish Bay, lat 15° 8.), where the magnificent 
climate speedily recovered him, and he gradually extended his 
journeys, first along the coast as far south as Cape Negro, the port of 
Pinda, and the Bay of Tigers (lat 17° 8.), and afterwards, as the spring 
(October) approached, inland to the elevated plateau called Huilla, 
about 80 miles from the coast, which rises to the height of from about 
5800 to 6000 feet above the sea-leveL A short sketch of the vege- 
tation of the coast-region is given in a published letter to Br. Hooker 
(Journ. linn. Soc., Bot. vol. v. p. 182), written after Dr.Welwitsch's 
- return to Loanda. The remarkable differences between its flora and 
that of the coast of Angola proper are very striking even at Benguela, 
and at Mossamedes an entirely new littoral vegetation appeared; 
here he found " a motley mixture of various floras, with a prevailing 
correspondence to those of Senegambia and the Gape of Good Hope. 
... At a distance of a mile from the coast, however, the forms cha- 
racteristic of the Cape flora are lost ; the vegetation beoomes with 
every step richer in purely tropical forms, which are especially deve- 
loped on the banks of the Bero, in a variety one would never have 
imagined in so apparently dry a coast-region." Further south this 
dryness becomes more and more excessive, and the flora poorer and 
poorer, chiefly consisting of Euphorbia. As Cape Negro (lat. 
15° 40' 8.) is approached, the coast rises to form a perfectly level 
plateau of about 3000 or 4000 feet in height, and extending over 
six miles into the country, composed of a calcareous tufa scattered 
over with loose sandstone shingle. The vegetation on this arid 
waste is scanty enough ; but it was here that Br. Welwitsch disco- 
vered that remarkable plant which has rendered his name familiar 
to every botanist, and has formed the subject of Br. Hooker's well- 
known memoir (Trans. linn. Soc vol. xxiv. 1863)—theWelwit$chia 
ndrabUis, since found in very similar country by Baines and Anderason 
in Bamara Land, near Walvisch Bay, some 500 miles south of Cape 
Negro. 

The vegetation of the highlands of Huilla, though bringing to 
light no such wonder as the WdwitocJiia, prodnoed quite as strong an 
impression on the mind of the traveller. He started from Mossamedes 
at the beginning of October, and following the banks of the Bio 
Mayombo, reached Bumbo, on the slopes of the Serra de Chella, and 
crossing that chain at a height of about 4200 feet, found himself on 
the tableland at the end of the month. In a letter to Br. Hooker 
he says :-— " The entire appearance of the landscape, the aspect of 



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xlii FBocBBDisee op thb 

forest and plain, indeed the whole character of the vegetation, • 
at once and entirely changed, as though by magic. I fancied myself 
in a strange world. Every thing about me would recall the delightful 
outlying mountains of Switzerland, did not numerous MekutomacecB, 
Jpoeynece, CombretcMtas, <fce. remind me of the tropics." 

Over 2000 species were collected in the province of Benguela by 
Dr. Welwitsch, whose investigations in this attractive country were 
put an end to by a native war ; and Dr. Welwitsch recrossed the 
Serra de Chella, and returned to Mossamedes and Loanda, whence, 
suffering with fever and dysentery, he embarked for Lisbon with his 
immense collections, arriving in the Tagus in January 1861. 

His herbarium is undoubtedly the best and most extensive ever 
ooUected in Tropical Africa, whether we look to the intrinsic interest 
of the plants themselves, the care and judgment displayed in their 
selection and preservation, or the extent of the collection both in 
number of species and series of specimens. The botanists who have 
had the opportunity of working with Dr. Welwitsch's materials uni- 
versally bearwituess to their completeness and excellent conservation; 
added to which he was in the habit of (in most cases) carefully 
describing their essential characters when gathered, so that his 
tickets convey an amount of information scarcely ever to be found in 
such collections. 

After his return to Portugal, he commenced the more critical 
examination of his African herbarium ; but, in the absence of collec- 
tions, books, and qualified men in Lisbon, little could be done 
towards naming and arranging them. It was absolutely necessary 
to proceed to one of the great scientific centres, and London was 
selected. After a visit to the International Exhibition of 1862, 
Dr. Welwitsch returned to Lisbon, and commenced the removal of 
the greater part of his collections, with which, in the next year 
(1863), he arrived in London, the Portuguese Government having 
arranged that for the superintendence of the work of examining, 
naming, and publishing the plants, and to defray the attendant ex- 
penses, Dr. Welwitsch should receive a regular grant which he con- 
sidered sufficient. 

He at once set to his work, and also entered into various arrange- 
ments with societies and individuals for engraving plates and pub- 
lishing descriptions ; but hardly had two years passed when, to use 
his own words in the instructions to his executors, " a false and 
calumnious attack was made upon me in the Portuguese House of 
Parliament Some one asserted that I was selling the Angolan col- 



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IHTKBiV BOGXXTT OV LOlfDON. xM 

lections and living in splendour on the proceeds; " and " without the 
slightest inquiry, and in the absence not only of all proof , but of any 
attempt to procure proo£ on the mere ipse dixit of a reckless 
accuser, I was condemned unheard ; and the first and last intimation 
that I received of the matter from them was a curt notice, that did 
not reach me till six months after the attack, that my subsidium had 
been cut off. ... I have been left to proceed with my work in London 
without the slightest allowance or remuneration, and have had to 
pay out of my own means the expenses of my various publications, 
to which, on the faith of my promised subeidium, I had committed 
myself; and when I have sent to the Portuguese Government copies 
of my works, I have never been gratified by the smallest expression 
of approval, or with any recognition of my self-sacrifice and 
devotion." 

It is only proper to put these facts on record, as they afford a clue 
to much of Dr. Welwitsoh's conduct and character during the last 
few years of his life in London. Not that he ever withdrew his hand 
from his work. He worked at his collections without intermission 
from early morning till late at night, in spite of frequent fevers and 
other reminders of his tropical life, and was indefatigable in making 
himself acquainted with all that was published in botanical and 
entomological science, and naming and arranging his collections in 
accordance ; but he felt deeply the unworthy conduct of the Govern- 
ment of the country in whose service he had sacrificed the best part 
of his life, and he became suspicious and averse to society. With 
the exception of a visit to Paris in 1867, in connexion with the 
Exhibition there, he lived constantly in London, alone and absorbed 
in his work, in spite of ill-health sufficient to have caused most men 
to seek rest and quiet. It was not, however, till the summer of 
1872 that there was any reason for anxiety. A fire at that time in 
the house where he lodged, and the narrow escape of his collections, 
whioh were scorched and blackened by the smoke, produced a severe 
nervous shock, and soon after he became seriously ill. It soon be- 
came evident that his disease was a fatal one ; nevertheless he con- 
tinued to work, and the singular strength of his constitution was 
exceedingly striking ; but at last he was obliged to give up, and 
after a painful illness of about six weeks, during which he was 
cheered by the visits of some of his London botanical friends, he 
died on the evening of the 20th October. The funeral at Kensal 
Green on the 24th was attended by a number of scientific men and 
a representative of Portugal 



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Xliv PROCBEDHTOfl OF THX 

Beside* the memoirs and papers already mentioned on African 
Botany, Dr. Welwitseh, since his residence in London, published 
several others, the most important of which is the " Sertnm Ango- 
lense " in the Trans. Linn. 8oc. vol. xxvii. (1869), with twenty-five 
plates by Fitch. 

There are also two papers in the Journal of the Iiunean Society 
(Botany), " On a remarkable Species of Cissus from the south of Ben* 
guela," &c. (viii. p. 65), and "Observations on the Origin and Geogra- 
phical Distribution of Gum Copal in Angola " (ix. p. 287), and a paper 
on African Loranihaceas in the * Gardeners' Chronicle ' for July 1st, 
1 871 . In conjunction with Mr. Currey he published the first part of 
" Fungi Angolenses" (Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 279), containing 
a number of new species; and his collections have been the 
foundation of several monographs and memoirs by various authors. 

Dr. Welwitseh was elected an Associate of the Linnean Society on 
the 2nd of December 1858, and a Fellow on the 4th of May 1865. 

Robert Wight, the twelfth child in a family of fourteen, was born 
at Milton, Duncra Hill, East Lothian, on July 6, 1796, his father 
being a Writer to the Signet in Edinburgh. He was educated at 
the High School of Edinburgh, received a surgeon's diploma in 1816, 
and took his degree in medicine at the University in 1818. After 
making several voyages as surgeon to- a ship, one of which was to 
America, he obtained an appointment in the East-India Company's 
medical service, and went out to Madras in 1819. He joined the 
42nd N. I., of which his brother James was subsequently colonel, 
then stationed in the Northern Division. A few yeare later, in 
1826, Dr. Wight was appointed to succeed Dr. Shuter as " Naturalist " 
at Madras ; and whilst occupying that important position he formed 
extensive collections in the different departments of natural history, 
and made a prolonged tour of investigation in the southern provinces, 
the outline of which is marked in the map of India published in 
Wallich's * Plant© Asiatic® rariores.' 

In 1828 Dr. Wight was appointed garrison-surgeon at Negapatam, 
where for two years and a half he was engaged in medical duties ; 
but his botanical ardour was not diminished. He diligently explored 
the province of Tanjore; and at Negapatam a large collection of plants 
was made. He exemplified great generosity in the formation of his 
collections, numerous duplicates being provided when possible, often 
at the cost of much trouble and expense to himself, for subsequent 
distribution to other botanists. Special acknowledgment of his 



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LINNBAN SOCIETY Of LONDON. xlv 

liberality is made in the * Musee Botanique de Delessert,' p. 142. 
This earlier extensive herbarium he afterwards took to the East-India 
Company's Museum, Leadenhall Street, and the numerous duplicates 
were distributed by himself, in 1832 and 1833, along with Dr.Wal- 
lioh's collection, to various bodies in Britain and.Europe interested in 
the promotion of science. The details of this collection, of which a 
lithographed catalogue, comprising 2400 species, was issued in 1833, 
are enumerated in the * Prodromus ' of Wight and Arnott, and many 
of the specimens are described in that work. It was at Negapatam 
that Dr. Wight formed the wish of publishing an illustrated work on 
Indian plants, similar to Sowerby's ' English Botany.' Many of the 
figures and descriptions made on the spot were published in 1830-32 
by Sir W. Hooker in the ' Botanical Miscellany,' vols. iL and iii., and 
in the companion to the * Botanical Magazine,' under the head of 
" Illustrations of Indian Botany, particularly of the Southern Parts 
of the Peninsula"; but the publication in this form ceased on 
account of the expense. 

Dr. Wight obtained leave to return to England on sick certificate 
in 1831, when suffering from the effects of jungle-fever; but he still 
kept up in India his private establishment of plant-collectors and a 
draughtsman. During this furlough of three years he lived chiefly in 
Edinburgh, and, in conjunction with the late Dr.G. A. Walker- Arnott, 
prepared the * Prodromus Florae Peninsulas India Orientalis,' con- 
taining descriptions of the plants found in the peninsula of British 
India, arranged according to the Natural System, a work highly 
praised by Drs. Hooker and Thomson in the introduction to their 
* Flora Indica.' One volume only was published, the work having 
been interrupted by Dr. Wight's return to India in 1834, when he 
was appointed to the 33rd regiment N. I. at Ballary, of which he 
continued in medical charge for three years. 

Early in 1836 Dr. Wight was removed from military duty, and 
employed in the Revenue Department to inquire and report on the 
cultivation of cotton, tobacco, senna, and generally of all Indian 
products, an appointment involving a large amount of correspondence 
with district, officers, and also a careful personal observation of many 
points not detailed in reports. 

The results of the experimental farm at Coimbatore, which Dr. 
Wight superintended from 1842 to 1850, are summarized in Boyle's 
work on the 'Culture and Commerce of Cotton in India.' His 
reports and correspondence on this subject are very voluminous, and 
his protracted exertions in the experimental farm yielded a store of 



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xlvi PBOOKBDnrofl of the 

valuable facts and observations, which have had aa important 
bearing on the progress of this great industry. 

In 1838 the * Illustrations of Indian Botany ' was oommenced, 
and simultaneously its oompanion, the ' Icones Plantarum Indus 
Orientalist The * Illustrations ' comprise a series of memoirs on the 
Natural Orders, full of important information with regard to species, 
and valuable notes on their affinities : the work commenced as soon 
as the names of 100 subscribers were recorded ; it terminated with. 
the end of the second volume and 182nd plate, in 1850. In the 
* Icones ' the letterpress usually contains only the description of the 
species, though in the later volumes occasional general details are 
given, especially in those Natural Orders which are not included in 
the ' Illustrations.' The plates of the * Icones ' are uncoloured, and 
amount to 2101, a surprising number to have been completed in 
fifteen years. The Government of Madras subscribed for fifty copies 
of both works, otherwise they could not have been completed. 

Dr. Wight remained at Coimbatore till March 1853, when he 
finally retired from the public service. On the occasion of his 
leaving India there was a great gathering of his friends and admirers 
in Madras, and a valedictory address was presented to him by the 
committee of the Agri-Horticultural Society. 

After his return to England, increasing deafness and failing health 
appear to have prevented him from resuming descriptive botany. In 
1853 he purchased the estate of Grazeley Lodge, near Beading, where 
he entered on agricultural pursuits with great zeal and success. His 
farm of 66 acres was much improved by his skilful treatment, and in 
1860 he delivered a spirited address to the Farmers' Club at Beading. 
In 1861 and 1862 Br. Wight wrote a series of articles in the 
' Gardeners' Chronicle,' on the subject of cotton-farming, explanatory 
of the American and East-Indian methods, with suggestions for their 
improvement 

To conduct the great works by which Wight's name will ever be 
remembered required, in a tropical climate, qualities of no ordinary 
stamp. In addition to an extensive knowledge of botany, Wight 
possessed extraordinary industry, with great physical power of en- 
durance ; difficulties did not easily thwart him, and he laboured 
steadily from early morning till late at night with few intermissions. 
At one time he had about twenty natives employed in a large room 
of his house, colouring the plates for his ' Illustrations ' and mixing 
their own colours. Of these, two were specially esteemed by their 
kind master — Bungia and Govindoo, The former prepared the 



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LINVBAH SOCIETY OF LOKDON. xlvtt 

plates for the first three volumes of the ' Icones '; and of Govindoo 
Dr. Wight writes as follows : — " I have dedicated it (' Oovindooia *) 
to the artist whose facile pencil produced the drawings for the greater 
part of the plates of the last three volumes of this work, and whose 
skill in analytical delineation is, I believe, as yet quite unrivalled 
among his countrymen and, but for his imperfect knowledge of per- 
spective, rarely excelled by European artists " (' Icones,' vi. 34). 
Dr. Wight was in the habit of recording meteorological phenomena in 
the diary which he kept during all his wanderings. He was in con- 
stant communication with the leading European botanists, and on 
terms of warm friendship with Brown, Boyle, Iindley, the Hookers, 
Wallich, and others. 

Allusion has already been made to his great liberality in collecting 
and distributing duplicates for botanical friends ; and good evidence 
is afforded of his public spirit and ardent love of his favourite science 
by his incurring heavy pecuniary risk in the publication of costly 
illustrated works, which have been now long out of print. 

Br. Wight was married, in 1838, to a daughter of L. G. Ford, Esq., 
of the Medical Board, Madras, and is survived by his widow, four 
sons, and a daughter. 

In private life Dr. Wight was a man of great generosity and 
cordiality. Throughout his career he was most liberal and kind in 
communicating information and rendering assistance to young 
students of his favourite science ; he thereby endeared himself to 
many as a fast and firm Mend. 

When failing health precluded him from working, he was always 
eager to help any who wished to avail themselves of the use of his 
herbarium, and was more anxious for the promotion of botany than 
for his own celebrity in connexion with it. 

The first serious symptoms of illness appeared in April 1869, and 
he passed away without suffering on the 26th of May, 1872, at 
Grazeley Lodge, near Beading. 

When in the future it falls to the lot of some historian to sketch 
the history and progress of Indian Botany, there will be few names 
worthy of being placed in the same rank with Bobert Wight 

Dr. Wight was elected a Fellow of this Society on the 17th 
of January, 1832. 



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XlviH PR0CBEJ>ING8 OF THE 

June 6th, 1873. 
George Bentham, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

The President nominated George Busk, Esq., J. D. Hooker, 
M.D., John Miers, Esq., and W. W. Saunders, Esq., Vice-Presi- 
dents for the ensuing year. 

Frederick Hovenden, Esq., John Ellor Taylor, Esq., and P. 
Buchanan White, M.D., were elected Fellows. 

Dr. Prior, F.L.S., exhibited a mallet and ball used at Mont- 
pellier in the ancient game of " Jeu de Mail ; " the handle of the 
mallet made of Celti* awtralis (Micocoulier), the head of Quercus 
Ilex. 

The following paper was read, viz. : — 

" On the Lecythidacea3," by John Miers, Esq., F.K.S., V.P.L.S., 
Ac. 

June 19th, 1878. 
George Bentham, Esq., President, in the Chair* 

John Kinton Bond, Esq., B.A., John C. Bowring, Esq., Thomas 
F. Cheeseman, Esq., and William Saville Kent, Esq., were elected 
Fellows. 

Dr. Hooker, V.P.L.S., exhibited an extensive series of photo- 
graphic views, taken in the Botanic Garden, Adelaide, and pre- 
sented to the Eew Museum by the South Australian Government. 

Mr. Daniel Hanbury, F.L.S., exhibited a plant of Amamum 
Melegueia, Boscoe (" Grains of Paradise ") which had borne fruit 
in his garden at Clapham. The fruit differed considerably, both 
in form and colour, from that figured in Boscoe's ' Scitamineaa.' 

The President exhibited, on the part of Mr. G. C. Joad, F.L.S., 
plants of Medicago tribuloide*, Lam., from Algeria, in which some 
of the fruits had been singularly modified by the action of a species 
of Smut (U$tilago). 



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LINNKAN SOCIETY OF LONDON. xliX 

The following papers were read, viz. : — 

1. " On the Development of the Gynoecium of, and the Method 
of Impregnation in, Primula vulgarity Huds.," by Prof. P. Martin 
Duncan, M.B., F.R.S., Ac. Communicated by Dr. Hooker, F.L.S., 
V.P.L.S., Ac. 

2. "On the Suhalpirie Vegetation of Kilima Njaro, E. Africa," 
by J. D. Hooker, M.D., C.B., V JP.L.8., &c 

3. " On the Marine Algae of Barbadoes," by George Dickie, 
M.D.,P.L.S.,Acl 

4. " Contributions towards a Knowledge of the Curculionidxe, 
Part. IV.," by F. P. Pascoe, Esq., F.L.S. 

The following is the detailed enumeration of the Biological 
Papers contained in the Transactions, Proceedings, and Journals 
received since the last Report, and of the separate works added to 
the Library : — 

Mammatja and General Zoology : — 

H. Allen. On the appendicular skeleton of Vertebrates. Proc. 
Acad. Nat So. Philadelphia, 1872. 

J. Anderson. Notes on Rhinoceros sumatrensis, Cuv. — On the 
external characters of Macacos bnmneus, woodcuts and 1 plate. — 
A supposed new Monkey from the Sunderbunds. Proa Zool. Soc. 
1872, and separate copies presented by the author. 

C. J. van Beneden. On the milk-teeth of Otaria pusiUa. Bull. 
Acad. Sc. Brussels, Ser. 2, xxxi. 

C. Bert iteasurements of a young Gorilla. Mem, Soc. Sc Phya. 
Nat Bordeaux, viL 1. 

W. T. Blanford. Zoology of the eastern and northern frontiers 
of Sikkim. Journ. Asiat See. Bengal, 1872. 

E. Blyth. On the Asiatic species of two-horned Rhinoceros. 
Ann. Nat. Hist Ser. 4, x. 

E. J. Bonsdorff. Comparison of the Os coracoideum of birds with 
the clavicula of Mammalia. Proc. R. Swed. Acad. Stockholm, 

XXVL. 

J. Brandt. A new classification of Balnmoida. Bull. Acad. Imp. 
8c Petersburg, Ser. 7, xvii. 

V. Brooke. On Hydropotes inermis, woodcut. — A new Gazelle from 
umr. pboc. — Session 1872-73. g 



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1 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Eastern Africa, 1 plate. — On the Royal Antelope and allied species, 
1 plate. — A new Antelope, Nanotrague tragulus, 1 plate. Proc. Zool. 
Soe. 1872. 

G. Burmeister. Comparative description of the skeletons of 
Olyptodon and Schizopleura, 6 plates. Ann. Mas. Publ. Buenos 
Ayres, ii. 

H. Burmeister; On my so-called Globiocephaltts Qrayi. — On 
Balamoptera patachonica, and Pr intermedia. Ann. Nat. Hist. 
Ser. 4, x. 

E. Charlier. Observations on animal teratology, 2 plates. Hem. 
Soc. R. So. liege, Ser. 2, iii. 

J. Chatin. On the myology of Hycemoschus, 3 plates. Ann. 8c. 
Nat. Ser. 4, x. 

J. W. Clarke. On the visceral anatomy of the Hippopotamus, 
woodcuts. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872. 

J. G. Cooper. Reeent additions to the fauna of California. — 
Geographical distribution of the fauna of California. Proc. Acad. 
8c. California, iv. 

£. Cones. Notes on the Natural History of Fort Macon and its 
vicinity. Proc. Acad. Nat. So. Philadelphia, 1871. 

W. H. Dale. New Cetaoea from the coast of California. Ann. 
Nat Hist. Ser. 4, xi. 

G. E. Dobson. On the osteology of Trianops persieus, 1 plate. — 
On the osteology of some species of Bats. — Five new specie* of 
Rhinolophine Bats. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1872. — On the 
Asiatic species of Taphozous, Geoffr.-— On some species of Cheiroptera 
collected by W. Theobald in Burma. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
1872. 

D, G. Elliott On Felie pardinoides, J. E. Gray. Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1872, 

P. Fischer. Documents relating to the history of Balcma biscay- 
ensis. Ann. Sc. Nat. Zool. ser. 5, xv. 

L. J. Fitiinger. The natural family of Dasypoda. Proc. Imp. 
Acad. Sc. Vienna, lxiv. — The natural family of Manes. Ibid. lxv. 

W. H. Flower. On recent ziphioid Whales ; with a description of 
the skeleton of Berardius Arnvuxi, 3 plates. Trans. Zool. Soc. viii. 
—On the anatomy of Naudinia binotata. Proc. ZooL Soc. 1872. 

A. H. Garrod. On the placenta of the Hippopotamus. Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1872, 

T. G. Gentry. On a hybrid Macacus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. 
Philadelphia, 1872. 



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LIKKKAK SOCIETY OF LOJTDON. H 

P. Gervais. On the cerebral forms in living and fossil Carnivora, 
3 plates. Nouv. Archiv. Mas. Paris, vi. — On the anatomy of Balss- 
nida. Ibid. vii. 

B. Gilpin. On the Mammalia of Nova Scotia. Trans. Nov. Boot 
Instit Halifax, iii. 

J. E. Gray. Catalogne of Cetacea inhabiting or visiting the seas 
surrounding the British Islands. Presented by the Author. — A new 
Tapir from Ecuador, 2 plates. — A young Tapir from the Peruvian 
Amazons, 1 plate. — Sea-bears of New Zealand and Australia, wood- 
cuts. — Description of the younger skull of Eumetopias StcUcri, wood- 
cuts. — On Arctocephalus oinereus, and Gypsophoca. — On Propithecus, 
Indris and other Lemurs, 3 plates and woodcuts. — On Fossa Dauben- 
tonii, 1 plate, woodcuts. Proc ZooL Soc. 1872. — A new Propithecus 
and the Fossane from Madagascar. — On the double-horned Asiatic 
Rhinoceros ( Ceratorhinus ).— On the Guemul. Ann. Nat Hist Ser. 4, 
x. — On Berardius and other ziphioid Whales. — On the Guemul of 
Patagonia, two communications. — On the geographical distribution, 
migrations, &c of Whales and Dolphins. — Notes on the Whales and 
Dolphins of the New Zealand seas. — On the dentition of Rhinoceros. 
On Pigs and their skulls, and on a new species. Ibid. xi. 

E. M. H. Holdsworth. A new Cetacean from the West coast of 
Ceylon. Proc. ZooL 8oc. 1872. 

W. H. Hudson. On the habits of the Vizcacha (Lagosiomus tri- 
chodactylus). Proc. ZooL Soc. 1872. 

J. Hutton. On the Bats of the North-western Himalayas. Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1872. 

J. HyrtL On the renal basin in Mammalia and Man, 7 plates. 
Trans. Imp. Acad. Sc. Vienna, xxxi. 

— Jobert Comparative anatomy of the organs of feeling in 
divers Mammalia, Birds, Fishes, and Insects, 8 plates. Ann. Sc. 
Nat ZooL Ser. 5, xvL 

J. E. H. Kinberg. On arctic Phocaoew. — On some bones found 
in the neighbourhood of Hastefjord. — Various osteologies! papers. 
Proc. R. Swed. Acad. Sc. Stockholm, xxvL 

J. Kolazy. Contribution to the life-history of the Sea-hog (Cavia 
Cobaya, L.). Trans. ZooL Bot. Soc. Vienna, xxii. 

J. KoUmann. On the structure of Elephants' teeth, 1 plate. 
Trans. R. Bavar. Acad. Sc. Munich, xL 

W. Kowalewsky. Osteology of the Hyopotamicfo. Proc R. 
Soc. xxi. 

A. Macalister. Myology of the Cheiroptera, 4 plates. Phil. Trans. 

</2 



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lii PROOBvonres op thr 

R. Soc. cbdi. — Myology of SarcophUus urtinus. — Anatomy of the 
Derriah (Oynocephahu hamadryas).— rMusoular anatomy of the Koala 
(Pha$colarcto$ cinereus). Ann. Nat. Hist 8er. 4, x. — Notes on the 
broad-headed Wombat (Phasc6U>my$ latifrons), woodcuts. Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1872. 

A. W. Malm. The Cetacea of the Swedish Museums in 1869, 
6 plates. Trans. R. Swed. Acad. So. Stockholm, iz. 

C. Martins. Comparison of the pelvic and thoracic limbs in Man 
and animals (from Diet EnoycL So. Mldic). Presented by the 
Author. 

A. Milne-Edwards. A new SemnopUheeus from Cochinchina, 1 
plate. Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Paris, vi. — A new Tatou (Sckropkura 
Bruneti), 1 plate. Ibid. vii. — The embryology and physiological 
affinities of Lemuricte. — The Melanesian variety of Mu$ deewnawu*.-*- 
The conformation of the placenta in Tamandua tetradactyla, 1 plate. 
Ann. So. Nat Zool. ser. 5, zv. — A new Armadillo with incomplete 
shield (ScUropleura Brumti). Ibid. xvi. 

A. Milne-Edwards and A. Grandidier. A new insectivorous 
Mammifer from Madagascar. Ann. Sc Nat. Zool. Ser. 5, zv. 

St. 0. Mivart. Man and Ape, 1 plate, woodcuts. Pop. Set. 
Review, xii. 

J. Murie. On the form and structure of the Manatee (Manatus 
americanus), 10 plates. — On the organization of the Casing Whales 
(Qkbiocephalus mdas, Traill), 9 plates. Trans. Zool. Soc. viii. — 
On the Indian Wild Dog, woodcuts. — On the Macaques, woodcuts. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872. 

W. C. H. Peters. On a collection, of small Mammalia made by 
Monteiro in Angola. Proc. ZooL Soc. 1872. — On the species of 
the Cheiropterous genus Megaderma. — On the Bats belonging to the 
Mormopes group.— On some new Bats. — On VespertUio ealearatus, a 
new genus of Bats. Proc. (Monatsber.) B. Acad. So. Berlin, 1872. 

R. A. PhilippL On Felis guina, Molin. and others, 2 plates. 
Wiegm. Archiv, xxxix. 

R. RedteL On the nasal process of Bhinolophus hippocrepis, 1 
plate. Zeitsohr. wiss. ZooL xxiii. 

A. Rosenberg. On the development of the skeleton of the ex- 
tremities in some Vertebrate, characterized by the reduction of their 
muscles, 3 plates. Zeitschr. wissensoh. Zool, xxiii. 

A. Sanson. A hybrid of the Hare and Rabbit, 1 plate. Ann. Sc. 
Nat. Zool. Ser. 5, xv. 

£. M. Scammon. A new species of jBalamvptera, Ann. Nat. 
Hist. Ser. 4 f x. 



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UK3TEAX SOCIETY OF UHTDQS. IS 

J. School. The external ear of the Hedgehog, 1 plate. Arcnir 
mikrosk. Anat viiL 

P. L. 8dater. Revised list of die Vertebrate Animals in the 
gardens of the Zoological Society. Presented by the Society. — On 
Quadromana found north of Panama, 2 plates. — On Qnadnunana 
collected by Mr. Buckley in Ecuador, 1 plate. — Additions to the 
Menagerie of the Zoological Society, several communications, 10 
plates. Proc Zool. Soc 1872.— On iYtptttamt otcalor and RMi*+ce- 
ros lasiotU. Ann. Nat Hist. 8er. 4, x, — On Cervut ckiUmsit and 
C. antmensU, Ibid. xL 

H. G. 8eeley. On the origin of the vertebrate skeleton. Ann, 
Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, x. 

F. StoHcska. Mammals and Birds inhabiting Kachh. Journ. 
Asiat Soc Bengal, 1872. 

B. Swinhoe. Chinese Mammals observed near Ningpo. Proc 
Zool. Soc 1872. 

F. H. TroecheL Beport on the contributions to the Natural 
History of Mammalia for 1871. Wiegm. Archiv. xxxviii. 

— Turner. On the occurrence of Ziphius curvirostris in. the 
Shetland seas, and a comparison of its skull with that of Metoplodon 
Sowerbyi, 2 plates. Trans. B. Soc Edinburgh, xxvi. 

Zoological Record for 1871, pt 1 & 2 (1873). 

Zoologist, July 1872 to June 1873. 

Ornithology : — 

J. Anderson. Notes on the raptorial Birds of India : two com- 
munications. Proc. Zool. Soc 1872. 

V. BalL Notes on a collection of Birds made in the Andaman 
Islands by 0. E. Dobson. Journ. Asiat Soc. Bengal, 1872. 

W. T. Blanford. Zoology of the eastern and northern frontiers 
of Sikkim. — Birds from Sikkim, 2 plates. Journ. Asiat. Soc Bengal, 
1872. 

W. E. Brooks. Notes on the Ornithology of Cashmir. — A new 
IUguloicU$. — Two undescribed Cashmir Birds. Journ. Asiat Soc 
Bengal, 1872. 

H. Buckley. New or rare Birds' Eggs. Proc Zool. Soc 1872. 

H. Burmeister. Synopsis of Lamellirostres of the Argentine 
Republic. Proc. Zook Soc 1872. 

J. G. Cooper. Recent additions to, and geographical distribution 
of, the fauna of California. Proc Acad. So. California, iv. 

E. Coues. Notes on the Natural History of Fort Macon and its 



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vicinity. Proc. Acad. Nat Sc. Philadelphia, 1871.-^The Yellow- 
headed Blackbird, woodcut. — Bullock's Oriole, woodcut. — The Long- 
crested Jay, woodcut. Amer. Naturalist, 1871. — Studies of the 
Tyrannid®. — Materials for a Monograph of Spheniscidtt. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. 8c. Philadelphia, 1872. 

A. David. Catalogue of Chinese Birds. Nouv. Archiv. Mus- 
Paris, vii. — A new Paradoxornis. Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, x. 

0. Finsch. On a collection of Birds from the coast of the Chino- 
Japanese seas. — On the Birds collected in Australia by Fr. Amelie 
Dietrich. Trans. Zool. Bot. Soc. Vienna, xxii. — On Ogden's Synopsis 
of the genus Chcttusia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, 1872. 

A. H. Qarrod. On the mechanism of the gizzard in Birds, wood- 
cuts. — On the anatomy of the Huia bird, Heterc&ocha Qouldi, wood- 
cuts. — On the tongue of Nestor. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872. 

A. H. Garrod and F. Darwin. On an Ostrich lately living in the 
gardens of the Zoological Society, woodcuts. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872. 

H. H. Godwin- Austen. Third list of Birds of Khasi and Garo 
hill-ranges. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1872. 

J, Gould. Two new Birds. — Three new Humming-birds. Ann. 
Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, x. 

W. H. Gregg. Catalogue of the Birds of Chemung County. Proc. 
Acad. Sc. Elmira, i. 

G. Gulliver. On the oesophagus of the Pied Hornbill (Toccus mela- 
noUucus). Proc. Zool. Soc 1872. 

A. Giinther. On a deformed example of Cariama pristata. Ann. 
Nat. Hist. ser. 4, x. 

G. Hartlaub. Report on the contributions to the natural history 
of Birds during 1871. Wiegm. Archiv, xxxviii. 

G. Hartlaub and 0. Finsch. Fourth collection of Birds from the 
Pellew and Mackenzie Islands. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872. 

£. W. H. Holdsworth. Catalogue of Birds found in Ceylon, 
4 plates. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872. 

W. H. Hudson. On the Birds of the Bio Negro of Patagonia, 
1 plate. — On the habits of the Swallows of the Argentine Republic. 
— On the habits of the Churinche (Pyroeephaltu rubineus). — On the 
Swallows of Buenos Ayres. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872. 

H. Jouan. On the Birds of Lower Cochinchina. Mem. Soc. Sc. 
Nat. Cherbourg, xvi. 

G. N. Lawrence. New Birds of the families Troglodytid® and 
Tyrannidae. Proc Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, 1871. — New Birds 
from Mexico, Central America, and South America. — Three new 



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LINNBAN SOCIETY OF LONDON. lv 

American Birds. — New Birds of the genera Icterus and SyncUlaxis. 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, x. 

A. J. Lee. On the sense of sight in Birds. Ann. Nat. Hist. 
Ser. 4, x. 

— Marey. On the flight of Birds and Insects. Ann. So. Nat. 
ZooL Ser. 5, xv. 

£. S. Morse. On the tarsus and carpus of Birds, 2 plates. Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, x. 

E. Mulsant and J. Yerreaux. New Hamming-Birds. Ann. Soo. 
Linn. Lyons, xviii. 

J. Mnrie. On the skeleton of Todus, 1 plate. — On the cranial 
appendages and wattles of the Horned Tragopan, 2 plates. Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1872. 

A. Newton. On certain species of Falconidse, Tetraonidse, and 
AnatidsB. Proc. Acad. Nat. 8c. Philadelphia, 1871. 

A. Ogden. Synopsis of the genus Chtttusia. Proc. Acad. Nat. So. 
Philadelphia, 1871. 

W. K. Parker. On the development of the skull in the Crow, 
3 plates. Monthl. Microscop. Journ. viii. ; — in the Tit and Sparrow- 
hawk, 3 plates ; — in Turdus, 3 plates. Ibid. ix. 

A. y. Pelzeln. On a Collection of Birds from the Aru Islands 
and the Moluccas. Trans. Zool.-Bot. Soc. Vienna, xxii. 

— Salvadori. Note on Oarrulus Lidthii ; — on Fringitta citri- 
netta. Atti (8vo) Acad. So. Turin, yii. 

H. Saunders. A new green Woodpecker from South Europe. — 
Occurrence of Falco barbarus and Cypselus pallidas in Europe. — On 
Anse r albatus. Proc. ZooL Soc. 1872. 

A. v. Schklarewsky. On the cerebellum and canales semicirculares 
of Birds. — On the arrangement of the ganglia of the heart in Birds. 
Proc (Nachr.) R. Soc. Sc. Gottingen, 1872. 

P. L. Sclater. On Kaup's Cassowary, Casuariw Kaupi, and 
other species of the genus, 1 plate. — Additions to the Menagerie of 
the Zoological Society, 1 plate. Proc. ZooL Soc. 1872. 

J. E. Semper. Birds of Santa Lucia. Proc. Zool. Soe. 1872. 

R. B. Sharpe. Birds of Madagascar, 1 plate. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1872. — New Birds in the national collection. Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 
4, x. — On the Peregrine Falcon from Sardinia. — On the same from 
the Magellan Straits. — On a new Turkey- Vulture from the Falk- 
land Islands, and a new genus of Old- World Vultures. Ibid. xi. 

F. Stoliczka. Birds inhabiting Kachh. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
1872. 



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Ivi nociEonres of rax 

C. J. SnndevalL The Birds of the island of St fiarthelemy from 
the collections of Dr. von Goes.— The Birds of Porto Bieo from the 
eoflectione of Herr Hjahnaison. — Synopsis of the genera Dmdrmca 
and CtrikMa. Proc B. Swed. Acad. Sc Stockholm, xxvi. 

B. Swinhoe. .Two new Pheasants and a new Oxtmdax from 
China. Proc ZooL Soc 1872.— A new jfatapus (Cotton-Teal) 
from the river Tangtse in China. Ann. Nat Hist 8er. 4, xL 

J. Yerreanx. Note on the new Birds collected by A. David in 
East Thibet, 1 plate. Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Paris, vL— On the Birds 
collected by A. David in China. Ibid. viL 

Vise. Walden. List of the Birds known to inhabit the island of 
Celebes; with an Appendix, 10 plates. Trans. ZooL Soc viiL — 
On a new Timatus from eastern India. — Two new Birds from the 
Philippine Islands. Ann. Nat Hist. Ser. 4, x. 

J. B. v. WickevoortrCrommelin. Notes on some Docks observed 
in Holland, supposed to be hybrids. Archiv. NeerL to. 

Ibis. Ser. 3, ii. Nos. 7 A 8, & iiL Nos. 9 & 10. 

Igbxhyoiogy : — 

B. Beavan. Two imperfectly known Cyprinoid Fishes from the 
Punjaub, woodcuts. Proc ZooL Soc 1872. 

£. Bleeker. On the genos Monmoptis, Gill. Archiv. NeerL vii. 

— Oarbonnier. On the reproduction and development of the 
Telescope fish of China (from the Comptes Bendus). Ann. Nat. 
Hist. 8er. 4, xL 

E. D. Cope. Fishes of the Ambyiaou river. Proc Acad. Nat 8c. 
Philadelphia, 1871. 

K. Cones. Notes on the natural history of Fort Macon and its 
vicinity. Proc Acad. Nat 8c Philadelphia, 1871. 

G. B. Crivelli and L. Maggi. The organs of reproduction in Eels. 
Wiegm. Archiv, xxxviii. 

C. Dareste. On the natural affinities of the Balistid*. Ann. 
Nat Hist Ser. 4, x. 

F. Day. Monograph of Indian Cyprinids*. — On Fish collected by 
Dr. Stohcxka in Kachh. Journ. Asiat 8oc Bengal, 1872; and 
separate copy of the first presented by the Author. 

B. DybowskL On the fish -fauna of the Amur territory. Trans. 
ZooL Bot Soc Vienna, xxii. 

T. Gill. On the homologies of the shoulder-girdle of the Dip. 
noans and other fishes. Ann. Nat Hist Ser. 4, xi. — On Oottm 
yrcenlamlkHS, Fabr. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, 1872. 



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LDrNSAlf SOCIETY OP LONDON. lvfi 

0. Grimm. On the organs of hearing in the Sturgeon. Proe. 
(Nachr.) R. Soe Sc. Gottingen, 1872. 

G. Gulliver. On the size of the red corpuscles of the blood of 
BalmonidsB. Free. ZooL Soe. 1872. 

A. Giinther. Natmostomus, a new genus of Characinoid fishes 
from Demerara. — On a drawing of Barbus Beavani, woodcuts. 
Proc. Zool Soe. 1872. — Two new Fishes from Tasmania. — On some 
Fishes from the Philippine islands.— New Reptiles and Fishes 
collected by J. Brenohley. — On Psammoperea and Cnedon. — On a 
large siluroid from the Upper Amazon. Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, 
x. — A Ganoid Fish (Ceratodus) from Queensland, 1 plate, Pop. Sc. 
Review, xi. 

W. Houghton. On the SUurus and Qlanis of the ancient Greeks 
and Romans. Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, xi. 

M. N. Joly. On the metamorphosis of osseous Fishes, especially 
of the genus Macropoda (from the Comptes Rendus). Ann. Nat. 
Hist. Ser. 4, x. 

J. J. Kaup. On the family Triglidie. Wiegm. Arehiv, xxxix. 

C. B. lflunzinger. Fish-fauna of South Australia, 1 plate. 
Wiegm. Arehiv, xxxviii. 

J. M'Coy. A new Australian species of Thyr*iUs. Ann. Nat. 
Hist. 8er. 4, xi. 

A. W. Malm. Three fishes new to the Scandinavian fauna. 
Proc. R. Swed. Acad. Stockholm, xxvii. 

P. £. W. Oberg. Acanthdabrus Couchi, Cuv., a fish new to 
Scandinavia. Proc R. Swed. Acad. Stockholm, xxvii. 

J. (Ellacher. On the development of osseous fishes ; from obser- 
vations on the eggs of the Trout, 2 plates. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool. 
xxii. ; second paper, 4 plates. Ibid, xxiii. 

P. Panoeri. On certain appendages to the branchisa of Ce- 
phahptera Giorna. Proc R. Acad. Sc. Naples, 1867. — On the 
abundance of the Lepidoput in the markets of Naples. Ibid. 
1868. 

W. K. Parker. On the development of the face of the Sturgeon. 
MonthL Microsc Journ. ix. 

W. C. H. Peters. Scombracottus, a new genus of fishes of the 
family of Cataphxacti from Vancouver's Island. Proc. (Monatsber.) 
R. Acad. Sc. Berlin, 1872. 

F. Poey. Fishes of Cuba of the family Percidffi and of the sub- 
family Sparini, 3 plates. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, x. 

T. W. Putnam. Synopsis of the family Heteropygii. Ann. Rep. 



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lviii PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Peabody Acad. 8c. Salem, 1871.— The blind fishes of the Mammoth 
Cave, 2 plates. Ibid. 1872. 

S. Robin. Report on Dufosse's Memoir on the noises produced 
by European Fishes (from the Comptes Rondos). Ann. Nat Hist. 
Ser. 4, x. 

. A. Schneider. On the developmental history of Petromyzon (from 
Trans. Upper Hess. Soc. Nat. and Med.). Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, xL 

H. S. Thomas. Report on pisciculture in South Canara, 1870. 
Presented by the Author. 

Reptiles aot Batbachia : — 

J. Anderson. On Manouria and Scapia, two genera of Land- 
tortoises, woodcuts. — On some Persian, Himalayan, and other rep- 
tiles, woodcuts. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872 ; and separate copies of the 
papers presented by the Author. — On Trionyx giganUu*. Ann. 
Nat. Hist Ser. 4, x. 

F. Bocourt. New Saurians from South America. Nouv. Archiv. 
Mas. Paris, vi. — Some new Oerrhonotes from Mexico and Central 
America. Ibid. vii. 

E. Brandt. On the ductus caroticus of the AUigator lucius sive 
mississipensis. Bull. Acad. Imp. So. Petersburg, xvii. 

O. Cartier. Studies on the finer structure of the skin of Reptiles, 
2 plates. Trans. Phys. Med. Soc. Wurzburg, Ser. 2, iii. 

J. J. Cooper. Geographical distribution of the fauna of Cali- 
fornia. Proc. Acad. Sc. California, iv. 

E. D. Cope. Herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sc. Philadelphia, 1871. 

A. Duges. A new Axolotl, 1 plate. Ann. Sc. Nat. Zool. Ser. 5, 
xv. 

Th. Einer. Researches on the eggs of Reptiles. Archiv mikrosk. 
Anat. viii. 

J. Fayrer. The Thanatophidia of India ; a description of the 
venomous Snakes of the Indian Peninsula, folio, 31 plates. Pre- 
sented by the Author. 

J. v. Fischer. Staurotypus martnoratus, a new species, 1 plate. 
Wiegm. Archiv, xxxviii. 

A. Grandidier. New Reptiles from Madagascar. Ann. Sc. Nat, 
ZooL Ser. 5, xv. 

J. E. Gray. Catalogue of Shield-Reptiles in the British Museum, 
with a Supplement and woodcuts. Presented by the Author. — On 
the genus Chelymys and its allies from Australia, 3 plates, woodcuts. 



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LDOnSAK SOCIETY OF LONDON. lix 

— A new Land-tortoise from Celebes. — On Actinemys marmorata, 
Lord, from British Columbia. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872.— On Ernys 
nigra from Upper California. On the genera Manouria and Sea pia. 
— On the Mud-tortoises of India. — On SpatuUmys Lasafa, a new 
genus of Hydraspidae from Bio Janeiro. Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, x. 
— Additional note on SpatuUmys Lamia. — On the bones of the 
sternum of Chelonians, 3 plates. — Observations on Chelonians. — 
Notes on Tortoises; — On a Freshwater Tortoise from Borneo. Ibid. 
xi. 

J. B. Greene. The poisonous snakes of India, 1 plate. Fop. Sc. 
Review, xii. 

A. Giinther. Two species of Hydrosaurus from the Philippine 
Islands, 2 plates. — On the Reptiles and Amphibians from Borneo, 
6 plates. — On two species of Hyla. — On the black Snake of Robber 
Island, South Africa. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872. — New Reptiles col- 
lected by J. Brenchley. Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, x. — Two new Austra- 
lian Frogs. — A new Saurian allied to Pseudapus. — A new snake 
from Madagascar. — On Ceratophrys and Megalaphrys. . Ibid. xi. 

A. Horvutb. On the effect of cold on Frogs and their muscles. 
Trans. Phys. Med. Soc Wuraburg, Ser. 2, iv. 

J. Jullien. On the respiration of Psammodromi (from the Comptes 
Rendus). Ann. Nat. Hist Ser. 4, xi. 

C. Koch. Forms and metamorphosis of the ecaudate Batrachia 
of the Lower Main and Lahn. Rep. Senckenb. Nat. Hist Soc. 
Frankfort, 1871-72. 

F. Leydig. On the organs of sense in Snakes, 2 plates. Archiv 
mikrosk. Anat. viii. 

W. C. H. Peters. On the Batrachians collected by Spix in Brazil. 
— On some Amphibia collected by Dr. A. B. Meyer in Gorontalo and 
on the Togia islands. — On a collection of Batrachia from Neu 
Friburg, in Brazil. — A new Lizard discovered by Dr. Meyer in Luzon. 
— New Batrachians and Saurians, 1 plate. — On Hydrus fasciatus, 
Schneider, and other marine Snakes. Proc. (Monatsber.) R. Acad. Sc 
Berlin, 1872. — Reptiles collected by Wahlberg in Damara Land. 
Proc R. Swed. Acad. Sc Stockholm, xxvi. 

A. Saunders. On the myology of LioUpis Belli, woodcuts. Proc 
Zool. Soc, 1872. 

J. Shortt. TheTuckatoo and Bish Eopra, 1 plate. Presented by 
the Author. 

F. Stoliczka. Notes on Indian Lizards, 2 plates. Journ. Asiat. 
Soc Bengal. 1872. — NewReptilia and Amphibia from North-western 



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IX PROCEEDINGS OF IHI 

Punjab. — New Reptilia and Amphibia from Kachh. — On Burmese 
Reptilia. Proc. Asiat. Soc Bengal, 1872. 

F. H. Troechel. Report on the contributions to Herpetology for 
1871. ' Wiegm. Archiv, xxxviiL 

Cettstacba and Abachkida : — 

— Balbiani. On the development of Phalangida, 2 plates. Aon. 
8c. Nat. Zool. Ser. 5, xvi. 

E. van Beneden. On the development of GregarinsB (from Journ. 
Zool.) Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4. x. 

R. Bergh. On an Aplysia from Greenland. Trans. ZooL Bofc. 
Soc. Vienna, xxiL 

P. Bertkau. On the organs of respiration in Araneee, 1 plate. 
Wiegm. Archiv, xxxviii. 

G. S. Brady. Non-parasitic marine Copepoda of the North-east 
coast of England, 5 plates. Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb. and 
Durham, iv., also Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, x. with 2 plates. 

F. Brauner. Contributions to the knowledge of Phyllopoda. 
Proc. Imp. Acad. Sc. Vienna, lxv. 

A. J. Butler. OonyUpUs, list of species, and descriptions of new- 
ones. Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, xi. 

0. P. Cambridge. On British Spiders, 3 plates. Trans. linn. 
Soc. xxviii. — Spiders of Palestine and Syria, 4 plates. — Twenty-four 
new species of Erigone, 2 plates. Proc ZooL Soc 1872. — A new 
family and genus and two new species of Thelyphonidsa, 1 plate. — 
On the habits and distribution of Lycosa inyens. Ann. Nat. Hist. 
Ser. 4, x. 

C. dans. On the male of the genus Limnadia, On the natural 
history of Froneina sedentaria, Forsk. — On the structure and de- 
velopment of Apus and Branchipus. Proc. (Nachr.) R. Soc Sc 
Gbttingen, 1872. — On the structure and systematic place of NebaXia, 
1 plate; and the first two of the above papers repeated, with 4 plates. 
Zeitschr.wis8.Zool.xxii. — New observations on Cypridina. Ibid.xxiii. 

E. D. Cope. Crustacea' and insects from the Wyandotte cave, 
woodcuts. Amer. Naturalist, 1872. 

W. H. Dall. Three new parasitical Crustacea (from Proc Califonu 
Acad.) Ann. Nat Hist Ser. 4, xi 

E. Ehlers. On the Sarcoptida, parasites on Birds, 2 pistes. 
Zeitschr. wise Zool. xxiii. 

0. Grimm. On the reproduction and development of Arthropods. 
Mem. Imp. Acad. Sc. Petersburg, Ser. 7, xvii. 



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LFNNKAN SOCIETY OP LONDON. lxi 

A. W. M. van Hasselt. On the Eresus anmdatui, Hahn. — On the 
copulation of the smallest species of Spiders. Archiv. Ne*erl. vii. 

— Hesse.. Bare and new Crustacea of the coasts of France, 2 
plates. Ann. 8c. Nat. Zool. Ser. 5, xv. 

N. and £. Joly. A supposed Crustacean on which Latreille formed 
his genus Prosopistoma, and which is a true hexapod insect, 1 plate. 
Ann. 8c. Nat. ZooL 8er. 5, xvi. 

C. L. Koch. Arachniden, 16 "vols., 1831 to 1848; and the 
Arachnid family Drassicte, parts 1 to 7. Purchased. — On the 
Arachnida of the Canary Islands. Rep. Senckenb. Nat Hist. Soc. 
Frankfort, 1871-72. 

R. Kossmann. On the anatomy of parasitic Crustacea, 3 plates. 
Trans. Phya. Med. Soc. Wiirzb. Ser. 2, iii. 

B. T. Lowne. Notes on the development of the nervous system 
of the Annulosa, £ plate. MonthL Microec. Journ. viiL 

A. W. Malm. Two. new Amphipoda from the Bohus Land, 1 
plate. Proa R. Swed. Acad. Stockholm, xxvii. 

£. v. Martens. The Cuban Crustacea in the collection of J. 
Gundlach, 2 plates. Wiegm. Archiv, xxxviii. 

A. Milne-Edwards. Revision of the genus Cattianassa. Nouv. 
Archiv. Mas. Par. vi. — New freshwater . Crabs from Madagascar. 
Ann. 8c. Nat. Zool. Ser. 5, xv. — Anatomical investigations of the 
Limtda. Ann. Nat Hist. Ser. 4, xi. 

J. T. Moggridge. Trap-door Spiders (with Harvesting Ants). 
Presented by the Author. 

C. J. Neumann. The Hydrachnida of West Gothland, with de- 
scriptions of new species. Proa R. Swed. Acad. Stockholm, xxvii. 

H. A. Nicholson. Animals dredged in Lake Ontario, 1872. 
Canad. Journ. 8c., Montreal, xiii. 

A. M. Norman. On the discovery of Ligidiwn agile, Pers. Ann. 
Nat Hist Ser. 4, xi. , 

R. Owen. On the anatomy of the King-crab, IAtnului polyphemu$ f 
Latr. 4 platea Trans. linn. Soc. xxviii. 

A. S. Packard, jun. Bristle-tails and Spring-tails. Plates and 
woodcuts. Amer. Naturalist, 1871. 

F. Plateau. On Belgian Myriapods. Presented by the Author. 

F. Pollock. On the habits of some Madeiran Spiders. Ann. Nat 
Hist Ser. 4, x. 

C. 0. v. Porath. Results of a zoological tour in Scania and Bleking 
in 1868. Proc. R. Swed. Acad. Stockholm, xxvi. — Some Myriapods 
from the A cores. Ibid, xxvii. 



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lxii PB0CEEDING8 OF THE 

C. Semper. On the genus Leudfer, 1 plate. Zeitsohr. wise. 
ZooL xxii. 

— y. Siebold. On parthenogenesis in Arthropods. Proe. R. 
Bavar. Acad. 8c. Munich, 1871. 

C. Simon. New or little-known South-European Araohnida. 
Mem. Soc. R. Sc liege, Ser. 2, iii. 

W. Stimpeon. Notes on North American Crustacea, Ann. Lye. 
Nat. Hist New York. x. 

T. H. Streets. Five new Crustacea from Mexico. — Catalogue of 
Crustacea from the Isthmus of Panama. Proc. Acad. Nat. 8c. 
Philadelphia, 1871. — Notice of some Crustacea from the Island of 
St. Martin. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, 1872. 

A. Stuxherg. Contributions to Scandinavian Myriapodology. 
Proc. R. Swed. Acad. Stockholm, xxvii. 

T. ThorelL Remarks on synonyms of European Spiders. Pre- 
sented by the Author. — New Holland Aranea. Proc. R. Swed. Acad. 
Stockholm, xxvii. 

C. Yogt. On Branchipus and Artemia (from Archiv. Sc. Bibl. 
Genev.). Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, x. 

R. v. Willemoes-Suhm. On a new genus of Amphipodous Crus- 
tacea. Proc. R. Soc. xxi. 

Entomology : — 

— Balbiani. On the generation of Aphides, 2 plates. Ann. Sc* 
Nat. Zool. Ser. 5, xv. 

H. W. Bates. Observations on the longicorn Coleoptera of Tropical 
America. Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, xi. 

T. Beling. The metamorphosis of Bhyphuspunctatus and R.fme$- 
tratus. Wiegm. Archiv, xxxviii. — Three new species of Sciara. — On 
the dipterous genera Bibio and Dilophus. Trans. Zool.-Bot. Soc, 
Vienna, xxii. • 

J. Bold. Hemiptera Heteroptera of Northumberland and Durham 
Nat. Hist Trans. Northumb. and Durh. iv. 

0. de Bourmeister-Radoszowsky. Supplement to Gerstoecker's 
article on Hymenoptera in 1869, 1 plate. Bull. Soc Imp. Nat. 
Moscow, 1872. 

A. G. Butler. Synonymic list of the species of the old genus 
Puris. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872. — A new genus of heterocerous Lepi- 
doptera, 1 plate. — Monograph of the genus Thclyphonus. — On CW- 
nodus Sommeri and Tarsolepi* remicauda. — New Myriopoda of the 
family Glomerid©. Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, x. 



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LINNBAK SOCIETY OF LOJTDON. lxHi 

F. Chapuis. Synopsis of Scolytidae. Mem. Soc. R. 8c. liege, 
Ser. 2, iii. 

Baron do Ghaudoir. Observations on some genera of Scarabidae, 
with descriptions of new species. BvJL Soc Imp. Nat. Moscow, 
1872. 

C. Clans. On sterile bee-eggs. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool. xxiii. 

£. D. Cope. Insects from the Wyandotte Cave, woodcuts. Amer, 
Naturalist, 1872. 

A. Costa. A new Coccus and some Blattidae, 1 plate. Trans. R. 
Acad. 8c. Naples, iii. — On the secretion of honey-dew from the leaves 
of Bosa Banksias. Proc. R. Acad. 8c. Naples, 1867. 

E. Delessert. On autophagy in Caterpillars. Bull. Soc. Vaud. 
8c Nat. Lausanne, Ser. 2, xi. 

— Berber. On the Aphidiae of Pistaeia Terebinthus. Ann. Sc Nat. 
ZooL Ser. 5, zv. 

O. J. F&hraus. Coleoptera of Caffraria collected by Wahlberg. 
Proc. R. Swed. Acad. Stockholm, xxvii. 

G. v. Frauenfeld. Zoological Miscellanies. — On Phylloxera va&- 
tairuc. Trans. Zool.-Bot. Soc Vienna, xxii. 

A. Fuchs. Observations on Lepidoptera* Journ. (Jahrb.) Nat. 
Hist. Soc. Nassau, Wiesbaden, xxv., xxvi. 

Y. Gruber. On the blood-corpuscles of insects, 1 plate. Proc 
Imp. Acad. Sc. Vienna, lxiv. — Preliminary report on the propulsa- 
tory apparatus of insects, 1 plate Ibid. bcv. 

A. R. Grote. Four papers on North American Moths. Bull. Soc. 
Nat. Sc. Buffalo, i. 

A. Guenee. Note on divers Lepidoptera of the Geneva Museum, 
1 plate. Mem. Soc Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneva, xxi. 

M. Haliday. A new Curculionida. Ann. Soc linn. Lyons, 
xviii. 

C. Heinemann. On the organs of light in luminous beetles of 
Vera Cru«. Archiv mikrosk. Anat. viii. 

L. v. Heyden. Report on the insects collected in Teneriffe by Dr. 
Noll and Dr. Grenacher. Rep. Senckenb. Nat. Hist Soc. Frankfort, 
1871-72. 

D. F. Heynemann. On the French species of Oeomalacus. Ann. 
Nat. Hist. Ser. 4. xi. 

J. H. Hochhuth. Enumeration of Beetles found in the Govern- 
ments of Kiew and Yolhynia. Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow, 1872, 

a. 

A. E. Holmgren. Contributions to the insect-fauna of Bear 



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lxiv PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Island and Spitsbergen. Trans. R. Swed. Acad. Stockholm, Ser. 2, 
viii. 

E. Joly. On the first state of Palingenia Raselii, 1 plate. — On a 
supposed Crustacean of which Latreille made the genus Proaopistoma. 
Mem. Soc. 8c. Nat Cherbourg, xvi (the latter paper also Ann. 8c. 
Nat. ZooL Ser. 5, xvi., with 1 plate). — On a new case of hypterme- 
tamorphosis. established in Pdlingema Virgo in the state of larva. 
Ann. Sc. Nat. Zool. Ser. 5, xv. 

J. M. Jones. On Nova-Scotian diurnal Lepidoptera. Trans. 
Nov. Scot Instit Nat. Sc. Halifax, iii. 

W. R. Kirby. On the geographical distribution of diurnal Lepi- 
doptera as compared with that of Birds. Journ. linn. Soc. Zool. xi. 
55. — On the species of Saturnida or ocellated Silkworm-moths in the 
collection of the Royal Dublin Society, Journ R. Soc Dublin, vi. 

C. Koch. Two new Asilida. Trans. Zool.-Bot. Soc. Vienna, xxii. 

C. Kraepelin. Researches on the structure, mechanism, and de- 
velopment of the sting of bee-like insects, 2 plates. Zeitschr. wias. 
Zool. xxiii. 

H. Landois. On the organs of German Grasshoppers analogous 
to the so-called sound-apparatus of Cicade®, 1 plate. Zeitschr. 
wiss. ZooL xxii. 

J. L. Leconte. On Platypsyllid©, a new family of Coleoptera. 
Proc Zool. Soc. 1872. 

J. Leidy. On a mite in the ear of an Ox. Proc. Acad* Nat Sc. 
Philadelphia, 1872. 

E. de Selys-Longchamps. Synopsis of Cordulinfe. BulL R. Acad. 
Sc. Belg. Brussels, Ser. 2, xxxi. 

T. Low. On Diaspis Visci, Schrenck, 1 plate. Trans. Zool.- 
Bot Soc. Vienna, xxii. 

J. Lubbock. On the origin and metamorphosis of Insects. 
Nature, viii. 

H. Lucas. Madagascar Lepidoptera of the genera Charcucet and 
Cydigramma. Ann. Sc. Nat Zool. Ser. 5, xv. 

F. M'Coy. On the appearanoe in Australia oiDanait ArMppus. 
Ann. Nat. Hist Ser. 4, xi. 

R. H c Lachlan. Instructions for the collection and preservation 
of Neuropterous Insects. Presented by the Author. — On some 
Phryganid® and a Chrysopa. BulL Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow, 1872, 
ii.— Catalogue of British Neuroptera. Trans. En torn. Soc. iv. 

B. P. Mann. The white Coffee-leaf-miner in Brasfl, woodcute. 
Amer. Naturalist, 1872. 



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LDcmux society or lojtdox. lxv 

J. Mann. Seven new Microleptdoptera. Trans. ZooL-Bot Soe. 
Vienna, xxiL 

— Marey. On the flight of Insects and Birds. Ann. 8c. Nat 
ZooL Ser. 5, zt. 

8. A. de Marseul Monograph of Mylabrid®, 6 plates. Menu 
Soc R. 8c. Liege, Ser. 2, iiL 

J. A. Marshall. Catalogue of British Chrysidicto, IchneuiBonidje, 
Braconidss, and Evanidc. Trans. Entom. Soc. iv. 

6. Mayr. The occupiers of the Oak-galls of Central Europe 
Trans. ZooL-Bot Soc Vienna, xxii 

P. IGlHere. New Caterpillars and Lepidoptera, 8 plates. Ann. 
Soc linn. Lyons, xviiL 

J. T. Moggridgc Harresting Ants and Trapdoor Spiders, 8yc 
Presented by the Author. 

O. Mohnicke. The Cetonida of the Philippine Islands, 6 plates. 
Wiegm. Archiv, xxxix. 

F. Moore. New Indian Lepidoptera, 3 plates. Proc ZooL Soc 
1872. 

F. Morawitx. Contribution to the Bee-fauna of Germany. Trans. 
ZooL-Bot Soc Vienna, xxii. 

V. Motschoulsky. New Coleoptera. Bull. Soc Imp. Nat. Moscow, 
1872, iL 

A. Mueller. On the manner in which the ravages of the larvae of 
a NemoUu on Sdlix em§rea are checked by Picnmerug bidm*. Pre- 
sented by the Author. — On a Chinese Artichoke-gall Journ. linn. 
Soc ZooL xL 

£. Mulsant Monograph of the tribe of Gibhieolla, 14 plates. 
Ann. Soc Imp. Agric Lyons, 1868. — Of the tribe of LameDicornia. 
Ibid. 1869. 

E. Mulsant and A. Oodard. New Coocinellida, Coleoptera, Ac. 
Ann. 8oc linn. Lyons, xviii 

E. Mulsant and — Iichtenstein. On the metamorphosis of Vtt- 
perus XaUtrtH, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyons, xviiL 

E. Mulsant and — Pellet A new Buprestida. Ann. Soc Linn. 
Lyons, xviii. 

E. Mulsant and C. Bey. New Coleoptera, a new Pentanomida, 
and new Lygece, Aphodus, and other insects. Ann . Soc. Linn. Lyons, 
xviii. — Natural History of the Bugs of France. Mem. Acad. 8c 
Lyons, xviii. 

E. Mulsant and Valery-Maset On Pdcpcnu qnmfor. Ann. Soc 
linn. Lyons, xviii. 

mm. rnoc. — Session 1872-73. h 



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lxvi PBOCBBDIKGS 07 THE 

A. 8. Packard, jun. Beoord of American Entomology for 1870. 
Presented by the Peabody Academy of Science. — Embryological 
studies on Diplax perithemis and the Thysanurous genua Igotoma, 

3 plates ; and on Hexapodous Insects, 3 plates. Mem. Peabod. Acad. 
8c. Salem, i. — New American Moths. Rep. Peabod. Acad. Sc. Salem, 
1871. — Embryology of Ckrysopa. — Crustaceans and Insects of the 
Mammoth Cave, woodcuts. Amer. Naturalist, 1871. 

F. P. Pasooe. Contributions towards a knowledge of Curculionidse, 

4 plates. Journ. Linn. Soc. ZooL xi. — Australian Curculionid®, 1 
plate. Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, x., xi. — New genera and species of 
Coleoptera, 1 plate. Ibid. x. 

F. Plateau. What is the wing of an Insect ? — Physico-chemical 
researches on aquatic Articulata. — On the mode of adherence of the 
male to the female Dytiscidae during copulation. — On Belgian Myri- 
opoda. Presented by the Author. — Experimental researches on the 
position of the centre of gravity in Insects. Ann. Nat Hist Ser. 4, x. 

A. Preudhomme de Borre. Catalogue of a small collection of 
larva-sheaths of Bavarian Phryganids3 (from Bull. Soc. Entom. Belg.). 
Presented by the Author. 

L. Quaedvlieg. An anomaly in ffestia Bella, West (from BulL 
Soc. Ehtom. Belg.). Presented by the Author. 

E. Reitter. Revision of the European species of MeUgethei, 8 
plates. Trans. Nat Hist Soc. Briinn, ix. 

P. M. Renter. Synopsis of Swedish Berytidse. Proc. R. Swed. 
Acad. Stockholm, xxvii. 

C. R. Riley. On the grape-disease (PJiylloxera). Amer. Natu- 
ralist, 1872. 

C. Ritsema. On Crmodes Sommeri and Tarsolepis remioauda. 
Ann. Nat Hist. Ser. 4, x. 

A. Bossier. On some Microlepidoptera found in gardens. Journ. 
(Jahrb.) Nat. Hist Soc. Nassau, Wiesbaden, xxv. & xxvL 

J. van Rossum. On the liquid of the lame of Citnbex. Archiv. 
Neerl. vii. 

G. W. Royston-Pigott On the spherules which compose the ribs 
of the scales of the Red-Admiral Butterfly. Monthl. Microsc 
Journ. ix. 

M. Rupertsberger. Contributions to the life-history of beetles. — 
Two new larvae of Carabida. Trans. Zool.-Bot Soc. Vienna, xxii. 

J. R. Schiner. Entomological Miscellanies. Trans. ZooL-Bot. 
Soc. Vienna, xxii. 

S. H. Scudder. Systematic revision of some of the American 
Butterflies. Rep. Peabod. Acad. Sc. Salem, 1871. 



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umnsAjv society op lokdon. Ixtm 

F. Smith. Catalogue of British Hymenoptera aculeata. Trans. 
Entom. 8oc. iv. — New fossorial Hymenoptera. Ann. Nat. Hist. 
8er. 4, xi. 

C. StaL The hemipteroos species of Fabricius determined and 
described from specimens preserved at Copenhagen and Kiel. Trans. 
R. Swed. Acad. Stockholm, vii., viii. — Enumeration of all hitherto 
known Hemiptera. Ibid. vii. — Contributions to the knowledge of 
Membraciderna. Proc. R. Swed. Acad. Stockholm, xxvi. — The 
Hemiptera of the Philippine Islands, 3 plates. Ibid. xxviL 

O. 8taudinger. Three new Austrian Lepidoptera. Trans. ZooL- 
Bot. 8oc Vienna, zzii. 

E.Suffrian. Gundlach's Cuban Curculionida (continued). Wiegm. 
Arehiv, xzxii. 

J. G. Tatem. Notes on new Acarelli, \ plate. Monthl. Microsc. 
Jounu viiL 

C. Thomas. Contributions to Orthopterology. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
8c Philadelphia, 1871. 

C. Tschek. On some Cryptoicto, chiefly of the Austrian fauna. 
Trans. ZooL-Bot. Soc. Vienna, xxii. 

F. Walker. Catalogue of Hemiptera Homoptera in the British 
Museum, part 5. Presented by the Museum. 

H. D. J. Wallengren. Entomological notes. Proc. R. Swed. Acad. 
Stockholm, xxvii 

P. C. Zeller. On North-American Microlepidoptera, 2 plates. 
Trans. Zooi-Bot. Soc. Vienna, xxii. 

Hone of the Entomological Society of Russia, Petersburg, viii. 
no. 3 to ix. no. 2. — Entomologische Zeitung, of the Entomological 
Society of Stettin, 1869 to 1872.— Journal (Tijdschrifb) of the 
Netherlands Entomological Society, Leyden, Ser. 2, vii. parts 1-6. — 
Annals of the Entomological Society of Belgium, Brussels, xv. — 
Transactions of the Entomological Society of N. S. Wales, ii. part 4. 
— Canadian Entomologist, Ontario, iii. part 7, to v. part 4. Pre- 
sented by Mr. Reeks. — Transactions of the Entomological Society, 

1872, parts 3-5. — Entomologist's Monthly Magasine, July 1872 to 
June 1873. Presented by the Editors. — Entomologist, nos. 112-117 
(1873). Presented by Mr. Newman. — Entomologist's Annual for 

1873. Presented by Mr. Stainton. — Papers respecting Phylloxera 
vaMairix. Presented by Dr. Hooker. 

Mollusca : — 

H. Adams. New shells collected in the Red Sea by R. M c Andrew, 

h2 



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lxviii PBOCKKDIKOB OP THB 

and fourteen new marine or land-shells, 1 plate. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1872. 

G. F. Angas. Ten new land and marine shells, 1 plate. — A new 
Vohda, 1 plate. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872. 

J. Bland. A new species of Mollnsca of the genus Helicina. Ann . 
Lye. Nat. Hist New York, x. 

J. Bland and W. G. Binney. Notes on the genus Pintria. — lin- 
gual dentition of Hdix ttirbiniformis and other terrestrial Mollusca, 
1 plate. — On the systematic arrangement of North-American terres- 
trial Mollusca. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, x. — On the lingual 
dentition of certain species of North- American land-shells. Proc 
Acad. Nat. 8c. Philadelphia, 1872. 

W. T. Blanford. Monograph of Himalayan and other Indian 
CknmluB. Journ. Asiat Soc Bengal, 1872. 

J. Brazier. Some new land and marine shells from the Solomon 
Islands, Western Polynesia, and Australia, \ plate. — Observations on 
the habits of certain Volutes. — List of Cypraeid© found on the coast 
of New South Wales. — Three new marine shells from Australia, 1 
plate. — Six new land-shells from Australia. — On Australian land- 
shells.— On CassididsB of the coast of New South Wales. Proc 
Zool. Soc 1872. 

H. R. Carlton. Shells of Antioch and vicinity. — Shells of Truckee 
river and vicinity. Proc. Acad. Sc California, iv. 

T. A. Conrad. Descriptions of new species of Olycimeris from 
North Carolina. Proc. Acad. Nat Sc. Philadelphia, 1872. 

J. G. Cooper. Freshwater univalves of the West Coast — Shells 
of the western slope of North America. Proc Acad. Sc. California* 
iv. — New Californian Pulmonata. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, 
1872. 

A. Costa. Two genera of Nudibranchiate Mollusca, 1 plate. 
Trans. B. Acad. Sc. Naples, iii. 

£. Coues. Notes on the Natural-History of Fort Macon and its 
vicinity. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, 1871. 

J. C. Cox. New land-shells from Australia and the South-8ea 
Islands, i plate. Proc. ZooL Soc 1872. 

W. H. Dall. Notes on Californian Mollusca. Proc Acad. Sc. 
California, iv. ; repeated in Ann. Nat Hist. Ser. 4, xi. 

G. P. Deshayes. New terrestrial and freshwater Mollusca from 
East Thibet Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Paris, vi., vii. 

P. Fischer. Revision of the species of Pagrtnufo, 1 plate. Nouv. 
Archiv. Mus. Paris, vii. 



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LnnrsAji society of London. brix 

W. Fleming. Anatomy of the feelers of land-snails, and on the 
necrology of Mollusca, 1 plate. Zeitechr. wiss. Zool. xxii. 

W. M. Gabb. Description of some new genera of Mollusca. Proc 
Acad. Nat 8c. Philadelphia, 1872. 

R. Garner. On the formation of British pearls, and their possible 
improvement Journ. linn. Soc. Zool. xi. 

A. Garritt New shells from the South-Sea Islands. Proc. Acad. 
So. California, iv. — Mitridie collected at Rarotonga, Cook's Island. — 
New shells from the South-Sea Islands. Proc Zool. Soc. 1872. 

H. H. Godwin-Austen. New Indian land and freshwater shells, 
1 plate. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872. 

E. Grube. The Planaria of the Baikal Region, 2 plates. Wiegm. 
Arohiv, xxxviii. 

E. T. Higgins. New shells discovered by Mr. Buckley in Ecuador, 
1 plate. Proc Zool. Soc 1872. 

J. G. Jeffreys. The Mollusca of Europe compared with those of 
Eastern North America. Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, x. 

W. Kobelt Mollusca-fauna of Nassau, 9 plates. Journ. (Jahrb.) 
Nat Hist Soc Nassau, Wiesbaden, xxv. & xxvi. 

P. Langerhans. The development of the Gasteropoda (Opistho- 
branehia), 1 plate. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool. xxiii. 

J. Lea. Three new species of exotic Unionidsa. — Twenty new 
species of United-States Unionid®. Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Phila- 
delphia, 1871. — Twenty-nine species of United-States Unionid®. 
Ibid. 1872. 

J. Lewis. Shells of Herkimer and adjacent counties. — Shells of 
Tennessee. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc Philadelphia 1872. 

C. M. Maplestone. Notes on Victorian Mollusca and their palates, 
3 plates. MonthL Microsc. Journ. viii. 

A. Metzger. The inarticulate marine animals of the East Fries- 
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H. N. Moseley. Anatomy and histology of the land Planarians of 
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H. A. Nicholson. Animal* dredged in Lake Ontario, 1872. 
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P. Panceri. On the organs of secretion of sulphuric acid in 
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of Alciopidae, parasites on Oydippe densa. — On the salivary organs 
of Dolivtm and other Mollusca. Proc. R. Acad. So. Naples. 

T. Prime. Notes on Corbiculadae in the cabinet of the Jardin des 
Plantes, Paris. Ann. Lye Nat. Hist New York, x. 



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lxx proceedings of the 

L. Reeve. Conchologia Iconioa, n. 293-303. Purchased. 

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M. Sicard. On the connexion between the nervous system and 
the muscular system in Helices (from the Comptes Rendus). Ann. 
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£. A. Smith. On a few species of Terebricto. — A new Vitrina. 
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A. Solbreg. On the finer structure of the nerve-element in Gas- 
teropoda. Trans. K. Acad. Sc. Munich, 1872. 

R. £. Stearns. On the distribution of American species of Cyprae- 
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F. Stoliczka. Land-shells of Penang. — Postscript to the mono- 
graph of Himalayan Clausilitt, 2 plates. Journ. Asiat Soc. Bengal, 
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W. Theobald and F. Stoliczka. Notes on Burmese and Arakanese 
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G. W. Tryon, jun. Catalogue and synonyms of recent species of 
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Sc. Philadelphia, 1872. 

L. Vaillant. On the species of the genera Vermetus, Serpula, and 
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A. E. YerriU. On Mr. Jeffrey's Mollusca of Europe and North 
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C. A. Westerland. Critical enumeration of the terrestrial and 
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American Journal of Conchology, vL part 4, to vii, part 4. 

Journal de Conchyliologie, Serie 3, xi. no. 4, xii & xiii. noa. 
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Malakosoologische Blatter, xviii. Sh. 7-15, xix. & xx. 

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A. Agassis. Revision of the Echini, 49 plates. Dlustr. Cat. 
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G. J. Allman. Monograph of Gymnoblastic or Tubularian 
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T. Bakpdy. On the complicated presence of Trichina spiralis in 
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H. C. Bastian. Note on the origin of Bacteria. — On the tempe- 
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J. S. Bowerbank. Contributions to a general history of Spongiadse, 
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O. Biitschli. Free and parasitic Nematodes in their mutual rela- 
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H. T. Carter. Spongozoon, a proposed name for the Sponge- 
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Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, x. — Transformation of an entire shell into 
chitinous structure by the polype Hydractxma, and descriptions of 
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J. Dana. Corals and Coral Islands, 8vo. Purchased. 

H. Davis. A new CaUidina, and the result of experiments on 
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G. P. Deshayes. On a living Encrinus presented to the Museum. 
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P. M. Duncan. On Madreporaria dredged up during the Expe- 
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C. G. Ehrenberg. Micrologics! studies on the microscopic life in 
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T. Eimer. Researches on the thread-cells and semen in marine 
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G. Eisen. Contributions to the»01igochaBtan fauna of Scandinavia, 
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1872. McyereUa, a new netted Sponge from the Philippine Islands. 
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N. A. Grebnitzky. Parasites, Cestodes, and Trematodes of the 
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T. Hincks. On the hydroid Lar Sabellarum, Gosse, and its re- 
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F. W. Hutton. New Star-fishes from New Zealand. Proc. Zool. 
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W. E. Kent. On Tettya muricata, Bowerb., and DorviXUa agari- 
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C. Kupffer. The development of simple Ascidia, 1 plate. Archiv 
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E. R. Lankester. Summary of zoological observations made at 
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C. Lespes. Anatomy of a Chsetopterus, 1 plate. Ann. Sc. Nat. 
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T. R. Lewes. On a Hannatosoon inhabiting human blood. — 
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producing cholera. Presented by the author. 

O. v. Iinstow. On self-fecundation in Trematodes, part plate. — 
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J. Lockwood. A newEntozoon from the EeL Amer. Naturalist, 
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8. Loven. Hyponome Sarsii, a new living Echinoderm of the 
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C. Lutken. ArUipatKes arctica, a new black coral. Ann. Nat. 
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T. Lyman. On the Ophiurid© and Euryalse in the Museum of 
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B. L. Maddox. On an Entozoon with ova in the muscles of a 
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A. Metzger. The inarticulate marine animals of the east Fries- 
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S. Miklos. Millio'-eves filet. A million years' life. Presented 
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H. A. Nicholson. Animals dredged in Lake Ontario, 1872. 
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H. Nitsche. On the development and morphology of Bryozoa. 
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P. Owsiannikoff. A new parasite in the eggs of the Sturgeon. 
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P. PanoerL Two new Polypi (Cladaetis Costa and Haloampa 
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W. K. Parker and T. Bupert Jones. On the nomenclature of the 
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W. T. Botch. A new genus and species of hydroid zoophytes. 
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0. Schmidt. On Coccoliths and Rhabdoliths, 2 plates. Ann. 
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C. Semper. On the genus Temnocephala, 1 plate. On Trocho- 
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C. Stewart. On the calcareous parts of the sucking feet of an 
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N. Wagner. On Myxobrachia Cienkawskii. Bull. Acad. Imp. 
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J. G. Walker. Observations on freshwater Sponges. Journ. 
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M. E. Zeller. On the structure of the proboscis of an hermaphrodite 
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C. C. Babington. Notes on Potamogetons. Journ. Bot. 1872. 

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J. H. Balfour. On the Ipecacuanha plant, 2 plates. Trans. R. 
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A. W. Bennett. Notes on Indian Sunarnbes. Pharmac. Journ. 
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G. Bentham. On the classification and geographical distribution 
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L. A. Bernays, of Brisbane. The Olive and its products. Pre- 
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A. Blyth. On the vegetation on the Fjord of Banen and adjacent 
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0. Bockeler. The Cyperaceae of the Berlin Herbarium. LinnsBa, 
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E. Boissier. Flora Orientalis, ii. Purchased. 

H. N. Bolander. The genus Mdica in California. — The genus 
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J. Britten. List of Lincolnshire plants. Presented by the 
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L. Celakowsky. Remarks on Crucifere. flora, 1872. On Cau- 
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V. Cesati. On Saxifraga florulenta, Moretti, 1 plate. Trans. R. 
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E. Cosson. Note on Euphorbia resinifera, Berg., with observations 
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F. Crepin. Materials for a history of Roses, part 2. Bull. Soe* 
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W. T. Dyer. Determination of three Indian Ternstroemiaoese, 
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A. W. Eichler. Remarks on the flowers of Cruciferra. Flora, 
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A. Engler. Flora Brasiliensis Olacinese, Icacineae, and Zygo- 
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A. Ernst. Sertulum Naiguatense. Journ. Bot. 1872. 

E. v. Freyhold. On Peloria in Tropasolum aduncum, 1 plate. 
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T. M. Fries. On the phanerogamic flora of Spitsbergen, 6 plates. 
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M. Gaudoger. Nineteen species of Oraimgus. Bull. Soc. Bot 
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A. Gray. A new Erythronium, woodcut. Amer. Naturalist, 
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F. Hanoe. A new Iris. — A new Chinese Spathodea. Journ. Bot 
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A. Hardy. Monograph of Belgian Elatinn. Bull. Soc. Bot. 
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C. Haussknecht. Saxifraga decipiens, Ehrh., aud its hybrids 
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W. P. Hiern. Monograph of Ebenaoese, 11 plates. 4to. Pre- 
sented by the Author. — Physotrichia, a new genus of Umbeilifene, 
from tropical Africa, 1 plate. Journ. Bot 1873. 

F. Hlldebrandt. On the meant of dispersion ot the fruits of 
Gramme*. Bot Zeit 1872. 

H. Hoffmann. On the fruits of Baphanus, 1 plate. Bot Zeit 
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J. D. Hooker and others. Flora of British India, part 1. — Icones 
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A. Kellogg. A new Oalifornian Dieentra. — On LUiwm Eloomtri- 
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California, iv. 

J. W. N. Keys. Flora of Devon and Cornwall, continued in Ann. 
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J. W. Klatt On the genus Iris. Bot Zeit 1872.— On Primu- 
laceae. — On Composite and Iride© from Madagascar. Iinnea, 
xxxvu. 

C. Koch. Dendrologia, v. ii. Presented by the Author. 

F. Kornicke. Monograph of Bapateaceo, 1 plate. Linnaea, 
xxxviL 

S. Kurz. On Finns LatUri, Mason, from Birma. — Three new 
plants from Thibet. On Onetum. — On Inodapkms. — Two new 
Oaks. — A new Sckrebera from Central India. — A new Oironniera 
from Australia. Flora, 1872. — On Eranihemum datum. — Three 
new species of Parana. Journ. Bot 1873. — On Veratronia, Miq. 
Flora, 1873. — New Burmese Plants. Journ. Asiat Soc. Bengal, 
1872. 

J. Lange. New species described in the seed-catalogues of the 
Botanic Gardens, Copenhagen, 4 plates. Bot Tidschr. Copen- 
hagen, iv. — New or rare plante of the Banish flora, found 1869-71. 
Ibid. Ser. 2, i. 

Lemaout and Decaisne. General System of Botany, translated 
by Mrs. Hooker. 4to. Presented by Dr. Hooker. 

A. Iindemann. Supplemental sketch of the flora of Cherson. — 
Index of officinal plants of the Cherson flora. Mem. New Buss. 
Soc. Natural Odessa, L — Supplement to the florula of Elizabethgrad. 
Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow, 1872. 

F. Loscos and J. Pardo. Enumeration of Aragonese Plants (Serie 
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R. T. Lowe. Manual Flora of Madeira, completion of vol. i. 
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M. T. Masters. On the development of the androecium in CocKUo- 
stemma, 1 plate. Journ. Linn. Soc. xiii. 

C. J. Maximowicz. Tenth decade of Japanese and Manchurian 
plants. Bull. Acad. Imp. 8c. Petersburg, xvii. 

V. Meehaeff. On the symmetry of the flower in Cruciferse. 
Bull Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. 1872. 

— Miegeville. New Pyrenean Artemisia. Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 
xviii. 

S. Miklos. Karp&i-kepek. Carpathian forms of Vegetation. 
Presented by the author. 

J. Mueller; Arg. Euphorbiaceae of the Flora Brasiliensis, part 1, 
42 plates. Purchased. 

J. M. Norman. Phytogeographical notes on Arctic Norway. 
Proc. B. Swed. Acad. Stockholm, xxvii. 

A. S. (Ersted. Contributions to the knowledge of Cuputifene, 
9 plates. Mem. R. Dan. Soc. So. Copenhagen, Ser. 5, ix. 

— Paris. Additions to the Algerine Flora. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 
xviii. 

F. Parlatore. Flora Italians, v. part 1. Purchased. 

O. A. Pasquale. Flora Vesuviana. Trans. R. Acad. Sc. Naples, 
iii. — On an involute form of the cup of Querent Ilea:. Proc. R. 
Acad. So. Naples, 1869. 

H. J. Reichenbaoh. New Orchidese from Gustav Mann. Flora, 
1872. — Botanical notes, with descriptions of new species. — On the 
Condurango. Bot. Zeit. 1872. 

J. Bestafinski. Flore Polonic® Prodromus. Trans. ZooL-Bot. 
Soc. Vienna, xxii. 

C. Roger. On the subterranean system of the Lily. Bull. Soc. 
Bot. Ft. xix. 

W. W. Saunders. Refugium Botanicum, v. part 2. Presented 
by the Author. 

— Soharloch. On the trimorphous seeds of AtripUx nitem. Bot. 
Zeit. 1873. 

B. Seemann. Flora Vitiensis. 4to. Purchased. 

N. K. Sredinsky. Materials for the flora of Bessarabia, two 
papers. Mem. New-Russ.Soc. Nat. Odessa, L 

E. Strasburger. The Conifene and Gnetace©. Jena, 1872.—* 
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N. Terraciano. Enumeration of vascular plants of the Muro 
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T. Townsend. On the morphology of Carex. Journ. Bot. 1873. 

E. R. v. Trautvetter. Catalogue of plants collected by A. Lomo- 
nosow in Mongolia. — Plants collected by Capt Maloma in Turco- 
mania. Trans. Bot. Gard. Petersburg, i. 

J. Triana and J. E. Planchon. Prodromus of the flora of New 
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H. Trimen. Ranunculus chcerophyUos in Jersey, 1 plate. — 
Psamma baltiea as a British plant, 1 plate. Journ. Bot. 1872. — 
Juneus pygmctw, 1 plate. — Rumtx obtusifolius, 1 plate. Ibid. 
1873. 

W. Vatke. Labiate Abyssinictt. Linnaea, xxxvii. 

R. de Visiani. Flora Dalmatics supplementum, 10 plates. Mem. 
R. Instit. Venice, xvi. 

H. Wawra. Contributions to the Flora of the Hawaii islands. 
Flora, 1872-73. 

H. A. WeddelL Notes on Podostemaceae and their geographical 
distribution. Bull. Soc Bot. France, xix., and separate copy. Pre- 
sented by the author. 

J. D. Wetterhahn. On Plant-geography. Rep. Senckenb. Nat. 
Hist Soc. Frankfort, 1871-72. 

Botanical Magazine, July 1872 to June 1873. Purchased. 

Physiological and Miscellaneous Botany : — 

E. Aohenasy. On a new method of observing the growth of 
plantB. Flora, 1873. 

H. Airy. On leaf-arrangement. Proc. R. Soc. xad. 

J. Baranetsky. On the periodicity of bleeding in herbaceous 
plantB, and its causes. Bot. Zeit. 1873. 

A. W. Bennett. On spontaneous movements in plants. Pop. So. 
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R. Braithwaite. On the histology of plants. Journ. Quekett 
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G. BriosL On the general presence of starch in the lattice vessels 
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L. Cailletet. Can the leaves of plants absorb water in the liquid 
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R. Caspary. On the condition of trees struck by lightning, 1 
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F. Caziuoli. Record of the effects of the frost of 1871-72 on 



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the plants in the Pisa Botanic Garden. Nuov. Giorn. Bot. ItaL 
Pisa, iv. 

D. Golladon. The effects of lightning on trees and woody plants, 
3 plates. Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneva, xxi. 

A. Costa. On the secretion of honey-dew from the leaves of 
Rasa Banksia. Proc. K. Acad. 8c. Naples, iv. 

E. Delarue. Observations on the phyllomorphosis of Syrmga 
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histology of the medullary rays of Conifers. Bot. Zeit. 1873. 

J. C. Draper. On the growth or evolution of structure in seed- 
lings (from Amer. Journ. 8c.). Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, xi. 

P. Duchartre. On the bulb of the lily. Ann. So. Nat. Bot. 
Ser. 5, xvi.— On the structure and multiplication of the bulb of 
Lilium Thomsonianum. Bull. Soc. Bot France, xix. 

J. Duval-Jouve. On some tissues of Junce©, Cyperaceae, and 
Gramineae, 1 plate. Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xviii. 

W. T. Dyer. On Tyloses, the cellular filling up of vessels, 1 plate. 
Journ. Bot. 1872. 

A. Engler. On monstrous flowers of Barbarea vulgaris, 1 plate. 
Flora, 1872. 

A. Ernst. Development of the leaves of Hydrodeis nymphoide*. 
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hispidula. Bot Zeit 1872. 

C. Fermond. Philosophical considerations on double flowers. 
Bull. Soc. Bot. France, zix. 

A. R. Frank. On transversal geotropism and heliotropism in 
plants. Bot Zeit. 1872. 

E. v. Freyhold. On peloria in Tropnedum aduneum, 1 plate. 
Bot. Zeit 1872. 

K. Fritsch. On the absolute variability of the time of flowering 
of plants. Proc. Imp. Acad. So. Vienna, bdv. 

A. Godron. Miscellanies of Vegetable Teratology. Mem. Soc. 
Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, xvi. 

A. Gris. On the pith of woody plants, 9 plates. Nouv. Archiv. 
Mus. Paris, vL, and Ann. Sc. Nat Bot Ser. 5, xiv. — On the move- 
ments of stamens in Pamassia palustris. Mem. Soc. So. Nat Cher- 
bourg, xvi. 

J. Hanstein. On the development of the germ in Monocotyledons 
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F. E. y. Herder. Comparative tables of the mean periods of folia- 
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bourhood of Petersburg, from observations made in the jean 1857 
to 1870. Trans. Imp. Bot Gard. Petersburg, i. 

W. P. Hiera. A theory of the forms of floating leaves in certain 
plants. Presented by the Author. 

P. Hildebrarid. On some tissues of the epidermis. — On the 
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the fecundation of Graminese. Proc. (Monatsber.) B. Acad. Sc. 
Berlin, 1872. 

H. Hoffmann. On variation. Bot. Zeit. 1872. — Plant monstro- 
sities, 1 plate. Mem. Nat Hist Soc. Bremen, and separate copies 
presented by the author. On a remarkable variation in Baphanus. 
Bot. Zeit. 1873. 

T. Irmisch. Germination of Aconitum Anihora, 1 plate. Mem. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. Bremen, iii. no. 3. 

J. £. .Kitchener. Cross fertilization as aided by sensitive motions 
in Musk and Aekimmes. Journ. Bot 1873. 

J. Klein. On the anatomy of young roots of Conifers. Flora, 1872. 

H. P. G. Koch. On the influence of soil on variations of Qagea 
tUnopetala and Q. lutea. Bot Tidsskr. Copenhagen, iv. 

£. Kohne. Observations on the morphology and development of 
CupAta. Bot Zeit. 1873. 

K. Ledeganek. Hlsto-chemical researches on the autumnal Ml 
of leaves. Bull. Soc. Bot Belgique, x. 

G. Le Monnier. On the nervation of the seed. Ann. Sc. Nat 
Bot Sex. 5. xvL 

W.ILM'Nab. Histological and other physiological notes. Trans. 
B. Soc. Edinburgh, xi. — On Cambium and Mere$Uum. — On Pseudo- 
carps. Journ. Bot 1873. 

B. MajewskL On the textile structure in the epidermis of plants. 
Bot. Zeit 1873. 

W. Marme. On the active principle in the Yew-tree. Proc 
(Nachricht) K. Soc. Sc. Gottingen, 1872. 

J. Martinet On the organs of secretion in Vegetables. Ann. Sc 
Nat Bot Sex. 5, xiv. 

M. T. Masters. On bud-variation, woodcuts. Pop. Sc Beriew, 
xL — The battle of life among plants. Ibid. xii. 

C. J. Maximowici. On the influence of foreign pollen on the 
form of the fruit produced. Bull. Acad. Imp. So. Petersburg, xviL, 
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T. Meehan. Various morphological and physiological notes. 
Proc. Acad. Nat Sc Philadelphia, 1871 and 1872. 

E. Mer. On the physiological action of frost on vegetables. Bull. 
Soc. Bot. France, xviii. 

E. Morren. Introduction to the study of the nutrition of plants. 
Bull. B. Acad. Sc. Belg. Brussels, Ser. 2, xxziv. 

F. C. NolL Two abnormal Cactus fruits, 1 plate. Bep. Senekenb. 
Nat Hist. Soo. Frankfort, 1871-72. 

0. A. J. A. Oudemans. On a peculiar kind of tube in the trunk 
of the Elder-tree hitherto taken for a Bhixomorpha. Trans. R, 
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E. Peligot On the repartition of potassium and soda in plants. 
Ann. Sc Nat. Bot Ser. 5, xiv. 

A. Perard. Anatomy of Agropyrwni ccesium, 1 plate BulL 
Soc. Bot. France, xviii. 

W. Pfeffer. The influence of the spectrum colours on the pro- 
duction of carbonic acid in plants. Bot Zeit 1872. — Besearehes 
on the proteine grains and the influence of Asparagine in the ger- 
mination of seeds, 3 plates. Pringsh. Jahrb. viii. 

E. Prantl. The most recent researches on stomata, 1 plate. 
Flora, 1872. 

E. Prillieux. On the action of light in the blue coloration of 
flowers. — On the Cloque disease of the Peach-tree. Bull. Soc Bot. 
France, six. 

J. T. C. Batzeburg. Pathology o£ and cause of death in trees. — 
On the duplication of annual rings. Bot Soc Brandenburg, xiiL 

J. Beinke. On the structure of the tips of roots. Bot Zeit 
1872. — Besearehes on the growth and morphology of the roots of 
Phanerograms, 2 plates. Hanst. Bot Abhandl. i. — On the ana- 
tomical relations of some species of Ounnera. . Proc (Nachr.) It 
Soc. Sc. Gottingen, 1872. — On the rhizomes without roots of Cored- 
lorhiza and Epipogium. Flora, 1873. 

P. A. Saccardo. On peculiar amyloid corpuscles in the pollen- 
fovella. Nuov. Giorn. Bot Ital. Pisa, iv. 

J. Sachs. Text-book (Lehrbuch) of Botany, 3rd edition. Pur- 
chased. 

P. Sagot On Tarns. — On Manioc. Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xviii. 

G. de Saporta and F. Marion. On a spontaneous hybrid of Pi*ta- 
cia TerebifUhus and P. Lentiscus'. Ann. Sc Nat Bot Ser. 6, xiv. 

P. Savi. On the virescence of Bdlis syilve&trii. Nuov. Giorn. 
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P. Scrauen. * On the influence of the supply of water on the de- 
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H. J. Slack. Curiosities of Vegetable morphology. Pop. 8c. 
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A. Trecul. On the juices (sues propres) of the Aloe leaf. — On 
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J. G. Baker. A new AspUnium from Africa. Journ. Bot. 1872. — 
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A. Brongniart An arborescent Lastrea from the Philippines. 
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J. M. Crombie. Notes on the Lichens in Sowerby's herbarium. — 
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J. dimming. On some microscopic fungi, 3 plates. TranB. Bot. 
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F. Currey. Choanephora, a new genus of Mucedinece, 1 plate. 
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A. Famintrin and M. Woronin. Ceratium hydroides and Polysticta 
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W. G. Farlow. Cuban seaweeds. Amer. Naturalist, 1871. 

£. Fournier. New ferns from Nicaragua. Bot. Zeit. 1873. — On 
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J. Frankhauser. On the germination of Lycopodiwm, 1 plate. 
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A. Geheeb. Bryological notes. Flora, 1872. — On Neriera Men- 
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J. £. Gray. CodiophyUum, a new genus of unicellular green Alg® 
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R. Hegelmaier. On the morphology of Lycopodium, 3 plates. 
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W. Phillips. On the blue reaction given by Iodine in certain 
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L. Pire. New bryological researches. Bull. Soc. Bot. Belgique, x. 

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Nat Bot Ser. 5, xiv. 

8. Sirodot Anatomical, organogenetical, and physiological studies 
of LemaneacesB, 8 plates. Ann. 8c Nat Bot Ser. 5, xvL 

H. J. Slack. On the structure of the valves of Eupoditcus Argus 
and Isthmia enervis. Month!. Microsc Journ. viii. 

W. G. Smith. New Hymenomycetous Fungi from stoves, 1 plate. 
Journ. Bot. 1873. 

£. Strasburger. Some remarks on Lycopodiacefle. Bot Zeit. 
1873. 

P. Tomaschek. On the development of Diatomace®. *Bot Zeit. 
1873. 

LRftC. Tulasne. New notes on Fungi tremellini and their 
allies, 4 plates. Ann. 8c. Nat Bot. Ser. 5, xv. 

8. Wells. On \he structure of Eupodiscus Argus. Monthi Microsc. 
Journ. ix. 

O. Winter. Notes on NiessTs papers on FungL Bot Zeit. 1872. 
— Diagnosis of and notes on Behm's Ascomycetre. Flora, 1872. 

Y. R. Wittrock. Synopsis of the (Edogoniaoese of Sweden, 1 plate. 
Proc. R. Swed. Acad. Stockholm, xxviL 

W. Woronin. On the development of Pueeima HeliaiUhi. Bot 
Zeit 1872. — On the gonidia of Parmdia ptdvtrulenta. Ann. Sc 
Nat. Bot Ser. 5, xvi. 

Paleontology : — 

M. Auinger. Tabular enumeration of the tertiary fossil shells of 
Moravia. Trans. Nat Hist. Soc Brunn, ix. 

W. H. Baily. Figures of characteristic British fossils, part 3. 
Presented by the Author. 



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lxXXVlii . PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

P. J. Van Beneden. Various papers on Belgian fossil animal*. 
Bull. Acad. R. So. Belg. Brussels, xxxi, xxxiL, xxxiv. 

J. F. Brandt. On the extinct Balaenoidea whose remains have 
been hitherto found in the Vienna basin. Proc Imp. Acad. Se. 
Vienna, lxv. 

A. Braun. Mondia Marioni, a new tertiary fossil. Bot Zeit. 
1872. 

A. Brongniart On Ptoironius brasiliensis. Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 
xix. — Report on Grand'Eury's Carboniferous Flora of the depart- 
ment of the Loire. Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot Ser. 5, xvi. 

H. Burmeister. Synopsis of Glyptodonta. Wiegm. Archiv, xxxviiL 

Victe. de Bus. New Mammifers of the Crag of Antwerp. BulL 
Acad. R. Sc. Belg. Brussels, xxxiv. 

W. Carruthers. On Nematophyeus Logani, 2 plates. Monthl. 
Microeo. Journ. viii. 

J. Ph. Cinteoff. Geology of the Bessarabian district Trans. New 
Buss. Soc. Nat. Odessa, L 

T. A. Conrad. Descriptions and Illustrations of genera of shells, 
2 plates. Proc. Acad. Nat. So. Philadelphia, 1872. 

£. D. Cope. Numerous pataontological papers in Proc. Amer. 
Phil. Soc. Philadelphia, xii., and Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, 
1871, 1872. 

P. G. Costa. Monograph of recent and fossil Echinocyami, and 
several patoontological papers. Trans. R. Acad. Sc. Naples, iiL 

T. Davidson and W. King* On the genera TrimereUa, Dinobolut, 
and MonomereUa. Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, x. 

M. Duncan. On the structure and affinities of Quynia annvlata, 
1 plate. PhiL Trans. R. Soc. clxii. 

Prof. Duns. On Cardiocarpon, Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh, vii. 

£. v. Ettingahausen. On the leaf-skeleton of Loranthaoe®, 15 
plates. — On the fossil flora of Sagor in Carinthia, 10 plates. Trans. 
Imp. Acad. Sc. Vienna, xxxii. — On Castanea vesea and its fossil 
trunk-form. Proc. Imp. Acad. Sc. Vienna, lxv. 

E. Favre. On a new classification of Ammonites. Ann. Nat 
Hist Ser. 4, xi. 

P. Fischer. Researches on fossil reptiles of South Africa, 2 plates. 
Nouv. Archiv. Mus. Paris, vi. 

T. Fuchs. On the so called chaotic polymorphism in fossil species 
of MdanopsiSy 1 plate. Trans. ZooL-Bot. Soc Vienna, xxii. 

W. M. Gabb. On the genus Folorihus. — On a collection of cre- 
taceous fossils from Chihahua in Mexico. Proc Acad. Nat. Sc 
Philadelphia, 1872. 



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LonrBAir society of loitooh. lxxxix 

— Gastaldi. On some fossil remains of Arctomys and Ursus spe- 
lmt$. Trans. (Atti) Acad. Sc. Turin, 8vo. vii. 

£. W. Giimbel On the so-called Nullipores (LUhoihamnium and 
Dadyhpora) 6 plates. Mem. B. Bavar. Acad. Sc. Munich, xL 

A. Hancock and T. Atthey. On fossils from the coal-field of 
Northumberland and Durham, two papers, 5 plates. Nat. Hist. 
Trans. Northumberland and Durham, iv. 

J. Hector. Beports of Geological explorations in New Zealand 
during 1871-72, 8vo. Presented by the Author. 

0. Heer. The fossil flora of Alaska, 10 plates. — The miocene 
flora and fauna of Spitzberg, 16 plates. Trans. B. Swed. Acad. Sc. 
Stockholm, viii. — The fossil flora of Bear Island, 15 plates. Ibid. ix. 

J. Hopkinson. CdUograptua radican$, a new dendroid Graptolite, 
1 plate. Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, x. 

T.Bupert Jones. Notes on Patoozoio Entomostraca, n. 10. Ann. 
Nat Hist Ser. 4, xi. 

L. G. de Koninck. New researches on the fossil animals of the 
coal-field of Belgium, 15 plates. Mem. Acad. B. Sc. Belg. Brussels, 
xxxix, and separate copy presented by the Author. 

G. Krefit. Review of Prof. Owen's paper on a Cuvierian principle 
in Paleontology, as tested by evidence of an extinct leonine Marsu- 
pial, 2 plates. Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, x. 

G. Laube. The Eohinoids of the upper tertiaries of the Austro- 
Hungarian Empire. Trans. GeoL Inst. Vienna, v. 

J. Leidy. Numerous pataontological notes and papers in Proc. 
Acad. Nat Sc. Philadelphia, 1871 and 1872. 

G. Lindstrbm. On the opercular formation in Silurian Corals. 
Proc. B. Swed. Acad. Sc. Stockholm, xxvii. 

J. G. 0. Linnarsson. On the Cambrian and Silurian deposits, 2 
plates. Trans. B. Swed. Acad. Sc. Stockholm, Ser. 2, viii. — Dia- 
gnoses of new Crustacea found in the above deposits. Ibid. ix. — On 
some fossils from the sandstone strata of West Gothland, 3 plates. 
Proc. B. Swed. Acad. Sc. Stockholm, xxvi 

W. McNab. On the organization of Bquisetums and Calamites. 
Journ. Bot 1873. 

C. J. Forsyth Major. On fossil monkeys found in Italy. Ann. 
Nat Hist Ser. 4, x. 

A. P. Marion. Fossil plants of the Calcaire marneux of Benson. 
Ann. Sc Nat Bot Ser. 5, xiv. 

0. T. Marsh. Hetperomu rtgalis and four other new cretaceous 
Birds. Ann. Nat. Hist Ser. 4, x, — On a new subclass of fossil 



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XO PKOCESDIXOS OF THE 

Birds (from Amer. Journ. 8c. and Arte). Ibid. xL ; and a separate 
copy presented by the Author. — On the skull and limbs of mosaaaa* 
roid reptiles. Presented by the Author. — New Rocky-Mountain 
fossils. Proc Amer. Philos. Soc Philadelphia, xii. 

J. B. Meek. New invertebrate fossils from the Carboniferous 
and Devonian rocks of Ohio. — New fossils from Ohio and other 
Western States and Territories. — A new Brachiopod from the lead- 
bearing rocks at Mine Lamottc — New fossils from the Cincinnati 
group. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc Philadelphia, 1871. 

C. Milaohevitoh. On the structure of the columella of LonsdaUia. 
1 plate. Bull. Boo. Imp. Nat. Moscow, 1872. 

A. Milne-Edwards. Researches on fossil birds. Ann. Sc Nat. 
Zool. Ser. 5, xvL, and Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, x. 

H. A. Nicholson. Preliminary report on dredging* in Lake 
Ontario.— Migrations of the Graptolites. Ann. Nat Hist Ser. 4, 
x. — On some fossils of the Quebec group. Ibid. xi. — The imper- 
fection of the palffiontological record. Journ. Sc Canadian Inetit. xiiL 

R. Owen. Fossil Mammals of Australia, parts 5, and 6, 17 
plates. PhiL Trans. R. Soc clxii. — On Dinornis, part 17, 3 plates. 
Trans. ZooL Soc viii. 

W. Pengelly. On the Machairodu* latidms, found in Kent* a 
Cavern. Trans. Devonshire Assoc Adv. Sc. v. 

A. S. Reuss. The fossil corals of the Austro-Hungarian Miocene, 
21 plates. Trans. Imp. Acad. Sc Vienna, xxxi. — On two new fossil 
genera of Foraminifera. Proc Imp. Acad. Sc Vienna, lxiv. 

O. de Saporta. On the vegetation of South-eastern France in the 
tertiary epoch, 2 plates. Ann. Sc Nat Bot Ser. 5, xv. 

W. P. Schimper. Traits de Paleontologie Vegetale, voL iL, 4fco. 
Presented by the Author. 

F. Schmidt. Scientific results of the search for a reported mam- 
moth-corpse, map and 5 plates. Mem. Acad. Imp. Sc Petersburg, 
xviii. 

S. H. Scudder. Fossil insects from the Rocky Mountains. Amer. 
Naturalist, 1872. 

S. Simonowitsch. Some Asteroids from the Rhenish Grauwaoke, 
4 plates. Proc Imp. Acad. Sc Vienna, lxiv. 

R. de Viaiani. A new fossil Palm, 1 plate. Trans. R. Aead. So. 
Naples, iii. 

W. C. Williamson. On the organization of the fossil plants of 
coal measures, 7 plates. PhiL Trans. R. Soc clxii 

Transactions (Abhandlungen) of the Imperial and Royal Geological 



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LDHTKAV SOCIETY OF LOWDOV. XG1 

Institute of Vienna, v. pt. 3 ; Verhandhragen, 1871, no. 6, and 1872, 

nos. 1-18, Journal (Jahrbuch), xriL, and Index to the first twenty 

vols. 

Publications of the Patoontographical Society, toL xxvL 
Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society , xxviiL part 3 to xxix. 

pt.2. 
Geological Magazine, July 1872 to June 1873. 

Mdckllaxxoub : — 

J. G. Agardh. On the origin of the driftwood of Spitzberg. 
Proa R. Swed. Acad, Sc. Stockholm, xxvL 

P. J. Van Beneden. Report on the zoological labours of the Royal 
Belgian Academy of Sciences during the last century. Presented by 
the Academy 

L. Blomeneld. Anniversary Address to the Bath Natural-History 
Field Club, 1872.— Address on local Biology to the Bath Field Club, 
1873. Presented by the Author. 

R. Brown. Remarks on the formation of fjords and canons. 
Presented by the Author. 

G. £. Bulger. Notes of a tour from Bangalore to Calcutta and 
Sikhim. Presented by the Author. 

H. Christy and C. Lartet Reliquiae Aquitanicae, part 11. Pre- 
sented by the Executors of H. Christy. 

£. J. Dalton. Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal, 4to, 37 plates. 
Presented by the Government of Bengal 

C. G. t. Ehrenberg. Review of the researches made since 1847 
on the rich organic life invisibly borne by the atmosphere, 2 plates, 
and supplement, 1 plate. Trans. R. Acad. Sc Berlin, 1871. 

J. L. Laird. The Darwinian theory, translated from the German 
of Moritz Wagner. Presented by Mr. Darwin. 

E. R. Lankester. On the primitive cell-layers of the embryo, as 
the basjs of a genealogical classification of animals. Ann. Nat. Hist. 
Ser. 4, xL 

E. Liais. Climate, Geology, Fauna, and Geographical Botany of 
Brazil, 8vo. Presented by the Imperial Government of Brazil. 

Ch. Martina. On the peat-bogs of the Jura (from the Bull. Soc. 
Bot. France). — A geodesic station on the summit of the Canigon. — 
Lamarck, his life and works (from the Revue des deux Mondes). 
Presented by the Author. 

E. Morren. Report on the labours in Botany and Vegetable Phy- 
siology of the Royal Belgian Academy of Sciences during the last 
hundred years. Presented by the Academy. 



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XCU PROCEEDINGS OF THE LDRTBAK SOCIETY OF LOKDOX. 

F. v. Mueller. Plants eligible for Victorian Industrial culture. 
Presented by the Author, 

A. Murray. On Mimetic Analogy. Journ. B. Hort. Soc Ser. 2, 
iii. 

A. Nicholson. Preliminary report on dredgings in Lake Ontario. 
Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. 4, x. 

B. A. Peacock. How a national Museum of Natural History 
might be built and arranged with advantage. Presented by the 
Author. 

— Pearson. Report on Forest Administration of the several 
provinces of India for 1870-71, and for 1871-72; of the Bombay 
Presidency, including Bind, 1870-71. Presented by the Forest 
Administration of India. 

£. Perris. Birds and insects, and their mutual relations. Mem. 
Soc. B. Sc. liege, Ser. 2, iii. 

£. BegeL Guide to the Botanic Garden, Petersburg. Trans. Bot. 
Gard. Petersburg, ii. 

Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papers, vol. vi. Presented 
by the Society. 

L. Schmidt. Scientific results of the search for a reported mam- 
moth corpse, map and 5 plates. Trans. Imp. Acad. Sc. Petersburg, 
xviii 

A. Schomburgk. Beport of the progress of the Botanic Garden 
at Adelaide during 1872. — Papers read before the Philosophical 
Society of Adelaide. Presented by the Author. 

J. C. Schuebeler. The plant- world of Norway, general considera- 
tions, with 15 maps. Presented by the Royal University of 
Ghristiania. 

B. R. v. Trautvetter. Beport on the Botanic Garden, Petersburg, 
1871. Trans. Bot Gard. Petersburg, i. — History of the Garden. 
Ibid. ii. 

J. A. Yerkruzen. On the dredging excursion to Iceland in 1872. 
Ann. Nat Hist Ser. 4, x. 

H. de Tries. Beport on the botanical investigations published in 
the Netherlands in 1872. Flora, 1873. 

J. F. Whiteaves. Notes on a deep-sea dredging expedition in the 
Gulf of St Lawrence. Ann. Nat Hist Ser. 4, x. 

J. Wiesner. Researches on some driftwood of the Arctic Ocean* 
Proc. R. Acad. Sc. Vienna, lxv. 

L. Wittmack. Enumeration of Braiilian woods. Bot Zeit. 1 873» 

H. Woodward. life-forms of the past and present, 2 plates. 
Pop. So. Beview, xi. 



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xdii 



INDEX TO THE PROCEEDINGS. 



SESSION 1872-73. 



Page 

Additions to the Library, Re- 
port on xlix 

Address of the President, May 
24,1873 Tiii 

Agave americana. Flowering 
plants, oyer 90 years old, Pho- 
tograph of, exhibited by W. 
T. T. Dyer, Esq., F.L.8. . . iy 

Algs, British and Australian, 
Specimens of, sent for exhibi- 
tion, by Mrs. Merrifield, of 
Brighton vi 

Amomum Melegueta, Roscoe 
(•• Grains of Paradise M ), Speci- 
men in fruit, exhibited by Mr. 
Hanbury, from his garden at 
Clapham xlyiii 

Anniversary Meeting, May 24, 

1873, Report on viii 

Arauearia Bidwilli, Half-ripe 
cone of, from the Royal gar- 
dens, Kew, exhibited by Dr. 
Hooker, V.P.L.S y 

Banktia marceseene, Cones of, 
with ripe seeds, from the Gar- 
den of M. Thuret, F.M.L.S., 
at Antibes, exhibited by D. 
Hanbury, Esq., F.R. & L.S. yii 

Batarrea phauotdes, Specimen 
of, exhibited by W. G. Smith, 
Esq., F.L.S Hi 

Branched Palms, Drawings of, 
exhibited by Arthur Grote, 
Esq., F.L.S iy 

Brisbane Botanic Garden, Pho- 
tographs of trees from, ex- 
hibited i 

Cofibe-tree, Wood o£ perforated 
by the Coffee-borer {Xylotri- 
ehue quadrupet), exhibited by 
Dr. Hooker, V.P.L.S., from 
the Kew Museum .... yi 



Election of Council and Officers 

Fellows deceased, List of . . . 

Financial Statement .... 

Foreign Member deceased . . 

Fungi, Drawings of, exhibited by 
W. G. Smith, Esq., F.L.S. . 

Fungus, Gelatinous, probably 
new (Laschia, sp. P), from the 
stem of a Cycad, exhibited by 
W. G. Smith, Esq., F.L.S. . 

" Grains of Paradise. See Amo- 
mum. 

" Hen - and - Chickens " Daisy, 
Wild specimen o£ exhibited 
by Mr. Alford 

Lctlia elegant, Monstrosity of, 
with nearly regular flower, ex- 
hibited by Prof. Dyer . . . 

Laschia, P new species, from the 
stem of a Cycad, exhibited by 
W. G. Smith, F.L.S. . . . 

Lobelia urene, from Kilmington 
Common, near Axminster, ex- 
hibited by T. B. Flower, F.L.S. 

M'Leay, Alexander, Presentation 
of Letters from 

Mallet and Ball used at Mont- 
pelUer in the game of " Jeu de 
Mail," the handle made of 
Celti* austral**; the head of 
Querent Ilex, exhibited by 
Dr. Prior, F.L.S 

Medicago tribuloidee, Plants of, 
with fruits singularly modified 
by the action of a species of 
Smut ( Uttilago), exhibited by 
G. C. Joad, Esq., F.L.S. . . 

Obituxby Notices : — 
Forster, John, Esq. .... 

Jerdon, T. C, Esq 

M 'Andrew, Robert, Esq. • . 
Sideline, Joshua, Esq. . . , 



Page 



iii 

i 



xlyiii 



xlyiii 



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xcnr 



nroisx. 



Obituabt K0TIOB8 (continued) :- 

Torrey, John, M.D., F.M.L.S. 

Welwitech, Frederick, M.D. . 

Wight, Bobert, M.D. . . . 
Papers bbad : — 

Allis, Thomas, On the skeleton 
oftheApteryx . . . . 

Baker, J. G., On the recent 
synonyms of BraziMan Ferns 

Bentham, George, On the peri* 
gynium of Carex .... 

Berkeley, Ber. M. J., On the 
"Take-all" and "Bed Bast" 
of South Australia . . . 

Berkeley, Ber. M. J., and 
Broome, 0. E., Enumera- 
tion of the Fungi of Ceylon, 
Part 2 

Cambridge, Ber. O. P., On 
new and rare British Spiders 

, On new species of Euro- 
pean Spiders 

Clarke, C. B., Catalogue of the 
Composite of Bengal . • 

— , On Hvdrotrophus, a 
new genus of Hy drocharideee 

Day, Francis, On some new 
Fishes of India .... 

De Mello, J. 0., On a Meni- 
spermaceous plant, called 
by VeJloi Cistampeloi VUis 

Dickie, George, Note on the 
buds developed on leaves of 
Malaxit 

— , On the Marine Algss of 
Barbadoes 

Duncan, P. M. t On the de- 
velopment of the gynaxmun 
of, and the method of im- 
pregnation in, Primula vul- 
garis, Huds 

Dyer, W. T. T., Observations 
on a Monstrosity of Lalia 
elegant, with a nearly regu- 
lar flower 

, On the Morphology of 

the perigynium and seta in 
Carex • •••••• 

— , On Ternetramia Khaty- 
ana, Choisy (verbal oom- 
munieation) 

Gray, Asa, Revision of genus 

fymphoricarpo* .... 

, Note on Nemadadu*, 

Nutt. 

Ghilick, Bey. J.T., On diversity 
of evolution under one set 
of external conditions . . 



Page 

xxxv 

xxxvii 
xliv 



in 
iy 

y 



vii 
iii 
vii 
ii 
ii 
yii 



u 
xlix 



xlix 



iv 
iii 
iv 



PAPKB8 READ (continued) z — 
Hooker, J. D., On the sub- 
alpine yegetation of Kilima 
Njaro, E. Africa .... xlix 
Howard, J. E., On the genus 

Cinchona yii 

Leighton, W. A., On two new 

species of Jifyooporum, Fiot. xxa 

M«Nab, W. B., On the de- 
velopment of the flowers of 
WeUoUeehia mirabilie, 

Hook. f. iy 

, Note on the development 

of the perigynium in Cores 

puUcaris yii 

Masters, M. T., Bemarks on 
the general principles of 
Plant-construction ... ir 

, Notes on Aristolochiacee ir 

Miers, John, On Lecythidaoen xlviii 
Mucke, Carl, On the "Take- 
all " Corn-disease of South 

Australia vi 

Pascoe, F. P., Contributions 
towards a knowledge of the 
CurculioincUe, Part 4 . . xlix 
Potts, T. H., Notes on Keropia 

crauiroetrie, GmeL ... H 

Beichenbach, Prof., On Bur- 
mese Orchidee from the 
Bev. C. P. Parish ... vii 
Saunders, Edward, Desorip- 
tionsof Buprestida collected 
in Japan by George Lewis, 

Esq y 

" Take-all " Corn-disease, Die- 
cussion on •••••• yi 

Weddell, H. A., On a new 
African genus of Podoste- 

maoee y 

Photographic views, taken in the 
Botanic Garden, Adelaide, ex- 
hibited by Dr. Hooker. 

V.P.L.S xlyui 

Photographs of trees from the 
Botanic Garden, Brisbane, ex- 
hibited by Dr. Hooker ... i 
Poimettia pulc Me irima, in fruit, 
Specimens of, from the Gar- 
den of the Royal Botanic 
Society, exhibited by W Uiam 
Sowerby, Esq., F.L.S. ... y 
Publications presented, Bepoxt 

on xlix 

fyrue japonica, var., Fruit ot 
ripened at Uckfleld, exhibited . 
by F. Currey, Esq., Sec. L. S. u 

Salixjragilis, A triandrous form 



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INDEX. 



XCV 



o£ exhibited by J. Ch Baker, 
Esq., F.L.8. ...... 

Smith, Lady, Letters from, 

. offering for the acceptance of 

the Society 74 letters from 

the late Alexander M'Leay to 

Sir James Smith 

, Address of Congratulation 

to, on the oompletion of her 
100th year 



Page 
▼i 



Transactions, Publication of toI. 
xxtuL pt. 8 announced . . 

Treasurer, Tote of thanks to, on 
his retirement from Office 

Vice- President*, Nomination of • 

Xylotricku* quadr*p*s t the 
Coffee-borer, Specimens of the 
lair® and perfect insects ex* 
hibited by Dr. Hooker, 
V.PJJ3. 



Page 



XXIX 

xlriii 



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PROCEEDINGS 



or THE 



LINNEAN SOCIETY OE LONDON. 



(SESSION 1878-74.) 



November 6th, 1873. 

Giobgz Bektham, Esq., F.E.S., President, in the Chair* 

Before the commencement of the regular Proceedings, the Pre* 
pident delivered the following Address on the present position of 
the Society and its relation to Government : — 

GlHTLBMXK, 

It is now seventeen years since the Government first recognized 
the claims of our Society to encouragement and assistance on the 
part of the State, as one which devoted itself to scientific pursuits 
unremunerative to its members, but tending, directly or indi- 
rectly, tp public benefit ; and since then a sense of the justness of 
such claims on the part of pure natural science has become gra- 
dually more general. We are no longer in the days when a 
Peter Pindar could turn the Royal Society and its President into 
ridicule as boiling fleas to ascertain whether they turned red like 
lobsters. The ' Times,' instead of a short leader dismissing the 
British Association Meetings in a similar strain of banter, devotes 
daily, during the time of its session, half a dozen columns to the 
lot*, pboo. — Session 1873-74. b 



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11 PBO0EEDHTO8 OF THE 

details of it proceedings. And our own department in natural 
science is now admitted to be one of the most important branches 
of general science, specially important in its relation to our mate- 
rial prosperity. Our food and raiment, the essentials of life, are 
derived exclusively from the animal and vegetable kingdoms ; and 
biological products contribute largely to many of our luxuries ; 
whilst, on the other hand, some of the greatest calamities with 
which we are afflicted are due to the rapid development of animal 
or vegetable life. Many are the associations, under Government 
as well as individual patronage, devoted to the improvement and 
increase of useful animals and plants ; and of late attention has 
been also devoted to the arrest of the ravages of the noxious ernes, 
the balance of natural selection being disturbed by the inter- 
ference of agriculture and animal education. The due study of 
the means of restoring this balance, of turning it more and more 
in our favour, of calling in to our aid more and more of the 
hitherto neglected available species or of the hitherto latent pro- 
perties of those already in use, of checking the progress of blights 
and murrains, requires a thorough knowledge of the animals and 
plants themselves ; and that thorough knowledge can only be ob- 
tained by the scientific study not only of particular animals and 
plants supposed a priori to be useful or noxious, but of all ani- 
mals and plants, which it is the special province of our Society 
to promote. And in this respect I think it will be generally ad- 
mitted that we have not been neglectful of our duty, and that we 
have done our part in rendering effective the support we have of 
late years received from Government, as well as from individuals, 
and in establishing a sound claim for its increase and continuance. 
Besides the aid afforded to scientific researches by our largely 
augmented library, the great value of the papers published in the 
recent volumes of our Transactions and Journal has been acknow- 
ledged abroad as well as at home. It is in our Society, for in- 
stance, that the great Darwinian theories were first promulgated ; 
and it must be recollected that the five or six hundred copies of 
our publications regularly sent out place the researches they ex- 
hibit at once at the disposal of the leading followers of the science 
in all parts of the world. It is true thai these great additions to 
our efficiency are not entirely due to Government patronage, but 
are the direct results of the reforms introduced by Dr. Hooker in 
1855. Those reforms, however, would have lost much of their 
effect had we remained confined to our old quarters in Soho 



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Lnnrsur socmr of lowdoit. in 

Square. Cramped for space in those obscure and dingy rooms, it 
required a strong deration to science to induce an adequate at- 
tendance at our meetings ; and, saddled with a heavy rent, we 
could neither purchase books for our library nor find room on our 
shelves for those presented to us. 

In the spring of 1856, however, an opening was made for our 
obtaining rooms in Burlington House. I was then on the 
Council, and joined heartily in the conviction of the importance 
of availing ourselves of the opportunity, notwithstanding the 
heavy expense it might entail, which I felt confident we could 
cover by a subscription amongst our Fellows. Our President 
undertook the preliminary negotiations ; and at the meeting of 
our Council on June 11 a letter was officially communicated to 
us addressed by the Secretary of the Treasury to the President 
of the Boyal Society, allowing the temporary location in Bur- 
lington House of the Linnean and Chemical Societies, with the 
Boyal Society, upon certain conditions — those which affected us 
being that the Boyal Society should be put in possession of 
the main building of Burlington House on the understanding 
that they would, in communication with the Linnean and Che- 
mical Societies, assign suitable accommodation therein for those 
bodies, and that the Fellows of the three Societies should have 
mutual access to their three libraries for purposes of reference. 
Our Society, at a Special General Meeting held on the 17th 
of the same month, authorized the Council to take the necessary 
steps for carrying out the proposal of the Government ; and in 
the following February (1857) the Boyal Society assigned to us 
the rooms which we have since occupied under the above condi- 
tions. A subscription was organized which ultimately amounted 
to nearly £1100, sufficient to defray all expenses of parting with 
our old rooms and fitting up the new ones, with a very small sur- 
plus which was carried to the general account. In the same 
month of February I was associated with our then active and 
zealous President and Secretary, and with Mr. Wilson Saunders, 
as a Bemoval Committee ; and on Tuesday, June 2, the Society 
was enabled for the first time to meet in their new rooms. 

Our position, however, although so great an improvement upon 
Soho Square, was not yet quite satisfactory. It was provisional 
only, and under the wing, as it were, of the Boyal Society, and 
liable at any time to be exchanged for a worse or a better one, as 
the case might turn out This uncertainty is now removed. The 

12 



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IV PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Government, rightly understanding the relations which ought to 
prevail with the scientific societies judged to be deserving of their 
support, obtained from Parliament adequate means for providing 
ample accommodation for the six societies here located, without re- 
serving any right of interference with or control over their scien- 
tific operations. Thus our new quarters have assumed a perma- 
nent and independent character ; the rooms have been built and 
fitted up expressly for our Society ; and, having followed out all 
the arrangements, I feel bound to acknowledge the effective 
manner in which the liberal intentions of Government have been 
promoted and carried out in detail by the architects, Mr. Barry 
and the late Mr. Bankes. When the plans for the new building 
were first being prepared {some six or seven years since), we were 
applied to for particulars of the accommodation we should require 
for our library and meetings, for the transaction of the business 
of the Society, and for the residence of our librarian and porter. 
We were not consulted, it is true, about the general arrangements 
in relation to the other Societies ; and we have to regret the ces- 
sation of that close juxtaposition and intimate intercourse with . 
the Royal Society which was so agreeable to us ; but in all other 
respects our requisitions were fully complied with in the plans 
prepared and sent to us for approval ; and the only alteration 
since made has been the curtailment of a portion of the basement 
premises in favour of the Post Office, which rather inconveniently 
limits the stowage-room for our stock of Transactions. With 
this sole exception, we have the space we asked for ; and the book- 
shelves and such other fittings as have been provided by Govern- 
ment have been worked out in the m6st satisfactory manner. 

Our removal here has necessarily been attended with consider- 
able expense, the precise amount of which cannot yet be calcu- 
lated, but it will probably exceed £600. The Council have, how- 
ever, not thought it necessary to call for any special subscription. 
The investments made during the past year have been partially 
with a view to the present occasion ; and the gradually increasing 
sale of our publications and the general appreciation of the value 
of our Jabours have been so far adding to our receipts that we 
closed laBt session with a much larger balance in hand than usual ; 
and we hope to clear ourselves of the liabilities we are incurring 
without reducing our invested funds much below £2000. At 
the same time we must not conceal from ourselves that we 
shall be called upon for a considerable increase in our expendi- 



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LIKNXAN SOCIETY OT LONDON. V 

tore. Our enlarged accommodation, combined with high prices, 
will add much to our household expenses. We are threatened 
with a repeal of the Act which exempts us from parochial rates. 
Nearly the whole of our library having within the last three 
weeks passed through my hands, I have become convinced that 
it will require a large outlay in binding as well as in filling 
up gaps to render it really efficient. And, above all, we must 
bear in mind that the chief means we have of promoting the scien- 
tific objects for which we are associated, the only way in which 
we can render them available to our numerous Fellows resident in 
our colonies is through our publications ; and heavy as have been 
of late years our printer's and artists' bills, they will and ought 
to become heavier and heavier still. To render fully available the 
assistance we have received from Government, we require conti- 
nued and increased support from our Fellows and from the scien- 
tific public. We reckon already among bur Fellows the great 
majority of those who have acquired a name in zoology or botany, 
and I earnestly hope that all men of means who take a sincere in* 
terest in biological pursuits will think it a pleasure as well as a 
duty to contribute, directly or indirectly, to the support of the 
liinnean Society of London* 

With regard to future arrangements in the new phases of life 
into which the Society has entered, the Council has kept in view 
three great objects — the endeavour to render our Meetings at*, 
tractive, the extended usefulness of our library, and the steady 
maintenance of our publications. On Meeting-nights the library 
will be open at 7 o'clock, the Chair will be taken in the Meeting- 
room at 8 o'clock, as at present ; and after the Meeting the Fel- 
lows will adjourn to tea in the Council-room upstairs, opposite to, 
and in direct communication with, the library. The extended shelf- 
room in the library has enabled a classification of the books to be 
made which will render those most frequently consulted much more 
readily accessible than heretofore ; and as evidence that there is no 
relaxation in our publishing department, I have to announce that 
besides the two Numbers of our Journal, one in Zoology and the 
other in Botany, which have been sent out since our last Meeting, 
two new Parts of our Transactions are in the course of delivery, 
the concluding one of volume xxviii. and the second of Colonel 
Grant's volume xxix. The first part of volume xxx. is in the 
printer's hands. 



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VI PBOCEEDIXGB OF THE 

It was moved by Dr. Hooker, seconded by Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys 
and carried unanimously that "The Linnean Society beg to 
express their thanks to Her Majesty's Government for the en- 
couragement offered to their scientific pursuits in providing 
accommodation for them in Burlington House, and their sense of 
the handsome and effective manner in which the liberal inten- 
tions of the Government have been carried out." 

The President read from the Chair certain alterations in the 
Bye-laws proposed by the Council, which, in accordance with the 
Charter, must be read at three consecutive Meetings, and then 
balloted by the Fellows. 

Thomas A. O'Donnell, M.D., was elected a Fellow. 

. Professor Thiselton Dyer, F.L.S., exhibited specimens from 
the Kew Herbarium of Dipterocarpm Camellatut, Hook, f., from 
Labuan, and of a new species, collected by M. L. Pierre in 
Cambodia; also a rhizome of Hydnora amgoUmk. 

The following paper was read, viz. : — 

1. '< On Hydnora americana." By Dr. J. D. Hooker, V.P.L.S. 

In this paper Dr. Hooker reviewed in some points, in conse- 
quence of recent more complete opportunities of examination, his 
account of the structure of Hydnora americana, as given in his 
monograph of Bafflesiacea in De Candolle's ' Prodromus,' in which 
he had not done full justice to De Bary's previous description. A 
very great difficulty is presented, from the point of view of the 
theory of evolution, in the occurrence of the two allied species 
Hydnora qfiricana and americana, both root-parasites, widely sepa- 
rated geographically (the one in South Africa, the other in South 
America), but so closely resembling one another in every point of 
their structure, that it is impossible to look upon them otherwise 
than as very nearly related genetically. The only connexion sug- 
gested is through Oytinus, another nearly allied genus of root- 
parasites, species of which are natives of South Africa as well 
as of both South and North America. 



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lhotkax aociSTr o* lohdov. vii 

November 20th, 1873. 

Giobgb Bewtham, Esq., FJLS., President, in the Chair. 
John Beiger Spenoe, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

Professor Thiselton Dyer, F.U8L, exhibited a Gourd of the 
Sooly Qua (Luffa agyptiaca\ grown in this country ; also speci- 
mens of the wood and bark of Taxodiwm $&mpervirem$. 

Mr. T. B. Flower, F.L.S., exhibited dried specimens of Pkalaru 
poradoxa, L., gathered by him in July last in cultivated fields 
near Swanage, Dorset. 

The following papers were read, viz. : — 

1. " On the Summer Flora of Monte Argentaro, on the borders 
of Tuscany." By Henry Groves, Esq. Communicated by D. Han- 
bury, Esq., F.B.S., Treas. L.S. 

2. " On the Algae of Mauritius." By Gh Dickie, M.D., F.L.S., 
Professor of Botany in the University of Aberdeen. 

The total number of species recorded is 155. These include 17 
well-known European species, most of which are cosmopolitan, 
28 South-African species, 12 Australian, 15 East-Indian, and 
14 species found also in the Bed Sea, while 12 are peculiar to the 
seas surrounding the island. 

3. "On a peculiar Embryo of DelpUiwm." By the Bev. C. A. 
Johns, F.L.S. 

The peculiarity of the structure consisted in the non-sepa- 
ration of the two cotyledons, the plumule forcing itself through a 
chink in the undivided cotyledon. 

Dr. Masters stated that this peculiarity is well known to occur 
occasionally in Banunculacea*, as well as in plants belonging to 
some other natural orders. 

4. " On the Buds of MaUm*." By Gh Dickie, M.D., F.L A. 
This is supplementary to the paper already published in the 

Journal of the Society, vol. xiv. p. 1. 

5. " Contributions to the Botany of the ' Challenger 9 Expedi- 
tion," No. 1. By H. N. Moseley, Esq. Communicated by 
Dr. Hooker, V.P.L.S. 

This instalment related to the Alg® of St. Thomas and Bermuda. 

6. Extract from a Letter from Mr. Boon to Dr. Hooker, 



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vui PBOOBisiKes o* the 

written from St. Kitts, West Indies, giving an account of a lu- 
minous fungus observed on the leaves of 8permacoce t which had 
since J>een submitted to the Eev. M. J. Berkeley, F.Li*., who 
considered it to be a species of Didymiim. 



December 4th, 1873. 

Gjeobge Beettham, Esq., F.B.S., President, in the Chair. 

J. Home, Esq., Sab-Director of the Botanic Garden, Mauritius, 
was elected a Fellow. 

Dr. J- D. Hooker, Prep. B.S., V.F.L.S., exhibited an authentic 
photograph ofRaffl-eria Arnoldi, sent by Dr. Schefier, Curator of 
the Botanic Gardens in Buitenzorg, Java. 



Dr. Trimen, F.L.S., exhibited a dried specimen of Rimes 
mm, Schreber, gathered by the Hon. J. L. Warren in the neigh* 
bourhood of Lewes, Sussex. 

• The following paper was read, viz; : — 

,. 1. " [Revision of the Genera and Species of Tulipe©." By J. 
G. Baker, Esq., F.L.S. 

In this tribe of Muice© .the author iucludes the caules- 
cent capsular genera with distinct perianth-segments and leafy 
stems bulbous at the base, viz. Fritilloria, TuHpa, Lilium t 
Calochortus, Erythronium, and Lloydia. After referring to the 
literature of the subject and pointing out the great want of a 
better systematic arrangement of these important plants both by 
the botanist and the horticulturist, Mr. Baker proceeds to describe 
the characters of the different organs $eriaHm. in the structure 
of the underground stems there are four leading types: — 1. A 
squamosa perennial bulb, consisting, when mature, of a large num- 
ber of thin flat scales tightly pressed against one another and ar- 
ranged spirally round a central axis which is not produced either ver- . 
tieally or horizontally, as exemplified in all the Old- World species 
of Lilium. 2, in most of the species oiFritillaria we have a pair 
only of hemispherical scales, half as thick as broad, pressed against 
the base of the flower-stem, these scales being the bases of single 
leaves which die down before the flower-stem is produced. 3. An 
annual laminated tunicated bulb occurs generally in Tulip*, Cab- 



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LUrtfKAJ* SOCIETY OF LONDON. IX 

chortuSy and Eu-Lloydia. 4. In the section Oageopti* of Lloydia 
we have a truncated conn. The leaves are very uniform through- 
out the tribe, with the exception of a section oiLilium (Cardiocri- 
num) with long clasping petioles and very large broad leaves with 
a deep cordate base and reticulated venation. The perianth- 
leaves are all coloured, except in Calochortu* y in which the three 
outer segments are sepaloid and lengthened into points. The 
stamens are always six in number and nearly equal in length, 
hypogynous, and the dehiscence of the anther never properly in- 
trorse, but lateral, exactly as in Golchicum. In the capsule Calo- 
chortu* differs from the other genera in its septicidal dehiscence. 
As regards the connexion between LiliacesB and Colchicace® 
Mr. Baker is disposed to lay less stress than before on the exist- 
ence of any sharp line of demarcation between the orders, all the 
characters usually ascribed to the latter order being found in 
some of the genera of Liliacefe. As to its geographical distribu- 
tion, the tribe is spread throughout the north temperate zone ; only 
one species, Lloydia *erotina t is really boreal and alpine; the 
southern limits are Mexico, the Philippines, South China, the Neil- 
gherries, and the southern borders of the Mediterrrnean ; the prin- 
cipal concentration of species is in California and Japan; nearly 
all are hardy in this climate. Lilium, with 46, and Fritillaria, with 
65 species, have the distribution of the tribe, the latter stopping 
eastwards at the Eocky Mountains, while the former reaches the 
Atlantic sea-board ; Tulipa, with 48 species, is restricted to the 
Old World, reaching from Spain, Britain, and Scandinavia to Japan 
and the Himalayas ; Calochortu*, with 21 species, is confined to 
Mexico and the west side of the Eocky Mountains. Of the 5 
species of JSrythronium, 1 is confined to the Old World and 4 to, 
the New ; the 3 species of OageopH* are oriental and Siberian ; 
while Lloydia terotina is the most widely spread of all Liliace®, 
and a unique instance of a petaloid Monocotyledon of the north 
temperate zone with almost universal high-mountain and arctic 
distribution. 

December 18th, 1873. 

George Bentham, Esq., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Bev. John Bobinson Porter and Harry Bolus, Esq., were 
elected Fellows. 



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x PHOOEiDures or the 

Dr. Hooker exhibited a magnificent zoophyte from Bermuda, 
sent by General Lefroy, probably a species of Antipatke*; also 
a six-lobed Seychelles Coooa-nut (Lodoicea SeyeheUarum) and 
two tazsas made from the shell of a Seychelles Cocoa-nut sent 
from the Seychelles by Mr. Swinburne Ward to the Kew Mu- 
seum ; also some small boxes from Mauritius and Madagascar 
made from some grass-haulm; and two walking-sticks from 
Bermuda made of the " cedar-wood " of commerce (Jwmptrus 
bermudumo). 

Mr. Bowring exhibited an inflorescence of an orchid with a re- 
markable smelly probably a BtdbophyUtm. 

In accordance with the Charter, the President read for the 
second time the alterations in the Bye-laws proposed by the 
Council. 

The following papers were then read, viz. : — 

1. "Contributions to the Botany of the ' Challenger 9 Expedi- 
tion/' No. 2. By H. N. Moseley, Esq. On the Vegetation of 
Bermuda and the surrounding sea. Communicated by Dr. 
Hooker, V.P.L.8. 

About 160 species of flowering plants were gathered on the 
island ; but of these, not more than 100 were certainly native. 
Those of West-Indian origin were probably brought, as Grisebach 
had suggested, by the Gulf-stream or by cyclones, there being no 
winds blowing directly from the American coast which would be 
likely to carry seeds, which might, however, be conveyed from the 
continent by migratory birds. A note by Prof. Thiselton Dyer 
appended to the paper stated that 162 species sent over by Mr. 
Moseley had been determined at the Slew Herbarium, of which 71 
belong to the Old World, while 2, an Eryihrcta and a Spiranthes, 
were plants hitherto known as confined to localities in the 
United States. 

A discussion on the origin of the Bermudan flora and the 
mode of transport of seeds by winds, currents, and migratory 
birds ensued, in which the President, Mr. J. GK Baker, and 
Pro£ Thiselton Dyer took part. 

2. " Changes in the Vegetation of South Africa, caused by the 
introduction of the Merino Sheep." By Dr. Shaw, F.LJ3. 



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LnrariAH society ot lokdok. xi 

The original vegetation of the colony is being in many places 
destroyed or rapidly deteriorated by over-stocking and by the ac- 
cidental introduction of various weeds. Among the most im- 
portant of the latter is the Xanthium spinotum, introduced from 
Europe, the achenes of which cling to the wool with such tenacity 
that it is almost impossible to detach them, and render it almost 
unsaleable. It spreads with such rapidity that in some parts 
legislative enactments have been passed for its extirpation; and 
where this is not done, it almost usurps the place of the more 
useful vegetation. 

The President stated that Xanthiwn has in the same manner de- 
teriorated the pastures in Queensland; whilst in the south of 
Europe, where it is equally abundant, it does not appear to cause 
such injurious results. Though generally distributed through 
Europe, the plant is probably of Chilian origin. 

8. Extract from a letter from Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.B.S., to 
Dr. Hooker, dated Guatemala, Oct. 6, 1873. 

Mr. Salvin is engaged in collecting plants on the slopes of the 
Yolcan de Fuego, 6000 feet in elevation, and within an easy ride 
of a volcano 13,000 feet above the level of the sea. He hopes to 
secure all the plants between the elevations of 8500 and 8500 
feet. Many of the species appear to have a vertical range of as 
much as from 2000 to 8000 feet. 



January 15th, 1874. 



Geoegb Bkntham, Esq., F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

Samuel Jennings, Esq., Calcutta, Dr. George Watt, Calcutta, 
Bobert Fitzgerald, Esq., Deputy-Surveyor-General of New South 
Wales, and J. F. M. H. Stone, Esq., were elected Fellows. 

Dr. Hooker, Pres. H.S., exhibited a very beautiful series of spe- 
cimens of fossil Copal, the product of Trackylobium Horneman- 
numum, with a scorpion, spiders, beetles, and other insects im- 
bedded in it, some specimens of recent Copal from the same plant, 



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Ill PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

and some fruits of a Momordica, all forwarded from Zanzibar by 
Dr. Kirk, F.L.S., for the Kew Museum. 

A framed Plate of coloured drawings of edible and poisonous 
British Fungi, presented to the Society by Thomas Walker, Esq., 
F.L.S., was exhibited. 

Before proceeding to the regular business of the Society, 
the President again read, and explained the purport of, the 
alterations in the Bye-laws agreed to by the Council, which, in 
accordance with the Charter of the Society, had been hung up in 
the common meeting-room and read by the President at two suc- 
cessive general Meetings of the Society. The following are the 
said alterations * : — 

Chap. I. Sect. IV. p. 12. For "between" substitute "inclu- 
ding." 

Chap. IV. Sect. V. p. 15. For " the Secretary " substitute " one 
of the Secretaries." 

Chap. XII. Bepeal Sects. I., II., and III., pp. 21, 22. 

Chap. XII. Sect. VII. p. 22, to be Sect. L, and the word u Li- 
brarian " to be inserted before " Clerk ; " and at the end of the 
Section the following words to be added: "provided that the po- 
sition of the present Librarian, elected by the Society, be not 
thereby affected." 

Chap. XV. Sect. II. p. 24. After the words " shall be entitled 
to one copy of such Part " omit the remainder of the Section. 

Chap. XVII. Sect. II. p. 25. For "and by the rest of the 

* The effect of these alterations is as follows : — (a) to reduce the number of 
Meetings at which the names of Fellows to be elected must be suspended, from 
five to three ; (6) to repeal the Bye-law by which no person who shall be chosen 
to any offioe in the Society to which any salary or emolument is annexed shall 
be a Fellow of the Society, or, if such person be a Fellow, that he shall cease to 
be so upon his election to, or acceptance of, any such office; (c) to remove the 
election of Librarian in future out of the hands of the general body of Fellows, 
and to place it in the hands of the Council ; (d) to give to Fellows the right of 
receiving all Transactions and other publications of the Society published after 
Che time of their election, provided all payments due to the Society have been 
paid, instead of only after they have paid one yearly contribution ; (*) to amend 
the regulation respecting the signing of the Diploma of Foreign Members and 
the Deeds under the Common Seal of the Society. 



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LHTNIAH 80CHTY OS LONDON. XUl 

Members of the Council present," substitute " and countersigned 
by one of the Secretaries." 

W. Carrutliers, Esq., F.B.S., moved, and H. GK Seeley, Esq., 
P.L.6^ seconded, " that the proposed alterations in the Bye-laws 
Ac. be put to the Meeting seriatim ; " but the President declined 
to put the motion to the Meeting. 

After some further discussion the ballot was taken, when the 
numbers appeared — for the proposed alterations 4£, against 21 ; 
and it having been further ascertained that there were not more 
than 66 Fellows present at the time, the President declared the 
proposed alterations adopted by the Society. 

The following papers were then read, viz. : — 

1. "On some Species of Japanese Marine Shells and Fishes 
which inhabit also the North Atlantic." By J. G-wyn Jeffreys, 
Esq., F.S.S. 

The mollusca noticed by the author were procured by Captain 
St. John in H.M.S. ' Sylvia,' during the years 1871 and 1872, on 
the coasts of North Japan. His dredgings varied between 3 and 
100 fathoms. After passing in review the works of naturalists 
who had described the marine shells of Japan, and especially the 
' Mollusca Japonica' by Dr. Lischke, with reference to those 
species which are common to Japan and Europe, Mr. Jeffreys 
proposed to record from Captain St. John's dredgings thirty-nine 
species, and to give the range of depth for such of them as he had 
obtained in the ' Porcupine ' expeditions of 1869 and 1870. He 
then offered an explanation of the occurrence of the same species 
in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, by suggesting that it was 
probably owing to involuntary transport by tides and currents, 
and not to voluntary migration. Very little is known about the 
direction and force of deep-sea currents ; but high northern 
species might be transported on the one side to Japan and on the 
other to Europe by a bifurcation of the great Arctic current, 
which has been traced as far south as the Straits of Gibraltar in 
the course of the 'Porcupine' expeditions. The entry of 
northern species into the Mediterranean may be accounted for 
by the former existence of a wide channel or, rather, an open sea 
between the lower part of the Bay of Biscay and the Gulf of 



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XIV PBOCEEDING8 OF THE 

Lyons, which has been satisfactorily proved on geological grounds 
to have been formed since the Tertiary epoch. A list of the 
mollusca referred to in the paper was given, with critical re- 
marks, as well as a list of twenty-two species of fish which Dr. 
G-iinther communicated as common to the Japanese Seas and the 
North Atlantic or Mediterranean. 

After the reading of the paper, Captain St. John was called on 
by the President, and stated that he hoped in future cruises to be 
able to obtain farther results, and to visit the warm as well as the 
cold streams. 

Dr. Carpenter, F.B.S., made some general remarks on Ocean* 
currents, especially with reference to the zones of temperature 
in the North and South Atlantic. He stated that it has been 
ascertained that water of 40° F. comes nearer to the surface 
in the equatorial regions than in the north and south tempe- 
rate zones. There are, he believes, zones of all temperatures in 
all deep seas, such as that of 33° F. observed by Capt. St. John 
between Socotra and the Seychelles. He hoped that Capt, 
St. John would in his future expeditions be able to obtain a very 
valuable series of observations of deep-sea temperatures. 

Dr. Gk J. Allman, F.B.S., bore testimony to the great import- 
ance of the results obtained by Captain St. John, and referred to 
a magnificent collection of Hydroids brought home by him, a de- 
scription of which Dr. Allman hoped on a future occasion to be 
able to lay before the Society. The specimens all belonged to 
forms hitherto undescribed ; and he entered into some descrip- 
tion of one of the most remarkable of them. 

2. " Note on Japanese Brachiopoda." By Thomas Davidson, 
Esq., F.B.S. Communicated by J. Owyn Jeffreys, Esq., FJLS. 



February 5th, 1874. 
Giobge Bekthah, Esq.,F.B.S., President, in the Chair. 
The President was in the act of signing the Minutes of the 



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LnmAV society or lohdoh. xt 

last Meeting, when a Fellow of the Society rose and proposed to 
submit a question, justifying his so doing by reference to Chap. 
IX. of the Bye-Laws. The President ruled that this would be 
irregular, as the then present Meeting could only proceed with 
its ordinary business, which was (as defined by Sect. VI. of 
Chap. A ill. of the Bye-Laws) " to read and hear letters, reports, 
and other papers on subjects of Natural History." Some further 
discussion then arose, and the President, not considering that he 
had the support of the Meeting, left the Chair. 



February 19th, 1874 

J. Gwyk Jeffreys, Esq., F.RS., in the Chair. 

H. J. Elwes, Esq., Alex. Wm, Maxwell Clark-Kennedy, Esq., 
Bobert Warner, Esq., Thomas Sogers, Esq., Alexander Peckover, 
Esq., and H. C. Lang, Esq., were elected Fellows. 

The Chairman announced that a Special General Meeting would 
be held on Thursday the 5th of March at 8 p.m., " to consider 
alterations in the Bye-Laws of the Society." 

The following papers were then read : — 

1. " Systematic List of the Spiders at present known to inhabit 
Great Britain and Ireland." By the Bev. O. P. Cambridge. 
Presented by H. T. Stainton, Esq., Sec.L.S. 

During the last five years a constant communication and inter- 
change of typical examples of spiders has been going on between 
Dr. T. Thorell, of Upsala, Dr. Koch, of Nurnberg, M. Eugdne 
Simon, of Paris, the writer, and others, with a view to a determi- 
nation of the synonymic identity of the species recorded as in- 
digenous to Europe, but principally to Sweden, France, Germany, 
and England. The results of this investigation have been pub- 
lished by Dr. Thorell in a most laborious and exhaustive work 
lately completed, * On the Synonyms of European Spiders.' The 
effect of this work is to give priority to names of many British 
spiders described by Mr. Blackwall and the writer other than the 
names they bear in the works of those authors. The time there- 



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XVI PBOCEEDINGS OF THE 

fore appears to have arrived when a list, complete to the present 
time, of the known spiders of Great Britain and Ireland under 
the names to which, according to the laws of priority, they appear 
to be entitled, seems to be a desideratum. Dr. Thorell, indeed 
(Syn. Eur. Spid. p. 471), gives a list of British spiders ; but it ia 
complete only to the date of Mr. Blackwall's work, ' Spiders of 
Great Britain and Ireland,' since the publication of which the 
number of known indigenous species has increased by nearly one 
half. The systematic arrangement of Mr. Blackwall has not been 
adopted in this list, appearing, as it did, to be too artificial and 
based on insufficient (though in some respects convenient) cha- 
racters, and, moreover, never to have found favour with other ara- 
neologists. The present arrangement (though it has no preten- 
sions to finality) is the result of a long and tolerably careful study 
of spiders from many and widely distant regions of the world. It 
begins at the opposite end to that where Dr. Thorell and Dr. 
Koch begin their systematic arrangements; but it is, in the 
main, not very discordant with that of the former of these 
authors, as put forth in his valuable work * On the Genera of En- 
ropean Spiders,' a work to which the writer is indebted for many 
most valuable hints on the classification of the Araneidea. 

2. " Some observations on the Vegetable Productions and Bund 
Economy of the Province of Baghdad." By William Henry 
Colvill, Surgeon-Major H.M. Indian Forces, Civil Service, Baghdad. 
Communicated by Dr. Hooker. 

3. "Note on the Bracts of Crucifers." By M. T. Masters, 
Esq., M.D., E.B.S. 

The subject was divided by the writer into two branches : — 1. The 
absence of bracts in Crucifers. In the majority of cases this is 
so complete that even in the earliest stages of development ob- 
served by Payer no trace of bracts is seen. Different explanations 
of the phenomenon have been given by different morphologists. 
A. P. De Candolle attributes it to congenital suppression of the 
parts ; Godron to pressure acting from within outwards, result- 
ing from the dense manner in which the young flowers are packed 
together ; Norman and Eichler consider that the bracts are abor- 
tive, but potentially present, the latter writer combating Godron's 
view by the consideration that on the one hand the bracts are 



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LHTOEAH SOCIETT OS LOKDON. XVli 

absent where the inflorescence is so loose that no pressure can 
he exerted, and, on the other hand, in some cases where the 
flowers are densely crowded the bracts nevertheless exist. 2. The 
occasional presence of bracts in Crucifers. About fifty illustra- 
tions of this were named. A few species, as Sisymbrium supinum 
and hirsutum, have normally bracts to every flower ; in others 
their occurrence is only occasional ; where the raceme shows a 
tendency to branch into a panicle, they may often be found at the 
base of the secondary divisions of the inflorescence ; in Arabi* 
Turrita the lowermost pedicels have bracts at their base, the in- 
termediate ones have bracts springing from their outer surface 
above their base, while the uppermost have none at all. The 
writer then discussed the various theories which have been pro- 
posed to account for the variation in the position of the bracts 
when present, viz. at the base or on the side of the flower-stalk 
above the base. The causes assigned for the latter apparently 
anomalous position were stated by different botanists to be the 
following :— 1. Partition or subdivision of the axis ; 2. Congenital 
union, or lack of separation between the bract and the pedicel ; 
3. Upraising of the bud and its bract. Anatomy gives no evi- 
dence of partition ; but it does afford in some cases the evidence 
of fusion, or rather of inseparation, as in some of the Cruci- 
fersB examined by Dr. Masters ; while in the case of Sedum, 
Solatium, and Spircea the peculiar arrangement of the bract 
seems to be owing to the third cause above mentioned. 



March 5th, 1874. 

Special General Meeting. 

Gboroe Busk, Esq., P.RS., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Chairman stated the question for the discussion of which 
the Meeting had been summoned, and then called on Mr. Car- 
ruthers, who moved a resolution, "That a Committee be ap- 
pointed to consider the Bye-Laws, and to suggest to the Council 
such alterations, omissions, and additions as they may think de- 
sirable." This resolution was seconded by Mr. W. S. Dallas, 

ltjtn. pboc— Session 1878-74, c 



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XV111 PEOOBEDIHGB Of THE 

F.L.S. Major-General Strachey, E.R.S., thereupon moved, as an 
amendment, " That inasmuch as it appears that there are differ- 
ences of opinion in the Society as to the legality of the altera- 
tions of the Bye-Laws made at the Meeting on the 15th January 
last, (1) This Meeting, retaining complete confidence in the Pre- 
sident and Council of the Society, requests them to obtain the 
opinion of some legal authority whether those alterations are 
legally binding on the Society or not. (2) That if the opinion be 
that the said alterations are legally binding, no further steps be 
taken in reference to them. (3) That if the opinion be that the 
said alterations, or any of them, are not legally binding, "the 
Council be requested to take the necessary proceedings for setting 
aside the vote of the 15th January." This was seconded by Mr. 
C. J. Breese, F..L.S. A second amendment was moved by Mr. J. £. 
Harting, F.L.S., " That, the case having been submitted to counsel, 
the opinions thereon be read for the information of the Meet- 
ing ;" but this amendment was subsequently withdrawn. After 
much discussion, General Strachey's amendment was put by 
the Chairman to the Meeting, and was declared to be carried 
by a majority of 57 votes against 39. The amendment waa 
then put as a substantive motion, and carried. 

Before the close of the Meeting Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 
F.B.S., proposed, and Mr. Carruthers, F.R.S., seconded, a resolu- 
tion expressive of the deep sense entertained by the Society of 
the eminent services rendered both to the Linnean Society and to 
Science by the President during his long tenure of that Office, 
which resolution was carried unanimously by acclamation ; and the 
Meeting closed with a Vote of Thanks to the Chairman. 



March 19th, 1874. 

Dr. Gk J. Allmajt, F.S.S., in the Chair. 

Alfred Walker, Esq., and Edwyn C. Beed, Esq., of Santiago, 
were elected Fellows. 

The following papers were read, viz. : — 

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LTRTTEAK 8O0IBTT OF LONDON. XIX 

1. " Observations on Bees and Wasps." By Sir John Lub- 
bock, Bart., M.P., F.B.S. 

The paper commenced by pointing out, with reference to the 
power of communication with one another said to be possessed 
by Hymenoptera, that the observations on record scarcely justify 
the conclusions which have been drawn from them. In support of 
the opinion that ants, bees, and wasps possess a true language, it 
is usually stated that if one bee discovers a store of honey, the 
others are soon aware of the fact. This, however, does not neces- 
sarily imply the possession of any power of describing localities, 
or any thing which could correctly be called a language. If the 
bees or wasps merely follow their fortunate companions, the 
matter is simple enough* If, on the contrary, the others are 
sent, the case will be very different. In order to test this, Sir 
John kept honey in a given place for some time, in order to satisfy 
himself that it would not readily be found by the bees, and then 
brought a bee to the honey, marking it so that he could ascertain 
whether it brought others or sent them, the latter, of course, im- 
plying a much higher order of intelligence and power of commu- 
nication. After trying the experiment several times with single 
bees and obtaining only negative results, Sir John Lubbock 
procured one of Marriott's observatory-hives, which he placed in 
his sitting-room. The bees had free access to the open air ; but 
there was also a small side or postern door, which could be opened 
at pleasure, and which led into the room. This enabled him to 
feed and mark any particular bees ; and he recounted a number 
of experiments, from which it appeared that comparatively few bees 
found their own way through the postern, while of those which 
did so the great majority flew to the window, and scarcely any 
found the honey for themselves. Those, on the contrary, which 
were taken to the honey, passed backwards and forwards between 
it and the hive, making on an average, five journeys in the hour. 

Sir John had also in a similar manner watched a number of 
marked wasps, with very similar results. 

These and other observations of the same tendency appear 
to show that, even if bees and wasps have the power of inform- 
ing one another when they discover a store of good food, at any 
rate they do not habitually do so ; and this seemed to him a strong 
reason for concluding that they are not in the habit of communi- 
cating facts. 

c2 



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XX PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

When once wasps had made themselves thoroughly acquainted 
with their way, their movements were most regular. They spent 
three minutes supplying themselves with honey, and then flow 
straight to the nest, returning after an interval of about ten 
minutes, and thus making, like the bees, about five journeys an 
hour. During September they began in the morning at about 
six o'clock, and later when the mornings began to get cold, and 
continued to work without intermission till dusk. They made, 
therefore, rather more than fifty journeys in the day. 

Sir John had also made some experiments on the behaviour of 
bees introduced into strange hives, which seemed to contradict 
the ordinary statement that strange bees are always recognised 
and attacked. 

Another point as to which very different opinions have been 
propounded is the use of the antenna. Some entomologists have 
regarded them as olfactory organs, some as ears, the weight of 
authority being perhaps in favour of the latter opinion. In expe- 
rimenting on his. wasps and bees, Sir John, to his surprise, could 
obtain no evidence that they heard at all. He tried them with a 
shrill pipe, with a whistle, with a violin, with all the sounds of 
which his voice was capable, doing so, moreover, within a few 
inches of their head ; but they continued to feed without the 
slightest appearance of consciousness. 

Lastly, he recounted some observations showing that bees have 
the power of distinguishing colours. The relations of insects to 
flowers imply that the former can distinguish colour ; but there 
had been as yet but few direct observations on the point. 

An interesting discussion followed, in which Mr. Robert 
Warner, Major-General Strachey, Mr. A. W. Bennett, Prof. 
Newton, Prof. Thiselton Dyer, Mr. D. Hanbury, Mr. Elliot, of 
New York, and others took part. 

2. " On Oniscigaiter Wakefieldi, a singular insect from New 
Zealand, belonging to the Family Ephemerid®, with Notes on 
its Aquatic Conditions." By B. M'Lachlan, Esq., F.L.S. 

The author gives full diagnoses of the new species and genus 
founded on this remarkable insect, forwarded by Mr. C. M. Wake- 
field from Cbristchurch, Canterbury Settlement! New Zealand. 
He has also had the opportunity of examining two individuals of 



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LINNBAK SOCIETY OT LOWDON. XXI 

the aquatic conditions of the insect. These are of different ages, 
and may be termed " larva " and " nymph " respectively, the larger 
individual having strongly developed rudimentary wings, and 
being evidently nearly mature, while the smaller one possesses 
only the thoracic lobes which indicate the position of the wings. 
These two states are described in detail. 

This remarkable insect would appear to be common at Christ- 
church, the cast subimaginal skins being no rarities sticking on 
walls, windows, Ac. The Bev. A. E. Eaton considers the genus 
allied to Siphlurus, and points out that the structure of the aquatic 
conditions shows the creature to be of active habits, swimming 
freely among water-plants in search of its prey, and not semi- 
fbssorial as is the case with some members of the family. The 
great lateral expansion of the margins of the abdominal segments 
is without a parallel in any known perfect insect of the group. 
The author concludes by tracing the relations of Latreille's genus 
of Branchiopod Crustacea, Prosopistoma, according to the ob- 
servations of N. and E. Joly, two French entomologists (father 
and son), who have rediscovered the creature, and who point out 
that there is scarcely any doubt as to the genus having been 
founded on the aquatic conditions of some species of Ephemerid®. 

Some discussion as to the relationships of Oniscigaster took 
place, in which the Bev. A. E. Eaton (present as a visitor) and 
Sir John Lubbock took part. 



April 2nd, 1874. 
J. Gwyn Jbffbets, Esq., F.B.S., in the Chair. 

J. H. Mangles, Esq., was elected a Fellow. 

The following paper was read : — 

1. "On the Morphology of the Skulls in the Woodpeckers 
(Picid®) and the Wrynecks (Yungid®)." By W. Kitchen Parker, 
F.B.S. Communicated by the President. 



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XZil PROCEEDINGS Of THK 

The present paper is one of a aeries in hand, in which the writer 
has endeavoured to work out thoroughly the facial characters of cer- 
tain types of birds, in harmony with the view given by Professor 
Huxley in his well-known paper u On the Classification of Birds " 
(Proc. Zool. Soc. April 11, 1867). 

His own mode of research is much more like that followed 
by the distinguished author of that paper than that pursued 
by ornithologists proper. Without undervaluing their excel- 
lent labours, yet there are many things which are seen first and 
first understood by the embryologist, and not by the zoologist as 
such. Professor Huxley, in the paper just referred to, separated the 
forms now under consideration into his group " Coleomarphas," 
aud gives (p. 467) a very valuable summary of their characters. 
It was sought in that paper to bring into more or less zoological 
contiguity such birds as have a similar structure of the facial and, 
especially, of the palatal bones. The group-terms " Schizogna- 
th® " (p. 426), " DromiBognathffi " (p. 425), Ac. are very important, 
although some of them are of very wide application. 

It was the first thought of the author of this paper that the 
Woodpeckers would easily find a place amongst the non-pauerme 
aerial birds ; but examination of their palatal structures soon dis- 
pelled this opinion. They are more allied to the " Passerine " 
than most of the Zygodactyles ; but it is to the embryo* of that 
type, and not to the adult, that they are related. The " Pad- 
Berime " themselves are well termed "JSgithognathous " (p. 450). 
This huge group is in hand at present. Large materials have 
been added to the stores of the writer by Osbert Salvin, Esq., 
who also has assisted greatly in the matter of the Picid®. He 
is also indebted to Dr. Murie, Mr. D. Bartlett, and Mr. W. J. 
Williams. 

Most of the non-passerine birds that seem to come nearest to 
the Woodpeckers have a very solid palate ; they are " Desmogna- 
thous;" others, as the Humming-birds and Goatsuckers {Capri* 
tnulgus), are " Schizognathous ; " whilst the Swift (Cypselu*) is aa 
perfectly " JEgithognathous " as the Swallows. But the Wood- 
peckers retain that non-coalesced condition of the palatal struc- 
tures which we see in the Lizards, very unlike that great fusion 
of parts towards the mid line wliich occurs in most of the higher 
birds. They have also an unusually arrested condition of the pa* 
latal part of the upper jaw-bone (maxillary), which is characteristic 
of the Lizard, and unlike the bird-class generally — and bones super- 



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LtKNIAN SOCIETY OF LONDON. XXlii 

added to the palate (" vomers," " septomaxfllaries," &c.) ; these 
are persistently in paired groups, more in number, and altoge- 
ther more evidently embryonic and Lacertian than- the homolo- 
gous parts of other birds. The writer therefore seeks to introduce 
a new morphological term for these birds as a group, having rela- 
tion to their face, namely the term "Saurognatha;" for none 
of Professor Huxley's terms is appropriate for this type of 
palate. 

The writer has been able to work out these parts in the nestlings 
of Tuna torquilla, in four stages of Oecinus viridis, in the young of 
Picus minor, and in the adult of P. tnqjor, P. analis, Hemilophus 
jfidvus, and Picumnus minutu*. 



April 16th, 1874. 

H. Tbimek, Esq., M.B., in the Chair. 

G. E. Dobson, Esq., Staff-Surgeon, Netley, was elected a 
Fellow. 

The Chairman proposed Dr. Allman. Dr. Trimen, Mr. James 
lnce, and Mr. H. T. Mennell as Members of the Committee for 
auditing the Treasurer's account. 

A letter was read from Professor Parlatore, of Florence, in- 
viting the Society to send representatives to the International 
Horticultural and Botanical Congress to be held in that city 
in May. On the motion of Mr. A. Murray, seconded by Pro- 
fessor Thiselton Dyer, Dr. Masters, Mr. George Maw, and Mr. 
Hiern were accredited by the Society to the Congress. 

A note was read from Professor Oliver on a fruit collected 
on the return route from Coomassie by Lieutenant De Hoghton, 
and forwarded by Major Bulger, which proved to belong to 2H#- 
boMcia, a remarkable genus of Tiliace®, only known to us pre- 
viously from specimens collected on the river Muni by Mr. Gustav 
Mann in 1862, and described by Bocquillon in 'Adansonia,' 
vii. 60. 



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XXIV .' PBOOXEDIKGS OS THE 

Mr. A. Murray exhibited some remarkable specimens of sili- 
cified wood from N.W. America, one of which had a peculiar 
charred appearance. 

Professor Thiselton Dyer remarked that Mr. Murray's speci- 
mens were extremely similar to the silicified wood of Lough 
Neagh (Oupressoxylon Pritchardt). The specimens with a deeply 
discoloured interior, he thought, had not necessarily undergone 
any thing like charring from fire, but had probably been parti- 
ally converted into lignite by slow decay before silicification. 
The Lough Neagh wood was attributed to the Miocene ; but the 
fragments were found imbedded, like Mr. Murray's specimens, in 
a clay, and this was of late Tertiary age. 

Professor Busk compared the substance to jet, and described a 
bed of lignite in the north of France in which a similar phenome- 
non was presented, the interior part of the wood being converted 
into charcoal, while the exterior part retained its original condition. 

Mr. J. G\ Baker exhibited specimens from the Kew Herbarium 
of Ckeilanthes farinosa and Dalhousia. The fern described by 
.Sir William Hooker as C. Dalhotma was gathered in the Hima- 
layas by Lady Dalhousie, and precisely resembles the well-known 
C farinosa in every respect except the absence of the waxy cover- 
ing on the back of the frond. Specimens have since been found 
intermediate in character ; and Mr. Baker now exhibited some 
from New Granada agreeing precisely with the Himalayan form, 
which confirm the view that C. Dalhousiw can no longer be main- 
tained as a distinct species. 

Professor Thiselton Dyer exhibited, from the Kew Museum, a 
fine series of the fruits of various species of Diptcrocarpu* and also 
of Dryobalanopg aromatica, Ga?rtn. fiL, together with an unfolded 
embryo of the latter plant. The remarkable wings possessed 
by the fruits of the Dipterocarpe® seemed to be adapted to the 
occasional transport of the fruits by strong gusts of wind. It 
was, however, stated by Indian observers that the seeds very 
rapidly lost their capacity for germination. 

Dr. Cleghorn agreed that this was the case, and that in India 
the Sal (Shorea robuiia) could not be distributed to places at any 
distance from the forests by means of its seeds. The reason 
appeared to be that germination generally commenced before the 
fruits fell from the trees. 



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LtNNEAN SOCIETY OF LONDON. XXV 

Mr. Bull stated that he had grown Shorea in this country from 
seeds sent to him covered with wax. 

The following papers were then read, viz. : — 

1. tt Contributions to the Botany of H.M.S. ' Challenger ' Ex- 
pedition." Communicated by Dr. Hooker, V.P.L.S. Nos. III. 
to XIV. 

- No. HI. " Notes on Freshwater Algae collected in the Boiling 
8prings at Furnas, St. Michael's, Azores, and their neighbour- 
hood." By H. N. Moseley, Esq. 

In the valley of Furnas are two distinct sets of hot springs — one 
at the village, and the other at a distance of two or three miles, on 
the shore of the lake. In the principal one of the springs at the 
latter locality ebullition is constantly going on, and no Algae were 
found in it. At a short distance is another spring of sulphurous 
intensely hot, but not boiling, water ; and the water is here co- 
vered to the depth of almost 1J inch by a shining substance com- 
posed entirely of Oscillatoria mixed with a Botryococcm and a few 
skeletons of Diatomace&, including a species of Navicula. Close 
by these sulphurous springs are shallow pools of hot water edged 
round with a Botryococcu*. At the other set is a sulphurous spring 
of boiling-hot muddy water. Immediately below is a swamp of 
hot mud, also full of Botryococcm unmixed with Oscillatorue. The 
exact temperature of the hot springs was not taken. The Algae 
appear to resemble those described by Babenhorst as growing in 
warm springs in Europe. In a warm stream of about 95° F. a 
Conferva was found growing amongst the fibres of a moss. 

The neighbouring lake of Furnas contains several patches 
from which sulphurous gas is discharged, and is rich in various 
Algffi, such as Nortoc, Oscillatoria, Hydrodictyon, Ac. 

No. IV. " Note on the foregoing communication." By Pro- 
fessor Thiselton Dyer, F.L.S. 

The Diatoms sent home by Mr. Moseley were submitted to the 
Bev. E. O'Meara, who found them to belong to species of the 
most frequent occurrence in fresh water, apparently in no way 
affected by the high temperature of the water. 



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XXVI PBO0BEDIHO8 OF THE 

No. Y. " Notes on some Collections made by Mr. Moseley at 
Furnas." By W. Archer, Esq. 

The Algae are mostly common species, seyeral of them British, 
belonging to the genera JBotryococcus, Spirogyra, Mesocarpus, Bul> 
lochete, QSdogonium, Ac. A portion of a rush was also found, 
apparently differing in no way from Juncus acutiflortu ; also re- 
mains of Entomostraca and Bhizopoda. 

No. VI. "Notes on Plants collected at St. Vincent, Cape- 
Verdes." By H. N. Moseley, Esq. 

As complete a collection as possible was made of the plants, 
every day being spent in searching for specimens ; also a few 
from St. Iago. 

No. VII. "Enumeration of Alg® collected by Mr. Moseley 
at the Cape-Verdes." By Gh Dickie, M.D., P.L.S. 

Three new species were described. 

No. VIII. "Enumeration of the Fungi collected during the 
Expedition of H.M.S. ' Challenger,' February to May 1873." By 
the Bev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

No. IX. " Notes on Plants collected at St. Paul's Bock." By 
H. N. Moseley, Esq. 

Darwin and Hooker have described the absolute barrenness of 
this island. Very few seaweeds were found living in the constant 
heavy surf. Where the water was comparatively smooth, a few green 
Algae were found, and a green Chlorococcum on the concretions of 
guano. This was the only aerial plant found on the island, and 
it was accompanied by the pupa of the pupiparous fly described 
by Darwin. In the stagnant water are a few Oscillatorus and 
Diatoms. 

No. X. " Enumeration of the AlgiB collected by Mr. Moseley at 
St. Paul's Bock." By Gh Dickie, M.D., F.L.S. 

About eighteen species are described, including six possibly new 
ones. 



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LIKKEAK SOCIETY OP LONDON. XXVU 

No. XI. " Notes on Plants collected at Fernando Noronha." 
By H. N. Moseley, Esq. 

The only published description of plants from this island is by 
Webster in his narrative of Poster's voyage in the ' Chanticleer.' 
Darwin mentions only two. 

No. XII. " Enumeration of Algae collected by Mr Moseley 
at Pernando Noronha." By G. Dickie, M.D., P.L.S. 

Pive or six new species are described. Excluding three or four 
species, mostly cosmopolites, and the smaller species from rock- 
pools, the Algffi are most nearly related to those of the Mexican 
Gulf. 

No. XHL "Enumeration of Algae collected by Mr. Moseley 
in 30-fathoms water at Barra Grande, Pernambuco." By G. 
Dickie, M.D., P.L.8. 

No. XIV. " Enumeration of Alg® collected by Mr. Moseley in 
Bahia." By G. Dickie, M.D., P.L.S. 



May 7th, 1874. 

Geoegb Busk, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Isaac Vaughan, Esq., P.Z.S., was elected a Fellow. 

Professor Thiselton Dyer exhibited a fruit of Telfmria occiden- 
tali*, Hook. f. Dr. "W. C. Thomson wrote in a note accompany- 
ing the specimen, " The seeds are used parched by the natives of 
Calabar, and the young leaves and shoots much prized as a green 
vegetable. The native name is Ubftng ; and from the fruit of the 
Arutolochia Goldieana, Hook, f., having some resemblance to it, 
that plant is called TJbong-edop, signifying the antelope's or the 
wild Ubong." With reference to the fruit of the Aristolochia, 
hitherto undescribed, Dr. Thomson writes as follows : — " I have 



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XXYU1 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

seen it, but only so far back as 1859 1 cannot trust myself to 

say more than that the fruit was of a red-brown colour, 5 or 6 inches 
long, and six-celled, with six well-marked ridges, giving it the 
resemblance traced to the Telfairia. I fenced in the plant to get 
the fruit matured ; but finding one day half of it eaten away, I 
secured and bottled the remaining half. In the other two W.- 
African species, A, triactina and A. Mannii, the fruit is ribbed." 

Mr. J. B. Jackson exhibited a piece of the wood of the copal- 
tree (Trachylobium Hornemannianum) from Zanzibar riddled 
by white ants. After ^having been some time in the Kew Mu- 
seum, the living creatures were found in the copal and sent to Mr, 
F. Smith, who determined them to belong to a species of Terme* 
or white ant, Eutermes lateralis, Walk. Great* interest in the 
specimen presented was expressed by entomologists present, who 
had never seen a white ant alive, Mr. E. M'Lachlan remarking that 
a species introduced in this way to the Botanic Gardens at Vienna 
had become a great pest in the hothouses. 

The following papers were then read, viz. : — 

1. "On the Discovery of Phylica arbor ea, a tree of Tristan 
d* Acunha, in Amsterdam Island, in the South-Indian Ocean ; with 
an enumeration of the Phanerogams and Vascular Cryptogams 
of that Island and of St. Paul's." By Dr. J. D. Hooker, 
V.P.L.S. 

Labillardifere stated in 1791 that the islet of Amsterdam (gene- 
rally confounded with that of St. Paul), lat. 37° 52' S., long. 77° 85' 
E., in the Indian Ocean, was covered with trees, while that of St. 
Paul, only fifty miles south of it, is destitute of even a shrub. 
The nature of this arborescent vegetation was unknown until 
H.M.S. ' Pearl ' touched at the island in the summer of 1878, 
when Commodore Goodenough brought off a specimen of what 
he states to be the only tree growing in the island, together 
with a fern in an imperfect state. The former proves to be the 
Phylica arborea of Tristan d' Acunha, and the fern a frond of a 
Lomaria. Amsterdam Island and Tristan d' Acunha are separated 
by about 5000 miles of ocean, and are nearly in the same latitude ; 
and Dr. Hooker discusses the various hypotheses which suggest 
themselves to account for the extraordinary fact of the occurrence 



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LIAffEAK SOCIETY OF LOKDOK. MIX 

of the same species in such widely separated localities, viz. winds, 
birds, oceanic currents, and a former continuous land-connexion, 
all of which present great difficulties. Eeichardt gives, in the 
' Verhandl. der k. k. Gesellsch. der Wissen.' of Vienna for 1873, 
a list of eleven plants collected on St. Paul's Island ; one of these 
appears to be Spartina arundinacea, a plant also only known else- 
where as a native of Tristan d'Acunha. Near the hot springs 
on St. Paul's Island Lycopodium cernuum is found, an interesting 
example of the occurrence of a tropical species under special con- 
ditions beyond its normal range, a phenomenon of which other 
instances also occur. 

Mr. A. "W. Bennett suggested a fourth possible explanation of 
the occurrence of the Phylica in two such remote localities, viz. 
its accidental or intentional transport by human agency — an hypo- 
thesis which he thought was strengthened by the similar occur- 
rence of a second species, Spartina arundinacea, and by the fact 
that of the eleven species recorded by Eeichardt as growing on 
St. Paul's Island, he considered that nine had been introduced. 

2. "Additions to the Lichen-Flora of New Zealand." By 
Dr. J. Stirton. Communicated by Dr. Hooker, V.P.L.S. 

The lichens here described were collected by John Buchanan, 
Esq., of the Colonial Museum, Wellington, N.Z., and include 
a large number of species now described for the first time. The 
lichen-flora of New Zealand is an unusually rich one ; but while 
the phanerogamic flora of the islands diverges widely from that of 
countries in a corresponding European latitude, their cryptogamic 
flora shows closer affinities, and this is especially the case with 
regard to the lichens. In the Angiocarpous section there is a 
singular discrepancy in the colour of the spores of several species 
from New Zealand from that of lichens which in other respects 
must be identified with them from other parts of the world. 

3. " Enumeratio Muscorum Capitis Bon© Spei." By J. Shaw, 
M.D., F.L.S. 

The general results arrived at in this paper are summed up 
as follows : — 1. The great majority of the Cape mosses are of 
northern-hemisphere types, a few being cosmopolites. 2. Some 
Australian and New-Zealand forms are represented — a much 
larger proportion than is the case with, flowering plants. 3. 



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XXX PBOCEBDINGS OF THE 

Many forms are strictly localized to particular soils and con- 
ditions of climate. 4. The Moss-flora of the Cape is charac- 
terized by an almost total absence of alpine forms. 

4. " Contributions to the Botany of the ' Challenger * Expedi- 
tion." Communicated by Dr. Hooker, V.P.L.S. 

No. XV. " Notes on Plants collected in the Islands of the 
Tristan d'Acunha Group." By H. N. Moseley, Esq. 

The only published accounts of the flora of Tristan d'Acunha 
are by Du Petit Thouars in his ' M&anges,' and by Captain Car- 
michael in the ' Transactions of the Linnean Society/ vol xii. 
The area of the island is sixteen, and not two, geographical square 
miles, as stated in Grisebach's 'Vegetation der Erde.' The 
fruit of Phylica arborea is described as being eaten by birds. In* 
accessible Island, four square miles in extent and twenty-three 
miles from Tristan d'Acunha, was also visited, probably for the 
first time by any European naturalist. 

No. XVI. " List of Alg© collected by Mr. H. N. Moseley at 
Tristan d'Acunha," By G. Dickie, M.D., F.L.S. 

Two new species are described. 

5. "On a new Australian Sph&romoid (Oyelura vmo*a); and 
Notes on Dynamene rubra and D. viridis" By the Rev. T.RB. 
Stebbing. Communicated by W. W. Saunders, Esq., V.P.L.S. 

This form belongs apparently to a new genus. It was found in 
Sidney Harbour, under stones at the lowest ebb-tides. 

6. " Descriptions of five new Species of Gonyleptt*" Bf A. 
G. Butler, Esq., F.L.S. 

These are additional to the monograph of the genus already 
published by the writer. 

7. " Observations on the Fruit of Nitophyllum verticohr." By 
Mrs. Merrifield. Communicated by P. Currey, Esq., Sec. L.S. 

The paper contains a description of the coccidia of this specie*, 
hitherto unknown, although the plant was described in 1800. 



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UHXJUUT SOCIETY Of LQHDOK. ZXZl 

8. M On Hieracimm nOetaue, DC." By C. B. Clarice, Esq., 
FJJ3. 

The writer disagrees with Mr. Bentham's identification of this 
8peciee with Amsliao amgmstifblia, Hook. £ et Thorns. 

9. "Notes on Indian Gentianacea*." By C. B. Clarke, Eeq , 
FJ-.S. 

The paper contains a list of Indian Gentianaoes, with remarks 
on those species, especially the Bengal ones, of which the writer 
has sufficient materials to justify any. The sources are his own 
herbarium, that of Mr. Kurz, and the collection belonging to the 
Calcutta Botanic Gardens. 

10. " On some Atlantic Crustacea from the ' Challenger ' Expedi- 
tion." By R y. Willemoee-Suhm. Communicated by Professor 
Wyville Thomson, FJEL8. 

Among the many deep-sea crustaceans which have been brought 
up either by the dredge or the trawl during the ' Challenger's ' 
cruise in the Atlantic, the most interesting are described in the 
present paper — in addition to descriptions of both sexes of the 
interesting Ncbdlia from the shallow water of Bermuda, some re- 
marks on the male and the structure of Cystotoma (Thaumop*), 
and some additions to our knowledge of the natural history 
and development of a land-crab from the Cape-Verdes Tnl^da. 
More detailed descriptions of these forms are given than in the 
papers already printed elsewhere, as well as an attempt to settle 
their systematic position. The paper is divided into seven parts, 
as follows: — (1) on a blind deep-sea Tanaid; (2) on Cyttotoma 
Neptuni (Thamwwps pellucidd) ; (3) on a Nebalia from Bermudas ; 

(4) on some genera of Schisopoda with a free dorsal shield; 

(5) on the development of a land-crab ; (6) on a blind deep-sea 
AtUzcu*; (7) on WiUemoeria (Grote), a deep-sea Decapod allied 
to dry on. 



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UXU PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



Anniversary Meeting, May 25th, 1874. 

G-eobge Busk, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

After the usual preliminary business the Treasurer read- the 
financial statement, the receipts and payments for the year being 
as under (see p. xlii). 

The Secretary stated that the death of twelve Fellows of 
the Society (viz. : — Philip Barnes, Esq. ; Frederic Bird, M.D. 
Robert Cole, Esq. ; Henry Deane, Esq. ; J. T. Dickson, Esq., M.B. 
James Fischer, Esq. ; Bev. Dr. Gamier, Dean of Winchester 
Albany Hancock, Esq. ; T. N. B. Morson, Esq. ; J. L. Stewart, 
M.D. ; Thomas Turner, Esq. ; Francis C.Webb, M.D.) and of three 
Foreign Members (viz. : — Prof. Louis'Agassiz, F.M.B.S. ; George 
.Bitter von Frauenfeld; Carl Friedrich Meissner, M.D.) had been 
ascertained to have taken place during the year, that four Fellows 
(viz. : — A. Adams, Esq. ; Bev. A. R. Cole ; H. Hailey, Esq. ; 
and J. Shaw, M.D.) bad withdrawn and twenty-seven had been 
elected during the past year. 



The Chairman announced, on the report of the scrutineers 
appointed for the purpose, that the following gentlemen were 
elected Officers of the Society for the coming year, viz. : — Presi- 
dent, G. J. Allinan, M.D. ; Treasurer, Daniel Hanbury, Esq. ; 
Secretaries, Frederick Currey, Esq., and St. George J. Mivart, 
Esq.; that Robert Braithwaite, M.D., J. D. Hooker, C.B., 
M.D., J. G. Jenreys, LL.D., Daniel Oliver, Esq., and W. W. 
Saunders, Esq., were removed from the Council, and the following 
five gentlemen elected in their place, viz.: — Major-General 
Strachey; W. T. T. Dyer, Esq.; J. E. Harting, Esq.; W. P. 
Hiern, Esq. ; J. J. Weir, Esq. 

It was resolved unanimously: — "That the Secretaries be re- 
quested to convey to Mr. Bentham the cordial thanks of the 
Society for his invaluable services throughout the thirteen years 



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LINNEAN SOCIETY OF LONDON. XXxiil 

during which he has occupied the President's Chair, to express to 
him the regret with which the Fellows contemplate the loss of his 
services, and to assure him that the zealous interest which he has 
taken in the welfare of the Society and the great efforts which he 
has made, with so much liberality and success, to increase its 
prosperity and usefulness, will always be held in grateful remem- 
brance. 

It was also unanimously resolved : — " That the thanks of the 
Society be given to Mr. Stainton on his retirement from the 
office of Secretary, with an expression of the Society's deep 
regret on losing his valuable services in that capacity." 

The Senior Secretary laid before the Society the Obituary 
Notices, printed at p. xliii. 



June 4th, 1874. 

G. J. Allman, M J)., President, in the Chair. 

The President nominated GL Bentham, Esq., Q. Busk, Esq., 
J. Miers, Esq., and D. Hanbury, Esq., Vice-Presidents of the 
Society for the year ensuing. 

The President exhibited a number of living specimens of fire- 
fly (Luciola italica) recently taken by himself in the neighbour- 
hood of Turin, calling attention to the remarkable synchronous 
emission of flashes of light by numerous individuals, and pointing 
out that the phosphorescence is a phenomenon not of darkness 
merely, but of twilight or night. 

Dr. W. Gh Parlow exhibited and described microscopical pre- 
parations made in the botanical laboratory of the University of 
Strasburg, illustrating a remarkable asexual development from 
the prothallus of PterU cretica. In the centre of the cushion 
or thickest part of the prothallus were a number of scalariform 
ducts, the prothallus bearing a number of antheridia, but no 
archegonia. From these ducts a leaf is developed directly, after 
which a root is also developed, and last of all a stem-bud. A 
comparison was drawn between this growth, which was observed 
in this species only, and the buds ordinarily produced from the 

linn. pboc. — Session 1873-74. d 



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xxxiv pbocixdixgs of the 

protonema of a moss. Normally the protballus of a fern is en- 
tirely destitute of vascular tissue of any kind. 

Professor Thiselton Dyer described the structure of the flowers 
of Pringlea and Lyallia, which had recently been sent to this 
country for the first time by Mr. Moseley, and which had been 
dissected by Professor Oliver and subsequently by himself. 

Pringlea possesses no petals whatever. The stamens are normal, 
with flattened filaments gradually narrowed upwards. Glandular 
are altogether absent* The stigma is flattened and hairy* 

Lyallia has the flowers solitary in the axils of the overlapping 
leaves. The pedicel is furnished with two subopposite lateral bracts. 
The perianth consists of four free membranous leaflets arranged 
in two decussating pairs. The stamens are variable ; but com- 
monly there is one anterior and two posterior, with minute gland- 
like swellings of the torus between their insertion. The bifurca- 
tion of the stigma is apparently oblique to the median line of the 
flower. The ovary is one-celled, with about three erect basal 
ovules. First placed in Portulace®, and subsequently amongst 
the Polycarpe© in Caryophyllace®, its final place would probably 
be found to be in Alsine© near Colobanthus. 



Dr. Hooker then stated that whereas in a former communica- 
tion he had pointed out that two of the peculiar plants of Tristan 
d'Acunha reappeared in nearly the same latitude in Amsterdam 
Island, he had now to call attention to the no less remarkable 
latitudinal extension, more to the south, of that very remarkable 
plant Pringlea. Mr. Moseley had had the good fortune to get 
this on Marion Island more to the west, and on Heard Island 
more to the east of any known station for it. They had specu 
cimens in the Kew Herbarium from the Crozets. He thought 
that these facts were very important additions to the geogra- 
phical botany of the great southern oceanic region. He could 
not agree with Mr. Bennett's suggestion that the Tristan 
d'Acunha plant might have been introduced by human agency into 
Amsterdam Island. Several peculiarities in the structure of 
Pringlea, the absence of petals and of the usual glands between 
the bases of the stamens, the exserted anthers, and the papilla of 
the stigma extended into a tuft of hairs, appear to point to this 
plant (a native of a country where there are no winged insects) 



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LtNNEAN SOCIETY OP LONDON. XXXV 

being a wind-fertilized member of a class of plants that are ordi- 
narily fertilized by insects. 

The following papers were then read, viz. : — 

1. Contributions to the Botany of the ' Challenger' Expedition 
(presented by Dr. J. D. Hooker, C.B.) : 

No. Xlla. " Challenger Lichens " (Cape-Verdes). By Dr. J. 
Stirton. 

No. XVHa. " Letter from Mr. H. N. Moseley to Dr. Hooker, 
dated Cape Otway, Australia, March 16, 1874. On the Botany 
of Kerguelen's Land, Marion, and Heard Islands." 

No. XVlli. " List of hitherto unrecorded Species from Ker- 
guelen's Land, Marion, and Heard Islands, with a Note on Lyallia 
Kerguelenris, Hook, f." By Professor Oliver. 

"Synopsis of the Mosses of the Island of St. Paul." By W. 
Mitten, A.L.S. (Appendix to Dr. Hooker's paper a On St. Paul's 
Island Plants.") 

2. " On the Restiace© of Thunberg's Herbarium." By M. T. 
Masters, MJ)., F.B.S. 

At the time that the author published his monograph "On 
the South-African Bestiacess" in the Journal of the Society, 
vol. viii. p. 211, and vol. x. p. 209, he had had no opportunity of 
examining the type specimens described by Thunberg. The few 
figures published by that naturalist are excellent ; but his descrip- 
tions are often so imperfect that not even the sex of the plant 
is mentioned. In common therefore with all who had previ- 
ously studied these plants, the author had to guess at the species 
intended by Thunberg. Lately, however, by the kindness of the 
authorities at Upsal, Thunberg's African collections have been 
transmitted to Kew for examination ; and the author availed him- 
self of the opportunity to study the Bestiace©. The paper now 
read contains a list of these specimens, with their names, syno- 
nyms, and such rectifications in the nomenclature as the exami- 
nation rendered necessary. 

J2 



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xxxvi PBOCESDnrea of the 

3. " On Napoleona, Omphalocarpum, aud AMiermiho$y By J. 
Miers, Esq., V.P.L.S. 

The plants forming the small group of the Napoleonea are con- 
fined to two very heterogeneous genera — one from Africa, the 
other from Brazil. Napoleona was discovered in 1787 at Owaree 
by Palisot-Beauvois ; Atterantho* was established in 1820 by 
Desfontaines, when he associated it with Napoleona as a group 
belonging to Symplocinem. These plants have been ever since a 
complete puzzle to botanists, who have assigned to them remotely 
dissimilar positions, the last being that given by the authors of 
the * Genera Plantarum,' who make them a subtribe of Lecy- 
thides, one of their tribes of Myrtace©. A careful examination 
of these plants has convinced the author that most botanists hare 
been wide of the mark in regard to their true affinity. In his 
analysis of Napoleona he separated carefully the several parts 
which constitute the flower, which are arranged in four distinct 
whorls, all fixed on the outer margin of a short erect «nnnlM» epi- 
gynous disk ; the external whorl is the corolla, which is orbicular 
with many strong subulate nerves confluent around their base, 
and terminating in as many short lobes that divide the circumfer- 
ence. The other parts within the corolla have been called the 
corona, and form three whorls. The outer one consists of about 
seventy narrow pointed segments somewhat shorter than the 
corolla, all free to the base, where they are attached to the disk, 
at some distance from which a prominent vesicle is seen on each 
upon its median nerve ; so that when the corolla is removed a 
moniliform ring of seventy vesicles is distinctly observed on the 
under side of these radiating segments — an important feature 
which has been overlooked by all botanists with one exception, 
and which perhaps offers a key to the nature of the whole struc- 
ture. The second whorl of the corona, when the other parts are 
removed, is seen to consist of about forty similar but broader seg- 
ments, all confluent for half their length into a depressed globe 
or cup ; the free portions of the segments, being incurved, meet in 
the centre ; when this globular cup is viewed from below, a similar 
moniliform ring of forty vesicles, similar in diameter to the former 
one, is distinctly seen upon the nerves of the segments. The third 
or inner whorl consists of twenty free similar segments somewhat 
broader than the last, all curving inwards in a horse-shoe form, 
so that their extremities all converge around the stigma, each of 



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LIKKEAN SOCIETY OP LOHDOK. XXXVU 

the extremities bearing a fertile anther fixed extrorsely upon the 
tip of the segments — a very important feature. The ovary is quite 
inferior, crowned on its outer edge with five thick triangular 
sepals, which are valvate in estivation ; it is from 5- to 12-celled, 
each cell containing two or four superposed collateral ovules fixed 
in the axis. The indehiscent fruit is a depressed globe umbili- 
cated in the centre, where it is crowned by the persistent sepals ; 
it has a more or less thin coriaceous pericarp divided by distinct 
dissepiments into cells varying in number in the several species ; 
in most cases only a single seed is perfected in each cell, which is 
oblong, compressed, and reniform on one margin where it is at- 
tached to the axis of the fruit ; and upon its reniform sinus a 
broad cicatrix is seen, denoting the place of its adhesion to the 
angle of the dissepiments — a feature hitherto unnoticed ; the seed 
is covered by a very thin dark integument, which encloses an 
exalbuminoua embryo consisting of two large fleshy cotyledons 
and a short radical embedded within them at the ventral sinus. 
All the plants of Napoleona are reduced to two species by the 
authors of the ' Genera Plantarum,' and to one only by Profes- 
nor Lawson; but in the present memoir many differences are 
pointed out, in the habit of the plants, in the form and character 
of the leaves,- the colour and size of the flowers, the number of 
parts in their whorls, the thickness of the pericarp in the fruits, 
the number of cells, the shape of the seeds, the presence of pulp 
(said to exist) in many, and its total absence in others — which 
constant differences point to the existence of seven good species, 
here described in detail. 

Upon the evidence thus brought together concerningNapoleona, 
the author remarks that there is nothing in its structure to show 
the slightest relation to Myrtace®, that it is equally irreconci- 
lable with the BarringtonieiB and with Lecy thide® ; and in conse- 
quence of these negative results we must search elsewhere for its 
true affinity. This led the author to examine Omphalocarpum, a 
genus from the same region as Napoleona, and whose flowers 
and fruit, of similar form, grow upon the trunks of the trees. 
This genus has been generally regarded as belonging to Sapotace® ; 
but the authors of the ' Genera Plantarum ' place it in Tern- 
strosmiace®. A full analysis of its flowers, and also of its fruit 
and seeds, is here shown in detailed drawings, which seem to 
prove beyond question that the genus belongs to Sapotace®. On 
comparing this structure with that of Napoleona, many unex- 



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XXXVIU PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

pected points of analogy present themselves : they both have fas- 
ciculated flowers growing upon the trunks of trees, out of brae- 
teolated nodules ; they have a calyx of five sepals, a corolla quite 
gamopetalou8 in one case, pseudo-gamopetalous in the other, both 
furnished with phalanges of fertile stamens bearing extrone 
anthers, as well as sterile stamens placed in separate phalanges 
in one case, concentrically disposed in the other, a plurilocular 
ovary with few ovules fixed in the axis of the cells, an indehiseent 
plurilocular fruit, orbicular, depressed, and umbilicated at the 
apex, seeds marked by a ventral scar where they are attached to 
the axis. But, on the other hand, great differences exist in the 
iBstivation of the sepals, in the corolla completely gamopetalous 
in one case, pseudo-gamopetalous in the other, in the arrange* 
ment of the staminodes, in a disk epigynous in one, perigynous 
in the other, in the ovary, which is superior in the one and inferior 
in the other, in the seeds being albuminous in one case, exal- 
buminous in the other. Under these circumstances Napoletma 
cannot belong to SapotacesB ; but as it offers so many points of 
resemblance, and as it cannot find a place in any known natural 
order, it must remain the monotype of a distinct family, to be 
placed in juxtaposition with Sapotaceso. 

In regard to Asteranthos, the author shows by analytical figure* 
that it bears no resemblance in any of its features to Napoleona, 
except its orbicular corolla, which is differently constructed; 
the calyx is quite dissimilar in form ; the flowers show no trace 
of a corona ; there is no analogy in the form, structure, or posi- 
tion of the stamens ; the ovary is superior, not inferior; it has a 
long slender style, and an extremely different stigma ; its fruit 
is unknown. A strong resemblance exists in the form of its 
calyx to that represented by Wight in an Indian species oi Rho- 
dodendron. There seems nothing, therefore, to separate Alteram- 
thos from other genera of Bhododendreae, except its more rotate 
corolla. 

Criticisms on some of the debatable points raised in this 
paper were made by Dr. Hooker and Professor Thiselfcon Dyer. 



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LINNEAN SOCIETY OF LONDON. XXXIX 

June 18, 1874 

Gk J. Allman, M.D., President, in the Chair. 

E. Birchall, Esq., James Leathern, M.I)., and J. Harbord Lewis, 
Esq., were elected Fellows. 

Mr. D. Hanbury, Treas. L.S., exhibited branches of Olive 
grown in the open air at Clapham, some bearing flowers, others 
nearly ripe fruit ; also a specimen of Rheum officinale, Baill., now 
grown in this country for the first time, the source of the true 
medicinal Turkey Bhubarb, aud pointed out the characters in which 
it differs from other species of the genus. 

Dr. Hooker made a communication on the subject of some Indian 
Garcinias to the effect : — (1) That the G. indica, Chois. (pur- 
purea, Boxb.), had been placed in a wrong section in Anderson's 
review of the genus in the ' Flora of British India.' (2) That the 
plant referred to under G. Griffiihii as the true Gamboge-plant 
of Siam is identical with G. Morella, var. pedicellata, of Han- 
bury (Linn. Trans, vol. xxiv. p. 489, t. 50), which Dr. Hooker 
regards as a distinct species, and proposes that the name of G. 
Hanburyi should be given to it. (3) That the G. brevirostris of 
Scheffer is identical with G. eugenicefolia of Wallich. (4) That the 
name of G. ovalifolia, Hook, f., must give place to the previously 
published G. ovalifolia of Oliver's ' Flora of Tropical Africa ;' and 
the Indian plant must take the name of epicata, it being a form 
of XatUhochymus spicatus, W. & A. 

Professor Thiselton Dyer exhibited a youug oak-plant with 
three cotyledons, which had been sent to him by Mr. Cross, of 
Chester ; also a pitcher-like development of a leaf of the common 
cabbage, from Harting, Sussex, sent by Mr. H. C. Watson to the 
Kew Museum. 

Mr. A.W. Bennett, F.L.S., exhibited drawings of the style, stigma, 
and pollen-grain of Pringleaantiscorbutica, Hook, f., describing the 
remarkable manner in which the pollen of Pringlea differs from 
that of other nearly allied Crucifers, being much smaller and per- 
fectly spherical, instead of elliptical with three furrows. This he 
considered a striking confirmation of Dr. Hooker's suggestion 



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xl psoosjBDnras of the 

that we have here a wind-fertilized species of a family ordinarily 
fertilized by insects, an hypothesis which is again confirmed by the 
total absence of hairs on the style of Pringlea. 

An extract was read of a letter from Harry Bolus, Esq., F.L.S., 
to Dr. Hooker, dated Graaf Beinet, April 4th, 1874, in which he 
comments adversely on some of the reasonings contained in Griae- 
bach's ' Vegetation der Erde ' in favour of the theory of " inde- 
pendent centres of creation." Grisebach, relying chiefly on an 
observation of Burchell's, makes the Orange Biver the boundary 
between the Cape and Kalahari provinces, a boundary which Mr. 
Bolus shows to be untenable, at least in certain portions. Grise- 
bach unites the Kanoo flora with that of the Cape province ; while 
Mr. Bolus doubts whether it does not differ more from this than 
from the Kalahari. The Boggeveld, and indeed the whole Kanoo, 
by its predominance of shrubby Composites, seems to incline 
more to the desert type of plants than to the richer Cape flora. 

The following papers were then read, viz. : — 

1. " On the Besemblances between the Bones of Typical living 
Beptiles and the Bones of other Animals.'' By Harry G. Seeley, 
Esq., F.L.S. 

2. " On the Auxemme®, a new Tribe of Cordiace©." By J. 
Miers, Esq., V.P.L.S. 

This new tribe of Cordiace© is remarkable for the atropous 
development of its ovules and seeds: besides this character, it is 
notable for the extraordinary growth of its calyx in the fruity in 
some cases amounting to thirty times its original size. The tribe 
consists of six genera — Auxemma, a new genus from Brazil ; So- 
eelUwn of Bonpland, from Ecuador ; Patagonula of Linn&us, of 
still older date, from South America; JEfymeneithet, Paradigmo, 
and Plethoetephia from Cuba. In Auxemma the calyx takes the 
largest development, appearing like a large bladder, 5-angled and 
deeply plicated, as in Physalis, in the centre of which is a fleshy 
drupe the size of a sloe-plum, which contains a muricated osseous 
nut, 4-angled, 4-celled, or, by abortion, sub-2-celled ; a single seed 
is fixed in the bottom of each cell by a small hilum, which cor- 
responds with the chalaza, so that it has no raphe ; the embryo, 
without albumen, has a small superior radicle and large longitu- 
dinally plicated cotyledons. SaeelUum corresponds with Auxemma 



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LI55EAK 800IKTY OF LONBOV. xli 

in the vesiciform enlargement of the calyx and in its fruit. In 
Patagonula the enlargement of the calyx assumes another form, its 
segments becoming thickened, greatly lengthened, and radiately 
expanded ; it has a similar, though smaller, fruit. In Paradigma 
and Plethostephia the calyx swells and thickens, so as to enclose 
its fleshy drupe in both cases with a rough osseous 2- or 4- celled 
nut, with erect atropous seeds, as in Auxemma. 

3. "A Revision of the Suborder Mimose©." By G. Bentham, 
Esq., LL.D., V.P.L.S. 

4. " On some Fungi collected by Dr. S. Kurz in the Yomah 
Range, Pegu." By P. Currey, Esq., F.R.S., Sec. L.S. 

5. " Notes on the Letters from Danish and Norwegian Natu- 
ralists contained in the Linnean Correspondence." By Prof. J. 
C. Schiodte, of Copenhagen. 



lhtn. pboo. — Session 1878-74. « 

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LTNHBAN SOCIETY OP LONDON. xllil 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 

Loins John Bodolph AoA88iz was born on the 28th of May, 
1807, in the Parish of Mottier, between the lakes of Neufch&tel 
and Morat His father was the Protestant Pastor of this Parish. 
At the age of thirteen he entered the gymnasium of Biel, where he 
gave evidence of ability which attracted the special notice of his 
teachers. After he had been at Biel nearly four years he was 
removed to the Academy of Lausanne, as a reward for his pro- 
ficiency in science. He afterwards studied medicine and natural 
science at Zurich, Heidelberg, and Munich, taking the degree of 
M.D. at the last-mentioned place. During his residence at 
Heidelberg and Munich he studied with special care the science 
of comparative anatomy, for his proficiency in which he became 
subsequently distinguished. In the year 1826 Martius, the 
eminent Bavarian naturalist, entrusted to Agassis the editing of 
an account of nearly 120 species offish, many of them little known, 
which Martius and his travelling companion Spix had collected in 
Brazil, the study of which led Agassiz to make further researches 
into the nature and classification of fishes, more especially of the 
Salmonide and the freshwater fishes of central Europe. He 
published the first part of an elaborate work on this subject, with 
illustrations, at Neufcb&tel in 1839, a second and third part fol- 
lowing after a few years' interval 

He had already devoted much attention to the subject of fossil 
fishes, and had published the results of his studies in a work entitled 
' Becherches but les Poissons fossiles * (Neufcb&tel, 1833-41). He 
next came to England to study the fossil strata of the country and 
its treasures, publishing in 1844 an elaborate account of those dis- 
covered in the Old Bed Sandstone of the Devonian system. The 
direction of his studies at this period may be traced in the titles 
of his next publications — ' Description des Echinodermes fossiles 
de la Suisse,' ' Monographic des Echinodermes vivants et fossiles,' 
' Etudes critiques sur lee Mollusques Fossiles,' and ' M£moire sur 
les inoules des Mollusques.' 

From these studies he passed to another branch of natural 
history — the study of the glacial system of his native mountains ; 
and he published, in 1840, at Neufcb&tel, his '£tudes sur les 
Glaciers,* which suddenly made him famous, and opened a subject 

e2 



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of philosophical inquiry to which little attention bad been directed 
up to that time. He entered more fully into the same subject in a 
second work, published by him at Paris in 1847 — 'Becbercbes 
sur les Glaciers.' 

For some years M. Agassiz held the Professorship of Natural 
History at Neufch&tel, where many of his works were published, 
and where he had the constant assistance of the active and zealous 
local Society of Natural History. 

In the year 1846 M. Agassiz left Europe for the United States, 
where he gave a successful course of lectures at the Lowell In- 
stitute. In 1847 he was appointed to a similar Professorship in 
the University of Cambridge, Massachusetts. He held this 
appointment until 1850, devoting himself for some time thereafter 
to the arrangement of his natural-history collections. In 1851 be 
explored the State of New York, and in the next year he was 
appointed Professor of Comparative Anatomy in the Medical 
College of Charlestown in South Carolina j but he resigned the 
latter post after two years and returned to Cambridge. In 1854 
be published, in conjunction with Messrs. Gfould and Perty, the 
work entitled 'Universal Zoology and General Sketches of 
Zoology, containing an account of the structure, development, 
and classification of all types of animals living and extinct. 9 
He also published in America his 'Tour of Lake Superior.' 
In the winter of 1865, Agassiz, who had long been engaged with 
untiring zeal in the cultivation of his favourite pursuits, was com- 
pelled by bad health to rest from work and seek change of scene 
and climate. " Europe," he says, " was proposed ; but he thought 
that although a naturalist might derive much enjoyment from 
contact with the active scientific life of the Old World, there would 
be little intellectual rest." He was attracted towards Brazil by a 
lifelong desire. From the time when, after the death of Spix, 
Agassiz had been employed by Martins to describe the fishes they 
had brought with them from their celebrated Brazilian journey, 
the wish to study the fauna of those regions had been to Agassis 
an ever-recurring thought, a scheme deferred for want of oppor- 
tunity, but never quite forgotten. But Agassiz was unwilling to 
visit Brazil on a mere vacation-tour. To him, as to all true scientific 
workers, complete rest was distasteful. On the other hand he waa 
conscious that he could effect little working alone. " I could not 
forget," he wrote, " that had I only the necessary means, I might 
make collections on this journey which would place the Museum 



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LIKNXAN SOCIETY OF LONDON. xlv 

in Cambridge (U. 8.) on a level with the first institutions of the 
kind. But for this a working force would be needed ; and I saw 
no possibility of providing for such an undertaking." Whilst he 
was still considering where to apply for aid in this emergency, Mr. 
Nathaniel Thayer, unasked, offered to pay ail the expenses, personal 
and scientific, of six assistants. Agassiz accepted this munificent 
offer ; and it may be remarked in passing that, subsequently, Mr. 
Thayer did much more than he had promised, continuing to meet 
ail the expenses which were incurred until the last specimen was 
stored in the Cambridge Museum. The assistants who sailed with 
Agassis were : — Mr. James Burkhardt, the artist; Mr. John Gh 
Anthony, conchologist ; Mr. Frederick C. Hartt and Mr. Orestes 
St. John, geologists ; Mr. John A. Allen, ornithologist ; and Mr. 
George Sceva, the preparer of specimens. 

The results of this well-known expedition will be in the recol- 
lection of most naturalists. They are described by Agassiz and 
his wife in the work entitled ' A Journey in Brazil.' Agassiz justly 
remarked that they served to show " that their year, full as it was 
of enjoyment for ail the party, was also rich in permanent results 
for science." After this voyage Agassiz devoted a large share of 
his time to the examination of the immense Brazilian collections 
stored in the Museum at Cambridge. Before long, however, his 
health, which had at no time been robust, began to show signs of 
failing again, and the work of examination proceeded more slowly 
than he had hoped and anticipated. His scientific activity, how* 
ever, was not over. He took a part in the great controversies of 
the day, gave a series of lectures in New York on the geology of 
the American continent, and in the autumn of 1871 joined an 
exploring-expedition to the South Atlantic and Pacific shores of 
the continent. A careful exploration was made of the celebrated 
Sargasso sea, and a nest-building fish was discovered in that vast 
bed of oceanic vegetation; and other important contributions 
were made to natural science. Agassiz received fewer distinctions 
from European Societies and Universities than many less distin- 
guished men of science. The Academy of Sciences at Paris 
awarded him their prize, however, and offered him a scientific 
professorship (which circumstances induced him to decline), and 
he also received the Cross of the Legion of Honour. His natural 
simplicity of character made him very generally beloved ; and in 
our own Society his name will always be remembered as one of 
the most distinguished of our Foreign Members. He died early 



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Xlvi PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

in the present year, having been elected a Foreign Member on the 
7th of May, 1844. 

Mr. Phelip Babnes died on the 24th of February, 1874, at the 
age of 82. He was a native of Norwich, and a cousin of the 
Sowerbys. Thirty-four years ago he founded the Royal Botanic 
Gardens in the Begent's Park, and at the time of his death he was 
the oldest Fellow of the Linnean Society, having been elected on 
the 16th of March, 1824. 

Fbedebio Bird, Doctor of Medicine, was elected an Associate 
of the Linnean Society in March 1840, and became a Fellow on 
the 4th of December, 1872. He took the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine at St. Andrews in 1841, in which year he also became a 
Fellow of the Boyal College of Physicians at Edinburgh. In 
1859 he was elected a Member of the Boyal College of Physicians 
of London. 

Dr. Bird was Lecturer on Midwifery and Diseases of Women 
and Obstetric Physician to Westminster Hospital. He was also 
Senior Physician to the Westminster Maternal Charity and the 
Metropolitan Free Hospital. He was the author of papers in the 
' Medical Gazette ' on the successful removal of ovarian tumours, 
and also of reports in the ' Medical Times ' on the practice illus- 
trative of the diagnosis, treatment, and pathology of ovarian 
tumours. He died on the 28 th of April, 1874, at the age of 56. 

Henet Deaxe was born at Stratford, in the parish of West Ham 
in Essex, on the 1 1th of August, 1807. His parents being members 
of the Society of Friends, he was brought up in that persuasion 
and continued a Member thereof until his marriage in 1843. His 
father sent him to a large Friends' school at Epping, conducted by 
Isaac Payne, where, amongst his other schoolfellows, were Henry 
and Edwin Doubleday, who have since become so distinguished as 
entomologists. .Their father was fond of collecting birds and insects, 
and the sons followed his tastes, and they in their turn communi- 
cated the same to many of their companions, Mr. Deane amongst 
the number. 

From the time he left school in 1821, he was for four years 
without any special education. His father's business was neither 
suited to his taste nor physical constitution, and he did but little 
in it. This state of inactivity would have been injurious to his 



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L1NHKAN SOCIETY OF LONDON. xlvii 

interests in life but for the close friendship which subsisted between 
his father and Mr. John Gibson, one of the firm of Howard, Jewell, 
and Gibson (now Howards and Sons), whose eldest son and Mr. 
Deane were great friends and constant companions. Mr. Deane 
had the run of their laboratory and premises, and thus acquired a 
taste for manufacturing chemistry. 

At the age of eighteen he was apprenticed for three years to a 
chemist and druggist at Beading, Mr. Joseph Fardon, who had 
served his time with Mr. Shillitoe, of Tottenham, who was Mr. 
Deane's uncle. Mr. Pardon was a kind and considerate friend 
and master, and while with him Mr. Deane was occupied in such 
humble employment as powdering alum, ginger, and nutgalls, 
grinding and mixing paints, polishing the shop scales, counter, and 
bottles, and opening and shutting the shop. He had to open shop 
tornmw and winter at six o'clock in the morning, a practice which 
he continued with his own hands for many years after he went to 
Clapbam. To him activity was a necessity ; and he rather liked 
these tasks than otherwise, and he saw no indignity in performing 
duties required by his master, which were in their nature not only 
honest but calculated to improve him in the knowledge of his 
business; for while grinding prussian blue or powdering roots 
and seeds he pondered over their physical constitution, and after- 
wards studied their natural history. Mr. Deane considered that 
this habit of doing any thing that was required of him was not only 
of immediate benefit to himself, but that in after years it rendered 
him more apt in teaching those placed under his care, and certainly 
gave him an idea of the nature and requirements of the trade in 
country places, such as London itself could not afford. 

After he had served his time at Beading he got a situation at 
John Bell and Co.'s, in Oxford Street, where he soon found that he 
was unacquainted with the practical duties of a large business, and 
found it heavy work with his average daily labour of fourteen hours. 
He was much encouraged by the friendship of both the late Jacob 
and Frederick Bell, to whom he said that he owed a deep debt of 
gratitude for their many acts of consideration towards him, and 
for the opportunities placed in his way for improvement, especially 
lor allowing him to attend lectures at the Boyal Institution by 
Faraday and Brande. 

Mr. Deane was attached to the establishment in Oxford Street 
for about five years ; but there was an interval of about two years, 
daring which he was at home endeavouring to manage and improve 



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Xlviii PEO0EXDIKG8 OF THE 

the business of his father, who had become paralyzed and incapable 
of attending to it. 

In the autumn of 1887 he took the business at Clapham, having 
been assisted by several friends, especially by the late Richard 
Hotham Pigeon, whose large pecuniary aid was afforded in the 
most liberal and trusting spirit. 

In 1841 on the establishment of the Pharmaceutical Society he 
became one of its first Members, but took no active part in its 
formation. In 1&4A he was requested to become one of the Board 
of Examiners. 

Mr. Deane was for nearly twenty years member of the Council, 
and was President during a somewhat troubled and difficult period 
in the existence of the Society. His services on the Pharmacopoeia 
Committee will be remembered by those associated with him at 
the time ; and although the College of Physicians, at whose insti- 
gation the Committee was formed, had not the opportunity of utili- 
zing the practical information obtained thereby, the labour was not 
thrown away ; for many preparations of the British Pharmacopoeia 
issued by the Medical Council bear traces of it. 

It should not be forgotten that Mr. Deane was the first President 
6f the British Pharmaceutical Conference ; and the fact of his 
being chosen for that office is testimony of the high estimation in 
which he was held by the leading pharmacists of the kingdom. 

In 1840 the Microscopical Society was formed, and he joined it 
on its foundation. In 1845 he made the discovery of the existence 
of Xanthidia and Polythalamia in the grey chalk of Folkestone, a 
bed below the common white chalk. 

The first Meeting of the new society which Mr. Deane attended 
was at 888 Oxford Street, when he read a short paper on " Dis- 
placement as a Method of preparing Tincture, Ac. ; " and although 
the value of the paper was not highly estimated by its author, he 
nevertheless believed that it set many chemists to work in experi- 
menting upon that method of preparing tinctures and extracts. 
The process has since that time become more completely understood 
and consequently more successful. His next contribution was a 
paper entitled " Experiments on Senna," which was noticed by both 
Dr. Pereira and Dr. Boyle ; and he subsequently wrote (besides 
many smaller ones) papers on opium preparations and extract of 
meat, in which he was assisted by H. B. Brady, by whose ready 
pen and pencil (Mr. Deane has observed) their interest was greatly 
augmented. 



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LINNKAN 8O0IETT OF LONDON. xlU 

In 1854 the College of Physicians applied to the Council of the 
Pharmaceutical Society for aid in the preparation of a new Phar- 
macopoeia, and a Committee was formed to assist in this object* 
As President, Mr. Deane was Chairman of the Committee ; and at 
the special request of the Chairman of the Pharmacopoeia Com- 
mittee of the College of Physicians, Dr. F. Farre, he retained that 
position, as the medium of communication between the two bodies, 
until the Boyal Medical Council was appointed. 

The death of Mr. Deane occurred on the 4th of April, 1874, at 
Dover, where he had been detained for a day or two by stress of 
weather on his way to visit his son in Hungary. Walking from 
his hotel to the boat he was attacked by sudden pain in the region 
of the heart, and in a few minutes had ceased to exist. 

The remains of the deceased were removed from Dover to the 
house where his wife's parents had lived and died, at Coglinge, 
near Shorncliffe, and were interred in the neighbouring village of 
Cheriton. 

Mr. Deane will always be remembered as liaving been in the 
foremost rank of those enlightened men who set themselves 
the task of dispelling the thick darkness which surrounded phar- 
macy thirty years ago, and who by his work in the Pharmaceutical 
Society has done so much for the advancement of his favourite 
science. 

Mr. Deane was elected a Fellow of this Society on the 6th of 
November, 1856. 

John Thompson Dickson, Doctor of Medicine, was a Master 
of Arts of the University of Cambridge. He became a Mem- 
ber of the Boyal College of Surgeons in 1863, and in 1868 he 
was elected a Member of the Boyal College of Physicians. 

Dr. Dickson was Lecturer on Mental Disease at G-uy's Hos- 
pital, Physician to the Infirmary for Epilepsy, and Superinten- 
dent of St. Luke's Hospital Besides various Hospital Beports, 
Dr. Dickson was the author of an essay entitled " Matter and 
Force considered in relation to Mental and Cerebral Pheno- 
mena," being the substance of a paper read by the author be- 
fore the Medical Society of London in March 1874. He also 
wrote, in the * British Medical Journal,' in 1869, a paper " On 
the Nature of the Condition known as Catalepsy ;" and in the 
same Journal, in 1870, another paper " On the Nature of the 
Condition called Epilepsy." In 1871 Dr. Dickson wrote some 



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1 PB0CBEDING8 07 THB 

interesting letters to the ' Standard ' newspaper on the subject af 
the poisonous nature of the aniline dyes used for colouring stock- 
ings. He stated that he had in his own possession eleven sam- 
ples of stockings and socks dyed with aniline pigments, all of 
which had given rise to arsenical poisoning, the colours being 
various shades of red, orange, brown, and violet. 

Dr. Dickson's death was sudden and distressing. It was 
known that he suffered from serious mitral disease ; but for some 
time prior to his death he had seemed to be in better health 
than usual. On the 5th of January last he was reading in his 
carriage on his return from visiting a patient, when his wife, who 
was with him, observed that he bent forward and remained in thai 
position as though looking for something on the floor. He re- 
turned no answer when spoken to, and on being raised was found 
to be dead. He was in his 83rd year. Although comparatively 
young, he had done good work in the department of mental 
science ; and if his life had been prolonged, might have been ex- 
pected to occupy a prominent position in the field of psychology. 
He was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society on the 4th of 
February, 1864. 

Jambs Fisohbb, Esq., was elected a Fellow of the Linnean 
Society on the 17th of January, 1867. He was a gentleman who, 
although not himself a contributor to science in the way of pub- 
lication, was always greatly interested in natural history generally, 
and especially in botany. He died of fever and congestion of the 
lungs at Salem, Madras, on the 21st of February, 1878. 

Geobgi Bittbb von Fbaubhfild. This distinguished Aus- 
trian naturalist was the Keeper of the Boyal Museum at Vienna, 
and for many years the active and energetic Secretary of the well- 
known Zoologico-Botanical Society in that city, by the Members 
of which his death has been felt as a severe loss. 

The exertions of Herr von Frauenfeld in the cause of natu- 
ral history are evidenced by the long list of contributions to 
Science entered under his name in the Boyal Society's Cata- 
logue. Most of these were published in the ' Transactions ' of 
the Society mentioned above ; but several of them appeared in 
Haidinger's ' Berichte,' in the Beports of the Academy of Vienna 
and of the Geographical Society there, and in other publications. 
They relate principally to entomology and malacology ; but the 



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LOTHIAN 8O0IBTY Of LONDON, ll 

author also wrote upon general zoological subjects, and many of his 
papers contain accounts of his travels in different parts of the world 
during the voyage of the Austrian frigate ' Novara,' to which he was 
for some time attached* He contributed to the Geographical and 
other Societies at Vienna his reminiscences of (amongst other places) 
Bio Janeiro, the island of St. Paul, New Zealand, Tahiti, Shanghai, 
Manilla, Ceylon, the Cape of Good Hope, and Madras ; and in 
the 'Transactions of the Zoologioo- Botanical Society 9 are to be 
found detailed accounts of the Nicobar Islands and of the so-called 
Sagtpa* Sea, He appears to have paid little attention to Botany ; 
but in the year 1854 he visited the coast of Daimatia, and in the 
same year communicated to the Zoologico-Botanicai Society a paper 
entitled "An Enumeration of the Alg© of the coast of Dalmatia." 

Herr von Frauenfeld died on the 8th of October, 1878, after a 
short illness, supervening, we have been informed, upon a surgical 
operation. The esteem and respect entertained for him by the 
Society to which he had been so long attached was shown in a 
marked manner by the attendance at his funeral, which took place 
on the 10th of October last, when the President delivered an 
address, in which the merits of the deceased naturalist and the 
great services he had rendered to the Society were' eloquently 
brought forward. 

Herr von Frauenfeld was elected a Foreign Member of the 
Linnean Society on the 5th of May, 1870. 

The Very Beverend Thomas Gabnixb, D.C.L., Dean of Win- 
chester, was the senior member of the University of Oxford, and 
one of the oldest, if not the very oldest, of that long-lived body the 
English Clergy. He was the second son of the late Mr. George 
Gamier, of Bookesbury Park, Hampshire, by Margaret, fourth 
daughter of Sir John Miller, fourth baronet, of Froyle, in the same 
county. The late Dean was born at Wickham, in Hampshire, cm 
the 20th of February, 1776. He was educated at Winchester 
College, and afterwards at Worcester College, Oxford, where he 
entered in October 1793. There were no schools -of classical or 
mathematical honours in those days, and his name does not appear 
recorded among the lists of Chancellor's prizemen ; but in November 
1796 he was elected to a Fellowship at All Souls' College. He 
took his degree of Bachelor of Civil Law in the year 1800, some 
five years before the late Dr. Lushington attained the same rank 
in academical standing. In 1807 he was presented by his relative, 



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lii proceedings of the 

Dr. Brownlow North, then Bishop of Winchester, to the living of 
Bishopstoke, and in the early part of the year 1840, on the death 
of Dr. Bennell, he was promoted to the deanery of Winchester. 
He continued to take his part as Dean in the services of the 
cathedral until some time after he had completed his ninetieth 
year. 

Dean Garnier married in the year 1806, Mary, daughter of the 
late Mr. Caleb Hillyer Parry, M.D., of the city of Bath, and sister 
of the late well-known Arctic navigator, Sir William Edward Parry, 
•R.N. By her he had a family of two daughters and four sons. 
His eldest son was lost many years ago in Her Majesty's ship 
' Delight,' off the island of Mauritius ; another, Henry, was a dis- 
tinguished officer of the Madras Cavalry ; another, John, in holy 
orders, died when only twenty-flve years of age, while Fellow of 
Merton College, Oxford ; and another, Thomas, the survivor of 
the four, having for some years held the rectory of Trinity Church, 
Marylebone, was promoted in 1860 to the Deanery of Bipon, and 
subsequently transferred to that of Lincoln, but died a few months 
after his translation to the latter dignity in December 1863. 

Before Dr. Gamier entered the office of Dean of Winchester, and 
whilst he was rector of Bishopstoke, the rectory gardens were for a 
long time the resort of the lovers of horticulture ; and the rector 
exerted himself to bring the laity and clergy into frequent and 
useful connexion. His hospitality and his zeal in encouraging 
public institutions, such as the Museum (to which he was a frequent 
contributor) and the Mechanics' Institute, were of the greatest 
advantage to the inhabitants of Winchester ; and the students of 
the Training College for Masters were, by his frequent prizes for 
distinguished merit and other acts of consideration towards them, 
familiarized with the name of " the Dean," and were able to appre- 
ciate the value of the combination of personal worth with the 
tenure of high ecclesiastical office. 

In 1868 Dr. Garnier resigned the Bectory of Bishopstoke, and 
in October 1872 he resigned the Deanery of Winchester. 

Dr. Garnier was elected a Fellow of this Society on the 16th 
of October 1798. He was the last survivor of those who paid the 
original rate of subscription, viz. £1 It. annually. When his 
proposer, Sir Joseph Banks, recommended him to pay a life com- 
position, which was then only £10 10*., he declined to do so, 
saying he did not consider his life worth ten years' purchase. 
After paying the annual subscription of £1 1*. for sixty years 



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LINN2AN SOCIETY OF LONDON. liil 

he generously sent the Society a cheque for 20 guineas, being 
double the amount for which he was entitled to compound. 

He died on the 29th of June, 1873, at the Close at Winchester, 
at the age of 97. 

Albaht Hancock was a naturalist who made the district in 
which he resided famous in scientific circles. He was one of the 
founders of the Natural-History Society of Newcastle, and always 
took an active interest in its welfare, enriching the Museum of 
the Society by his untiring exertions, and being always ready to aid 
by his judgment and advice the arrangement of its collections. 
He was one of the founders of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field- 
Club, and was a constant contributor to its Transactions. He 
was also a Member of the Literary and Philosophical Society 
of Newcastle, and for many years a Member of its Committee. 
At the Meeting of the British Association in Newcastle in 1863 
he was an active Member of the Local Committee ; and to his 
efforts, aided by those of his brother, Mr. John Hancock, was 
mainly due the gathering together of the splendid collection of 
works of art and science which graced the exhibition during 
the visit of the Association. His papers in the 'Transac- 
tions* of the Tyneside Field- Club and the 'Natural-History 
Transactions ' are many and valuable, amongst which may be 
mentioned those written in conjunction with his friends Mr. 
Thomas Atthey and Mr. E. Howse, " On the Fauna of the Coal- 
Measures and Marl-Slate of the District around Newcastle." 
But his contributions were not confined to the Transactions of the 
scientific societies of the neighbourhood in which he lived. The 
' Philosophical Transactions/ and the Transactions of the Lin- 
nean, Zoological, and Geological Societies, and the 'Annals of 
Natural History ' afford abundant evidence of his scientific acti- 
vity ; and his great abilities as a draughtsman enabled him to illus- 
trate his papers with plates of unusual beauty. His greatest work, 
written in conjunction with his friend Mr. Joshua Alder, and 
published by the Bay Society, is a ' Monograph of the British 
Nudibranchiate Mollusca.' This work, which was finished in 1855, 
won at once for its authors a world-wide reputation, and was cer- 
tainly one of the finest monographs ever published in this or any 
other country. The plates which accompany this work are too 
well known to naturalists to require any special mention ; and those 
illustrative of anatomical details display Mr. Hancock's ability in 



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Hv PE0CBBDIK08 OP THE 

a moat marked manner. The two friends were also engaged on a 
work on the British Tunicata, which, after the death of Mr. Alder, 
it was hoped Mr. Hancock would have been able to finish ; bat 
failing health interfered much with its progress ; and his last long 
and painful illness put a stop to its completion. 

In 1858 the Boyal Society awarded Mr. Hancock the Boyal 
Medal in recognition of his scientific labours ; and in 1866 the 
Zoologico-Botanical Society of Vienna conferred upon him and 
Mr. Alder the Diploma of Honorary Fellows. 

In private life Mr. Hancock was greatly respected. He was a 
genial and amiable man ; and amongst those who were privileged 
to enjoy his friendship his loss will be deeply felt. 

He was elected a Fellow of this Society on the 6th of March, 
1862, and died on the 24th of October, 1878. 

Cabl Fbeedbich Mbisbkeb (formerly written Mrxsxeb) Pro- 
fessor of Medicine in the University of Basle, was born at Berne, 
in Switzerland, on the 1st of November, 1800. When a young 
man he appears to have paid some attention to zoology, as some 
of his earlier writings in the Beports of the Basle Academy and in 
the 'Bibliothfeque Universelle * relate to zoological subjects. 
From the year 1837, however, he devoted himself exclusively to 
botany, paying special attention to the orders Leguminota, Pro- 
teacea, Thymelea, and PoU/gonea, of which (in Lehmann's ' Plant© 
PreissiansB ') Dr. Meissner described the species which occur in 
western and middle Australia. His contributions to botanical 
science appeared chiefly in the ' Linn&a,' the ' Botanische Zeitung,' 
and Dr. Hooker's 'Journal of Botany.' In the 14th volume of 
De Candolle's ' Prodromus ' he furnished the accounts of the Poly- 
gons, Proteacea, and Thymeleacea ; and in the 15th volume of 
the same work he described the Lauraeea and the Hernandiacetr. 
The description of the same five families in Martius's * Flora Bra- 
sinensis,' and the accounts of the Convohulacea and Erieocca 
in the same work, were also written by Dr. Meissner. To Wal- 
lich's ' Plant® Asiatic© Bariores ' Dr. Meissner contributed a 
synopsis of the species of the Polggonea in the Indian Herbarium 
of the Linnean Society. On the 16th of January, 1855, there was 
read before the Linnean Society the introductory part of a paper 
by Dr. Meissner entitled "New Proteacem of Australia," which 
paper was afterwards published in Hooker's * Journal of Botany ' 
(vol. vii. 1855). The materials for this paper were mainly derived 



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LIHKEAST SOCIETY OF LONDOK. It 

from the later Beries (fifth and sixth) of Drummond's Swan-river 
collections, Dr. Meissner haying carefully examined the Prate*- 
cea in the Linnean Society's herbarium during a visit which he 
paid to England in 1850. One other communication was made 
by Dr. Meissner to the Linnean Society, being a paper on some 
new species of Chomalaueiea, which was read on the 20th of 
November, 1855. * In 1866 Dr. Meissner again visited England, 
when he attended the International Botanical Congress ; and he 
was present at the dinner of the Linnean Society at Willis's 
Booms on the 24th of May in that year. On his return from this 
visit, Dr. Meissner was taken seriously ill, and had some diffi- 
culty in reaching home. He shortly afterwards resigned his 
appointment of Curator of the Botanic Garden at Basle ; and 
we have been informed that his health was never completely 
restored. He died at Basle on Saturday the 2nd of May, 1874, 
after a prolonged and painful illness, in his 74th year. Dr. 
Meissner was elected a Foreign Member of the Linnean Society 
on the 5th of May, 1857. 

Thomas Newbobn Bobbbt Mobsok was born at Stratford-le- 
Bow, and received his early education at Stoke Newington. 
Having lost his parents while he was yet young, and being left 
without family-guardian or connexions, he was thrown to a great 
extent upon his own resources ; but with a mind remarkable for 
activity and power of perception, he overcame the difficulties of 
his early life, became the founder of a business of the highest re- 
putation, and formed acquaintances, which ripened into intimate 
friendship, with some of the greatest chemists and philosophers of 
the time in which he lived. When only 14 years of age he was 
apprenticed to an apothecary in Fleet Market (now Farringdon 
Street); but he had no liking for medical practice, and therefore 
adhered to the pharmaceutical rather than the medical and sur- 
gical part of the business. His predilection lay in the direction 
of chemistry ; and this was probably favoured by the circumstance 
of his being thrown into association with men of kindred tastes, 
who formed a small Society for the investigation of scientific sub- 
jects, and whose meetings were held in the neighbourhood of Fleet 
Street. It was here that he first made the acquaintance of Fara- 
day, and acquired so strong a bent in favour of scientific chemistry 
that he determined to make its application, as far as possible, the 
aim of his future pursuits. After the expiration of his appren- 



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lvi PBOCEBDIKGS QF THE 

ticeship be went to Paris, and entered the establishment of M. 
Planche, a pharmacien, with whom he lived for some years. He 
thus acquired a thorough knowledge of the French language aa 
well as French pharmacy, and made the acquaintance of men 
whose friendship he cultivated in later years. He was still a 
young man when he returned to London and established him- 
self in business as a chemist and druggist in the house in which 
he had been apprenticed in Farringdon Street, the late pro- 
prietor, Mr. Morley, having retired from the retail department 
which was previously associated with his practice. 

The chemist and druggist of those days was generally a che- 
mist only by name ; but not so Mr. Morson. In a little room at 
the back of his shop was produced the first sulphate of quinine 
made in England ; and the same may be said of morphia. Nor 
were these operations merely experimental. From entries in 
his ledger it appears that he supplied sulphate of quinine to a 
wholesale druggist at 8*. a drachm, and morphia at IBs. a drachm. 
His chemical knowledge and manipulative skill were now bring- 
ing him into notice, and he was frequently applied to for rare 
chemicals. But the premises in Farringdon Street did not admit 
of the cultivation of this branch of the business. He moved 
from Farringdon Street to Southampton Row, and soon after- 
wards purchased premises in Hornsey Road, where he built a 
laboratory for the manufacture of creasote, morphia, and other 
chemical products. 

Mr. Morson's fame has not been merely that of a manufacturer. 
He was a man of enlarged mind and cultivated intellect. Thrown 
upon the world in early life with absolutely no relations, he was 
nevertheless surrounded by men of talent and high position, with 
whom he associated on terms of mutual friendship. He waa a 
Member and regular attendant at the Meetings of the Royal In- 
stitution, and a prominent Member of the Society of Arts. Hi* 
house was a place of resort for men of genius, where chemists, 
naturalists, artists, patrons of science and art, with many others 
of kindred tastes found hospitable reception and congenial asso- 
ciations. We find him in the foremost rank of those who origi- 
nated the Pharmaceutical Society ; and there was no one more 
frequently consulted or whose opinion carried greater weight 
among his fellow workers in the cause of pharmaceutical rege- 
neration. 

Mr. Morson at this period had a European reputation as a 



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LnarsAK society of londok. lvii 

manufacturing chemist ; and his character in this respect, toge- 
ther with his acquaintance with many of the scientific celebrities 
of the continent, as well as his familiarity with the French lan- 
guage, enabled him to render great service to the young Society, 
in the development of which he took a tively interest. 

Many foreigners of repute, attracted by the proceedings of 
"Rngliah pharmacists, were entertained by Mr. Morson. Guibourt, 
Cap, Liebig, Mitscherlich, Bose, and many others of similar stamp 
have been guests at various times at Southampton Bow, Queen 
Square, or Hornsey, and have been indebted to Mr. Morson for 
an intimate acquaintance with the Pharmaceutical Society, its 
provisions, and proceedings. Mr. Morson was for many years on 
the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society, and for a still longer 
period was a member of the Board of Examiners ; and he used to 
be a very constant attendant at the evening meetings of the 
Society. In 1844 he was elected Vice-President of the Society, 
and for four successive years he continued to fill this office, after 
which he was made President for a year, and again for about two 
years in 1869-60. 

Mr. Morson retired from the Council of the Pharmaceutical 
Society in 1870 ; but his interest in the objects and operations 
of the Society remained undiminished ; and up to the time at 
which his last severe illness commenced he was almost a daily 
visitor at Bloomsbury Square. His health, however, had visibly 
failed for many months before his death, and he often expressed 
himself as sensible that his end was approaching. In the early part 
of January last he had an attack of paralysis, from which he never 
recovered ; and he died at his residence in Queen Square, Blooms- 
bury, on the third of March last, in his 75th year. He was elected 
a Fellow of this Society on the 5th of December, 1848. 

Dr. J. Likdsjlt Stewart was a native of Forfarshire, and re- 
ceived his medical education in Glasgow, where he was a pupil of 
the late Professor G. A. Walker-Arnott. After graduating, he 
proceeded in 1856 to the Presidency of Bengal as Assistant Sur- 
geon. He was present at the siege, assault, and capture of Delhi 
in 1857 ; and in 1858 he joined the expedition to the Yuzufzai 
country. In 1860-61 he officiated for Dr. W. Jameson as Su- 
perintendent of the Botanic Garden, Saharumpore, and of the 
Government Tea-plantations in the North-western Provinces 
and the Punjab ; and in 1864 he was employed in arranging a 

lwn. PROC^r-Session 1878-74. / 



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lviii PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

system of forest-conservancy in the land of the five rivere. His 
position at Saharumpore gave him an excellent opportunity of 
becoming acquainted with the vegetation of the Terai and North- 
west Himalaya ; and afterwards at Bijnour he studied the flora of 
the Bohilkund forests and of the outer valley between the Granges 
and Sardah. As Conservator of Forests in the Punjab, his duties 
took him to all parts of that province ; and he extended his 
journeys to the adjoining province of Sindh, to Kashmir, and to 
the arid, treeless, but botanically most interesting inner Hima- 
layan tracts on the Upper Indus, Chenab, and Sutlej rivers, which 
adjoin Turkestan and Thibet. During his journeys, under the 
most difficult circumstances, he maintained with great persistence 
his habit of taking copious notes on the spot ; and in this manner 
he accumulated an immense store of valuable information regard- 
ing the natural history, the properties, uses, and the vernacular 
names of the plants of North-west India. The results of these 
researches are embodied in numerous papers published in the 
Journal of the Boyal Geographical Society, the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, the Agri-Horticultural Society of India, and the Trans- 
actions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. A most inter- 
esting account of the vegetation of the extreme north-west corner 
of the Punjab and the hills beyond it, which he studied during 
the Yuzufzai campaign, is contained in his " Memoranda on the 
Peshawur Valley, chiefly regarding its Flora " (Journ. As. Soc. 
1863), and in his " Notes on the Flora of Wurzuristan " (Journ, 
Boy. Geo. Soc. 1863). In the ' Journal of the Agri-Horticultural 
Society of India' appeared " The Subsiunlik Tract, with special 
reference to the Bijnour Forest and its Trees" (voL xiii 1866), 
" Journal of a Botanising Tour in Hasara and Khajan " (vol. xiv. 
1866), and "A Tour in the Punjab Salt Range " (vol. I new ser. 
1867). His last communication, " Notes of a Botanical Tour in 
Ladak or Western Thibet," appeared in the ' Transactions of the 
Botanical Society of Edinburgh ' (vol x. 1869). In addition to 
these and other papers in different journals and reviews, his offi- 
cial reports while at the bead of the Forest Department in the 
Punjab contain the record of a large amount of accurate observa- 
tions on the arborescent vegetation of that province ; and in 1869, 
before coming home on furlough, he published a most useful work 
on the trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants of economical value 
growing in the Punjab. This work, entitled ' Punjab Plants,* 
contains systematic and vernacular names and notes on the geo~ 



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LnTKEAK SOCIETY O? LOHDOW. lix 

graphical distribution and uses of upwards of 800 species. In 
another respect also Dr. Stewart rendered great service to the 
cause of forest-administration in India ; for he commenced the 
large and now flourishing plantations in the plains of the Punjab. 
In 1869, after twelve years of unremitting labour, mental and 
bodily, Dr. Stewart returned to England, and the Government of 
India entrusted him with the preparation at Kew of a Forest Flora 
of Northern and Central India ; and with a view to include the 
principal trees and shrubs of those districts which Dr. Stewart 
had not visited, a young forest-officer, Mr. Richard Thompson, 
was, at his suggestion, deputed to collect plants and notes in Oudh 
and the Central Provinces. To this great work, which purposes to 
give an account of the natural history of the trees and principal 
shrubs and climbers in the forests, Dr. Stewart devoted a large 
part of his furlough ; and he would doubtless have completed it in 
a satisfactory manner if his health had not given way. He was 
naturally of a highly nervous temperament ; and during the latter 
part of his residence in England it was evident to his friends 
that his general health was much impaired. This was further 
apparent on his return to India, when, after a few months of 
office work, sickness obliged him to move (June 1873) from 
Lahore to the Hill Sanitarium at Dalhousie, where he gradu- 
ally sank from paralysis and died on the 5th of July, 1873, at 
the age of forty-one. Post-mortem examination revealed ex- 
tensive tubercular deposit in the brain. He was kind and ge- 
nerous to all who required his help ; and his loss is regretted 
by a large number of friends in India and in this country. 

Dr. Stewart was a Member of numerous learned Societies, 
and, among others, he was a Fellow of the Boyal Society of 
Edinburgh and of the Boyal Geographical Society. He was 
elected a Fellow of this Society on the 19th of January, 1865. 

Thomas Tubnxb, Hon. Fellow of the Boyal College of Sur- 
geons, died on the 7th of December, 1873, in his 81st year. He 
was the author of a work called ' Outlines of Medico-Chirurgical 
Science,' of ' Observations on Aneurism and Haemorrhage/ of a 
• Treatise on the Dislocation of the Astragalus,' Ac., and of a 
1 Retrospect of Anatomy and Physiology.' Mr. Turner was 
elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society on the 6th of June, 
1843. 



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he PBocsEDnres of the 

Fsasois Cobnelius Webb, M.D., F.R.C.P., was born at 
Hoxton on the 9th of April, 1826. He went first as a scholar 
to King's College School ; but on the removal of his family to 
Devonshire, he passed to the Grammar School at Devonport. 

His school-days over, Dr. Webb was apprenticed as a surgeon 
to Dr. J. Shepherd, of Stonehouse, Plymouth, with whom he 
passed, according to the good old practice, the probationary term 
of professional life, learning to dispense medicines, performing 
simple operations, and gleaning a notion or two of the art of pre- 
scribing for the sick. From Stonehouse he came to London in 
1843 ; he joined the Medical School of University College, where he 
soon became known as an industrious and distinguished student. 
During his first year he took two certificates of honour, one in 
anatomy and one in anatomy and physiology. In 1844-45 he 
took the first silver medal in anatomy and physiology and the 
first silver medal in botany ; in 1845-46 the first silver medal in 
medicine ; in 1846-47 the first silver medal in surgery and the 
gold medal im midwifery. In 1847 he acted as dresser to Liston, 
and as clinical clerk to Dr. Taylor ; and in the same year he passed 
his examination at the Royal College of Surgeons, and was enrolled 
a Member of that corporation. 

Admitted into the profession, Dr. Webb went to Leicester, 
where he acted as assistant to Mr. Bowmar, living with him for the 
period of three years, and adding largely to his own practical 
knowledge. In 1849 -50 he proceeded to Edinburgh, and gradu- 
ated in the University of Edinburgh in 1850. In 1851 he returned 
to town and took up the license of the Apothecaries' Company, 
of which Company he subsequently became a Member, and was 
twice elected one of the staff of examiners. 

On completing his examinations, Dr. Webb settled in London 
in Great Coram Street, Russell Square. He purchased here a 
general practice, and for a long time continued to carry out the 
work of general practice with zeal and fidelity. 

The first public medical appointment held by Dr. Webb waa 
that of Physician to the Islington Dispensary. Afterwards he 
became Physician to the Margaret Street Dispensary for Con- 
sumption, and later still Physician to the Great Northern Hos- 
pital and to the London Diocesan Home. He gave up general 
practice, and joined the Royal College of Physicians as a Member 
in 1859. His election to the Fellowship of his College occurred 
so lately as 1878. 



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**' UNltSAK SOCIETY. 07 LONDON. lzi 

In 1857-58 be became a teacher of medical science by bis elec- 
tion as Lecturer on Medical Jurisprudence in the Old Grosvenor 
Place School of Medicine, founded originally by Mr. Lane as the 
St. George's School of Anatomy and Medicine, and the last of the 
private schools in London. 

In the year 1861 the Faculty of the School unanimously voted 
that Dr. Webb should be invited to deliver the introductory lec- 
ture at the opening of the Session 1861-62. He undertook the 
task, and chose for the subject of his discourse " The Study of 
Medicine, its Dignity and Rewards." 

The success of Dr. Webb as a lecturer in a sohool of medicine 
led to his election as Lecturer to the Metropolitan School of 
Dental Science in Cavendish Square. 

The career of Dr. Webb as a public teacher was short. Both 
the schools with which he was connected closed a few years after 
he joined them, and he never joined another. 

Dr. Webb, as a writer, commenced about the year 1857, his first 
important literary effort being an article on the " Sweating-Sick- 
ness in England," published in the ' Sanitary Beview and Jour- 
nal of Public Health ' for the month of July of that year, and 
afterwards republished in a separate form. This article at once 
stamped its author as a writer of much learning and of art and 
judgment in the order of descriptive literature. The history of 
the sweating-sickness was followed by another kindred essay, en- 
titled "An Historical Account of Gaol Fever." This essay was 
read before the Epidemiological Society on Monday, July 6, 1857, 
and excited great interest. The essay was printed in the ' Trans- 
actions ' of the Society. In 1858 an essay on "Metropolitan 
Hygiene of the Fast " was written by Dr. Webb for the ' Sanitary 
Beview.' It was published in that journal in the January Num- 
ber, and was afterwards reprinted. It is a brief and masterly 
survey of the sanitary condition of London from the time of the 
Norman Conquest until our own era. 

Following upon these efforts there came from Dr. Webb's pen a 
review of papers relating to the death-rate of England, of Moquin- 
Tandon's ' Elements of Medical Zoology,' and of the ' Teeth in 
Man and the Anthropoid Apes,' in which the various publica- 
tions on that subject by Professor Owen are carefully and philo- 
sophically considered ; and to the last review was added an essay 
11 On the Teeth in the Varieties of Man." 

The connexion of Dr. Webb with the Metropolitan School of 



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lxii PBOOEBDnres o» thb lutkeajt booixty of lokdok. 

-Dental Science led him to contribute to a journal called the 
' Dental Review/ in which was republished the great work of John 
Hunter on the teeth, with notes appended to the text bearing on 
modern research in relation to the same subject. The notes ap- 
pended to the first part of this undertaking were contributed by 
Dr. Webb. 

A few years later Dr. Webb became one of the editors of 
the ' Medical Times and G-azette,' of which he ultimately became 
^he chief editor. 

His death was very sudden. He had some time past suffered 
from bronchial disease and from feebleness of the heart; but 
for the last three years he had been better in health, though 
subject to occasional attacks of extreme feebleness after exertion, 
with passing symptoms of angina pectoris. On the evening of the 
-25 th of December, 1873, after reaching his home, on the occasion of 
some slight physical exertion, he complained of numbness in the 
left hand and arm, and to relieve the symptom went to the piano, 
forte and played for nearly an hour. Later he wrote and read 
until past midnight ; then he retired to bed, and, with a re- 
turning pain in his chest, died all but instantaneously and 
without a struggle. 

He was elected a Fellow of this Society on the 21st of January, 
"1868. 



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OP 



THE LINNEAN SOCIETY. 



Contributions towards a Knowledge of the Curculionid®. 
By Francis P. Pasooe, P.L.S., late Pres. Ent. Soc. 

Part IV. 

(PLATB8l.,II.,in.,&IV.) 

[Bead June 19, 1873.] 

Rhinobcapha basilica. R. nigra, nitida, supra irregulariter gra- 

nulata, interapatiis plerumque gqnamulis viridescentibus repletis; 

raphe rostroque intenmpte squamosis, hoc indiatincte nigro-carinu- 

lato ; antennia gracilUmis; clava fuaiformi; prothorace in medio Ion- 

gitudinahter lineato, grannlis snbplanatis, plurimia aubcontiguis, in- 

atrncto ; elytris striato-punctatis, punctia elongatis, interstitiis impunc- 

tatif, grannlis depreasis transversis obhquisque irregulariter notatis, 

vitta baaali aliiaque in lateribus et pone medium fascia oblique margi- 

nibusque glaucis, vel argenteo- viridibus, decoratis ; corpore infra pe- 

dibuaque viridescentibus, vage nigro-punctatis. Long. 11 lin. 

Hob. Kaioa; Gilolo; Batchian; Makian; Ternate; Morty; Dorey. 

If I am right in associating many varieties together, this is a 

most inconstant species ; generally there are few or no traces of 

granules on the interstices of the elytra ; and these are mostly 

bare of scales, except when the stripes and band occur ; then the 

scales vary in colour from a nearly pure white to a rich metallic 

LINN. JOUBN. — ZOOLOGY, VOL. XII. 1 



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2 MB. F. P. PABCOE OK TIIE CUROULIOXIDJE. 

green. The slight ridge on the rostrum appears to be confined to 
the specimen here described ; in others the rostrum is more or less 
grooved. 

Rhinoscapha aulica. R. nigra, nitida, in cavitations squamulis 
aureo-viridibus (vel albis) maculata ; capite rostroque vage squamo- 
sis, longitudinaliter fortiter sulcatis, sulco utrinque lineis elevatis 
nigris limitato; antennis nigrcscentibns, tenuiter vage squamosa*; 
clava futiformi ; prothorace intricate corrugato, aliquando fere obso- 
lete impresso, in medio longitudinaliter canaliculate, lateribus viridi- 
vittato; elytris subsulcato-punctatis, punctis rotundatis, squamulis 
viridibus plus minusve repletis, interstitiis vix convexis, generalitcr 
macula basati, fascia obliqua pone medium lateribusque aureo-viridi- 
bus; corpore infra pedibusque splendide aureo-viridibus. Long. 
9-11 tin. 
Hab, Batcbian. 

B. insigni*, Gu£r., differs, inter alia, from this species in it* 
shorter rostrum, the longitudinal groove not extending to between 
the eyes, by the median ridge of the prothorax, and the striated 
elytra with narrow punctures. 

Rhinoscapha Staintoni. (PI. I. fig. 1.) R. nigra, vix nitida, 
squamulis minutis albidis pnscipue densissime, capite rostroque squa- 
mulis fervide aureis sat dense, tecta, illo pone oculos depresso, hoc 
fortiter sulcato; antennis albido-squamosis $ scapo recto; funtculo 
articulo secundo longiore; clava attenuata, fuses, murino-pubes- 
cente ; prothorace oblong o, supra sparse nigro-granulato, interspatiis 
fulvescenti-, lateribus albido-squamosis, in medio linea nigra elevata 
notatQ ; elytris obovatis, humeri* fere obsoletis, apice rotundatis, se- 
riatim punctulatis, supra figura magna £-formi nigra, punctis grossts 
squamulis albidis repletis, ornatis, reliquis elytrorum densissime albido- 
squaraosis; corpore infra pedibusque dense albido-sq u a mosis , his 
aureo-lavatis, parce pilosis, femoribus tibiisque opalescentibua. Long. 
11 tin. (rost. inch). 
Hab. New Guinea (Saylee). 

This fine species, the most isolated of the genua, I have dedi- 
cated to H. T. Stainton, Esq., F.E.S., <fec. I believe but one ex- 
ample of it was taken by Mr. Wallace. Besides its remarkable 
coloration, it diners from the other members of Rhinoscapha in 
that the aerobe terminates before the eye and not beneath it. 

Rhinoscapha Formosa. R. omnino argent eo-viridi -squamosa, opa- 
lesccnti-refulgeni, supra plagis auratis vel argentei-roseis ornata; 
capite roittroque linea elevata nigra longitudinali instructis ; antennis 
tennatis, articulis funiculi subrcqualibus, longiusculis ; clava atten- 



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MB. F. P. PASCOE OK THE CUROULIONIDJi. 3 

uata, infuscata; prothorace suboblongo, angusto, utrinque modice 
rotundato, supra i&igro-granulato, linea elevata longitudinali vittisque 
duabus aurulentis notato; elytris striato-punctatis, punctis paulo 
elongatis, interstitiis tertio quintoque paulo magis convexis, remote 
irigro-punctulatis; corpora infra pedibusque punctis nigris adspersis. 
Long. 13 lin. (rost. incl.). 
Hab. Morty. 

This beautiful insect, of which, like the preceding, Mr. Wallace 
only obtained one specimen, is perhaps most allied to B. Dohrnii, 
Von Voll., but the sculpture of the elytra and colour are at once 
distinctive; the latter is difficult to describe, and is probably 
variable. 

Rhinoscapha alma. A. nigra, squamulis grisescentibus, elytris 
niveo-variia, dense tecta; rostro utrinque linea nigra laevigata in- 
structo; antennis gracillimis, dense squamosis, rarissime setulosis; 
prothorace pone apicem manifesto excavato, foveis nigris adsperso, 
dorso transversim subplicato, in medio linea elevata nitide nigra in- 
structo; elytris subsulcato-punctatis, punctis vix approximatis, in- 
terstitiis convexis, granulis subtilissimis nigris, singulis squamulam 
elongatam gerantibus, adspersis, basi plagis irregularibus, fascia flexu- 
osa pone medium lateribusque, plus minusve niveis, ornatis; cor- 
pora infra opalescente in medio cssrulescenti-nebuloso ; pedibus nigro* 
maculatis, maculis squamulam elongatam gerentibus. Long. 11 lin. 
(rost. incl.). 

Hab. Aru. 

I have three specimens of this species, two of which are males 
and have the legs slightly opalescent. 

Rhinoscapha opalbscens. A. nigra, ubique squamulis opalescen* 
tibus, in elytris pallide cserulescenti-variis, dense tecta; rostro utrin- 
que hand nigro-lineato ; antennis gracillimis, dense squamosis, raris- 
sime setulosis j prothorace irragulariter foveatis, interspatiis tuberculis 
parvis nitide nigris munitis, in medio linea nigra impresso ; elytris 
subsulcato-punctatis, punctis magis approximatis, interstitiis convexis, 
granulis subtilissimis nigris, singulis squamulam elongatam gerenti- 
bus, adspersis, basi plaga irregulari elongata, aliis pone medium, 
simul sumptis fasciaeformibus, lateribus, plus minusve, maculisque 
postice, cserulescentibus, ornatis ; corpora infra pedibusque setulosis, 
ut in precedents Long. 11 lin. (rost. incl.). 
Hab. Waigiou; My sol; Dorey. 

A specimen from Mysol is nearly concolorous ; a pair from 
Dorey is less opalescent, and the blue is replaced by white. This 
and the preceding species are nearly allied ; and putting colour 
aside, on which little dependence is to be placed, I think R. alma 

1* 



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4 MR. F. P. PASCOK ON THE CUECULIOKIDJ5. 

may be distinguished by the presence of a smooth black line run- 
ning down the convexity lying between the median and outer 
sulcus of the rostrum (the presence of the latter is one of the 
generic characters of Rhinoscapha), and by the raised line on the 
prothorax, both wanting in the present species. 

Rhinoscapha verrucosa. (PI. I. fig. 2.) R. nigra, argenteo-cervino- 
vel argenteo-viridi-squamosa ; capite pedibusque cseruleis vel albidis, 
rostra in medio nigro-carinato ; autenn is dense cseruleo-squamotis ; 
scapo arcuato ; clava infuscate, pubescente ; prothorace utrinque mo- 
dice rotundato, basi apiceque fere aequalibus ; supra nigro granulato, 
in medio linea elevata nigra ; scutello oblongo ; elytris sulcato- 
punctetis, punctis densissime squainosis, interstitiis convexis, granulis 
oblongis nitide nigris irregularibus maculatis ; pedibus setigero- 
punctatis. Long. 8-10 lin. (rost. inch). 
Hab. Matabello ; Goram ; Bouru ; Amboyna ; Sula ; Java. 
The colour varies from an opake pale greyish white to silver- 
fawn and silver-greenish ; but in all the elytra are beautifully 
spotted with glossy black irregularly formed granules. It may 
possibly be Ourculio amictus, Wiedem. 

Rhinoscapha sellata. (PI. I. fig. 3.) R. nigra, equamulis albis, supra 
interruptis. omnino dense tecta ; an tennis minus gracillimis, dense albo- 
squamosis ; clava attenuata, basi haud pedunculate, dimidio apicali 
nigro; prothorace subreticulato-tubcrculato, pone apicem excavato, 
tuberculis plus minusve conspicuis nitide nigris ; elytris striato- punc- 
tata, punctis angustis, elongatis, interstitiis convexis, in medio pone 
scutellum et pone medium ad latera protensis lineis tuberculiformibus 
transversis, nitide nigris instructis. Long. 6^-10 lin. (rost. inch). 
Hab. Batchian. 

Of this species I have five examples, all easily distinguishable 
by the short raised bars across the interstices confined to a large 
patch behind the scutellum and which spreads out to the sides 
behind the middle, the hollows formed by the bars being filled in 
with white scales, giving the spotted appearance as seen in the 
Plate. 

Rhinoscapha stolipbra. R. nigra, squamulis ochraceo-grisescen- 
tibus, albido varus, dense tecta ; a o tennis minus gmcilumis ; clava 
ovali, basi haud pedunculate, fere nigra; prothorace irregulariter 
foveato, maculis nitide nigris minutis adsperso, in medio longitudina* 
liter sulcato; elytris striato-punctatis, punctis elongatis, interstitiis 
carinatis, in medio a basi usque ad paulo pone medium turn ad latera 
protensis, interstitiis nitide nigro flexuoso-culminatis, colore etiam 
saturate ochraceo ; corpore infra albido-squamoso, lateribus sternorum 



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MB. F. P. PA8C0E ON THE CUBCULIONIDjE. 5 

abdommisque ochraceo-maculatis ; pedibus ochraceis. Long. 11 lin* 
(rost incl.). 
Hob. Waigiou. 

The strongly raised interstices, some of them in part having 
the angular ridge zigzag and glossy black, and this portion of the . 
elytra being of a darker ochreous colour, forming, as in the pre- 
ceding species, a somewhat J,-shaped figure, readily marks off this 
species from its congeners. 

Rhinobcapha miliaris. R. nigra, squamulis griseo-opalescentibus, 
elytris viridulo variis, dense tecta ; rostro paulo elongato, metallico- 
viridi-squamoso, maculis parvis nigris adsperso ; antennis gracillimis, 
funiculo setulis paucis longis munito; clava basi subpedunculata ; 
prothorace pone apicem excavato, irregulariter subfoveato, granulis 
numerosis nitide nigris insequalibus adsperso; elytris sulcato-punc* 
tatis, punctis late impressis, ioterstitiis subuniseriatim granulatis, 
tertio, quinto septimoque manifeste magis elevatis; corpore infra 
pedibusque concinne opalescentibus aureoque lavatis. Long. 11 lin. 
(rost. incl.). 
Hob. Mysol. 

My only specimen of this species is at first sight not very 
unlike R. Dohrnii, VolL ; but, besides the far less brilliant colora- 
tion, the raised alternate interstices of the elytra, all of them with 
a single, but not very regular, row of minute and \ery distinct 
granules, and the broadly impressed puncture in the sulci will at 
once suffice to separate them. 

Rhinobcapha cabin ata. R. nigra, supra squamulis viridulis in- 
terrapte tecta; rostro squamulis aureo-viridibus griseisque inter- 
mixes sejunctim vestito, sulco mediano lineatim inciso ; antennis 
modiee tenuatis, sordide griseo-squamosis ; clava basi pedunculata ; 
prothorace pone apicem excavato, dorso foveato, irregulariter rude tu- 
berculato et utrinque viridi vittato ; elytris sulcato-punctatis, punctis 
elongaiis, interstitiis nigro culminatis, tertio, quinto septimoque usque 
ad partem declivam carinatis, juxta suturam lineis transversis elevatis 
uigris iustructis ; corpore iufra pedibusque metallico-aureo-viridibus, 
his squamulis fuscis variis. Long. 9 lin. (rost. incl.). 
Hob. Morty. 

The raised interstices of the elytra in this species are glossy 
black except at the sides ; and between the first of these raised 
interstices and the suture are transverse bars, as in JR. aellata ; 
and the hollows are in like manner filled in with scales : in other 
parts of the elytra the scales are sufficiently contiguous to form 



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8 Mk. r. P. PASC0E OK THK CTTBCULIONTDJS. 

inter oculot profunda excayato; rottro antice subplanato; an tennis 
ferrugineis; funiculo articulo secundo longiusculo, sequentibus ro- 
tundatis; prothoraoe in medio profande canaliculate, marginibus 
apiceque canaliculus tubercnlii diffbrmibus elevatis munitis, ad later* 
in medio tuberculo elongato, supra ad basin excavate, instructo ; ely- 
tris supra tuberculis numerosis conicis, basi poeticeque magis ekmgatis, 
instructis, apice explanato-rotundatis, bituberculatis; pedibus sparse 
setosulis. Long. 3 lin. 
Hab. Swan River. 

POLYOBBTA. 

(AmycteriiUB.) 

Caput antice subplanatum, supra oculum tuberculatum ; rottrwm 
. capita multo angustius, subelongatum, basi sulcatum, antioe 
bituberculatum ; aerobes subterminales, ante oculos eranee- 
centea. Octdi prominuli, rotundati, tenuiter granulati. Scopu* 
elongatus. Prothorox basi lateribusque rotundatus, apice pro- 
ductufl, lobis ocularibua obsoletis. Elytra ovata, convex*. 
Femora modice incraasata; tibia rect®, vel paulo incurvata*, 
apice crassiores ; tarei elongati. Abdomen ut in Hyborhyncko. 

This genus seems to be most nearly allied to Hyborkynchus, 
MacLeay, jun. ; but it has a narrower and longer rostrum, especi- 
ally narrow in the part between the aerobes, and the eyes are 
prominent and finely faceted. 

Polycrkta mbtric a. (PI. II. fig. 1 .) P. anguste ovata, fasca, squa- 
mnlis parvis, fere ubique, plerumque silaceis irrorata ; capita rostroque 
medio albo-squamosis, hoc tuberculis duobus elongatis eompressis 
basi obsito; antennis piceis; funiculo articnlo secundo breviore, 
ultimis subrotundatis ; dava brevi ; prothorace in medio albo-vittato, 
lateribus disci bifariam spinosis, spina penultima exterior© maxima ; 
elytris bifariam conico-tuberculatis, tuberculo solitario, apice spini- 
formi, pone humeros instructis, utrinque ad tertiam partem albo- 
squamosis, pone medium fascia albo-squamota munitis ; pedibus fa- 
rugineis, longe pilosis. Long. 3-3$ lin. 

Hob, Champion Bay. 

Sclbrorhinus tsniatus. 8. elongates, niger, squamulis minatis 
obscure umbrinis, tuberculis exceptis, dense tectns; rostro crasso, 
carina media brevi; oculis minuscuhs; clava elliptica; prothorace 
transverso, utrinque ampliato, granulis remotis nitidis, singulis seta 
minuta instructis, munito j elytris ubique prothorace tix latioribua, 
humeris subbideotato-productis, apice late rotundatis, ad suturam 



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MB. T. P. PASCOE ON THE CURCULIONIDJE. 9 

perparum productis, singulation dorso pallide trivittato, vitta interiore 
basali abbreviate, irregulariter striato-punctulatis, interstitiis 2. 3. 4. tu- 
berculis oblongis rtmotis, singulis seta minute instructis, interstitio 
sexto granulis magis confertis munito ; metasterno abdomineque late- 
ribus griseo-squamosis, in medio longitndinaliter dense silaceo-pilosis. 
Long. 9 lin. 
Hab. South Australia. 

Allied to 8. longus, MacLeay, jun., but differently coloured, the 
rostrum with a central carina, and with smaller and more nume- 
rous tubercles on the elytra, the second interstice with four, the 
third with nine or ten, and the fourth with two ; the elytra are 
about twice and a half as long as the prothorax. 

Sclerorhinua MOLBBTU8. S. elongatus, niger, squamulis rainutis 
silaceis sejunctim tectus ; rostro crasso, carina media fere obsolete, 
capiteque squamulis piliformibus sat dense vestitis ; oculis majoribus ; 
clava pedunculata ; prothorace transverso, lateribus ampliato, in 
medio longitudinaliter impresso, granulis depressis subnitidis, singulis 
seta minuta a basi postice projects, munito; elytris prothorace in 
medio vix latioribus, humeris callosis, apice sat late rotundatis, seria- 
tim tuberculatis, tuberculis parvis, plerumque subconicis, singulis seta 
minuta postice instructis, seriebus secunda quartaque tuberculis sin- 
gulatim circa quinque gerentibus, interstitio suturali tuberculis multo 
minoribus, circa 20, instructo ; metasterno abdomineque in medio lon- 
gitudinaliter dense pilosis. Long. 10 lin. 
Hab. South Australia. 
In many respects like the last, but, inter alia, with the elytra 

very differently tuberculated ; the third and fifth interstices have 

about sixteen or seventeen tubercles on each. 

Sclkrorhinus margin atus. S. elongatus, niger, lsete umbrino-squa- 
mosus, griseoque vittatus; rostro longiore, in. medio linea laevi nigra 
ad frontem protensa ; capite rostroque vittis duabus medianis, lateri- 
bus et supra oculos griseis; oculis majoribus; clava elliptica; pro- 
thorace transverso, utrinque rotundato, granulis minusculis sat re- 
motis munito, dorso trivittato, vitta intermedia angusta ; elytris pro- 
thorace triplo longioribus, co^fertim granulans et tuberculatis, gra- 
nulis plerumque proxime suturam obsitis, tuberculis parvis conicis, 
apice singulorum seta recurva instructo, sutura, vitta humerali margi- 
nibusque exterioribus griseis; metasterno abdomineque ad latera 
griseo-plagiatis, in medio longitudinaliter dense silaceo-pilosis ; pedi- 
bus griseis, nigro irroratis ; tarsis posticis linearibus. Long. 9 lin. 
(rost. incl.). 

Hab. South Australia. 

This species may be compared to S.pihdariu* ; but it has a nar- 



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10 MB. 7. P. PA8COE OK THE CURCULIONIDjE. 

rower rostrum, «nd the tubercles on the elytra are much smaller 
generally, more numerous, and irregularly crowded between the 
suture and sixth or infrahumeral interstice. 

Sclerorhinus ECHINOP8. S. oblongo-ovatus, niger, in cavitatibua 
silaceo- et maculatim albo-squamosus ; capite squamis elongatia, 
fuscis, silaceo-trilineatis, inter oculos paulo excavato ; rottro antic© 
sat fortiter excavato, in medio laevigata, basi trifoveato ; antennia hand 
elongatis ; prothorace transverso, aat confertim granulato, lobis ocu- 
laribus modice prominulis ; elytris subseriatim tuberculatis, tuherculia 
mediocribua, basalibus depressis, posticis conicis, singulis aetara baai 
nigram recurvam gerentibus, humeria tuberculatis, apice late rotun- 
datia ; corpore infra nigro nitido, abdomine in medio ailaceo-maculato. 
Long. 8 lin. 
Hab. West Australia. 

Of all the named species known to me, I can only compare this 
to 8. piltdarius, MacLeay, jun. ; but, inter alia, it is shorter, the 
tubercles on the elytra larger and more numerous, and those on the 
base much depressed. 

Sclerorhinus mblicepb. S. oblongns, fuscus, opacus; capite 
rostroque squamia angustis et aetiformibus bete ochraceis, illo denaia- 
aime, tectis, hoc in medio modice excavato, carina media obaoleta ; 
antennia fuscis; acapo haud elongato; oculis minusculis; prothorace 
vix transverso, apice baai latitudine fere sequali, lobis ocularibua sub- 
prominulis, apice rufo-marginato, granulis numerosis, basi indetermi- 
natis, singulis setam laete ochraceam gerentibus, munito ; elytris aubo- 
valibua, prothorace paulo latioribus, confertim tuberculatis, tuberculia 
minusculis, granuliformibua, plurimis aspersis aliis subseriatim dis- 
positis, apice nitidis et setam laste ochraceam gerentibus ; abdomine in 
medio dense silaceo-piloso ; pedibus rufescentibus, sparse pilosis; 
tibiis intermediis apice intus emarginatis. Long. 7 J lin. 

Hab. Queensland (Rockhampton). 

This species is remarkable far the numerous small tubercles on 
the elytra and the notch on the intermediate tibiae, which, how* 
ever, may possibly be only a sexual character. 

Talaurinus victor. T. oblongo-ovatus, niger, in cavitations squa- 
mulis vel squamositate umbrinis vel griseis munitns; capite setigero- 
punctato ; rostro crasso, antice profunde excavato, baai biimpresso, 
carina exteriors ad oculum protenaa; clava basi elongato-obconica ; 
prothorace transverso, ntrinque in medio subangulato, granulis majus- 
culis sejunctim instructo ; elytris prothorace latioribns, pone medium 
latioribus, basi truncatis, humeris dentatis, apice paulo amplktia, ad 
suturam triangulariter productis, ubique granulis inicqualibus aat con- 
fertim instfuctis, granulis singulis setam subtilissimam gerentibus ; cor- 



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Mli. F. P. PA8COE OK THE CUBCULIONID^. 11 

pore infra nitide nigro, setulis minutis adsperso ; tarsis sat angustis, 
posticis baud elongatis. Long. 1 1 tin. 
Hob. South Australia. 

This description is made from a female ; the male has the apex 
of the elytra mucronate, and longer posterior tarsi. This fine spe- 
cies has the outline of T. rugifer, Bois., but is very differently 
sculptured. 

Talaurinds funereub. T. oblongus, niger, vix nitidus, squamulis 
silaceis in cavitatibus munitus ; capite parce setuloso, occipite solo 
silaceo-squamoso; rostro brevi, punctate, capite angustiore, in medio 
profunde sulcato, ban bifoveato ; scapo modice elongate ; clava basi 
elongato-obconica; prothorace transverso, utrinque roturidato, gra- 
nulis minusculis sat confertim m unite ; elytris pone medium latio- 
ribus, humeri* tuberculatis, apice rotundatis, seriatim subfoveatis et 
granulatis, interstitiis parce tuberculatis, tuberculis posticis solis 
modice conicis, alteris granuliformibus ; corpore infra subnitido ; seg- 
mentis tribus ultimis abdominis in medio macula squamosa notatis. 
Long. Si tin. 
Hob. West Australia. 

The rostral fovea is formed by the approximation of the 
intermediate carina to the outer, which is a step towards its 
obliteration. On the elytra it is hard to say where the gra- 
nules end and the tubercles begin ; but one or two may be 
counted in the first row (second interstice), four or five in the 
second, one in the third ; the fourth or humeral row has also four 
or five, without counting four or five tolerably stout granules near 
the shoulder ; and the outer row has some five or six : the inter- 
mediate granules accompanying the foveae are very small. 

Talaurinub pustulatus. T. oblongo-ovatus, niger, obscurus, in 
cavitatibus asperse silaceo-squamulosus ; capite parce setuloso ; rostro 
brevi, crasso, basi bifoveato; scapo modice elongate; clava basi 
elongato-obconica ; prothorace subtransverso, utrinque rotundato, 
granulis depresais majusculis munito ; elytris irregulariter foveatis, et 
granulatis, tuberculis minusculis, breviter conicis, sat remote obsitis, 
humeris tuberculatis, apice rotundatis, ad suturam paulo produces ; 
corpore infra subnitido ; segments intermediis in medio maculatim 
squomosis. Long. 7i tin. 
Hab. West Australia. 

In this dull black species the granules and tubercles are much 
flatter than usual. On the elytra it is difficult to trace any linear 
arrangement of the foveas, but the tubercles are dispersed in the 
following manner : — four or five in the first row, eight or nine in 



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12 MR. F. P. PA80OE ON THE CURCULIOKIDJB. 

the second, one in the third, and in the fourth or humeral row 
two, which are quite posterior ; at the shoulder, and forming the 
outer row, are granules only. 

Talaurinus carbonarius. T. ovatu*, niger, opacus, squamulis fili- 
formibus minutis nigrescentibus adspersus ; capite subtiliter pnnctu- 
lato; rostro crasso, capite paulo angustiore, notice modice excavato, basi 
bifoveato ; scapo sat breviusculo ; clava elliptica ; prothorace trans- 
verso, utrinque rotundato, granulis minusculis sat confertitn muuito, 
lobis ocularibus manifests ; elytris postice paulo latioribus, humeris 
vix productia, apice late rotundatis, dorso transversim foveato, inter* 
stitiis indeterminatis, paulo elevatis, granulis parvis seriatim et biseri- 
atun ordinatis; corpore infra nigro, vix nitido. Long. 7i lin. 
Hab. West Australia. 

The intermediate rostral carina are in this species almost 
entirely obliterated, so that in reality there is only a short stout 
carina on each side ; the sculpture of the elytra is confined to 
small approximate granules, each bearing a pale minute seta 
arranged in lines, or here and there in double lines, with well- 
marked transverse fovea between them. 

Talaurinus phrynos. T. ovatus, fuscus, squamulis minutis silaceis 
vestitus, supra granulis numerosis, singulis setam magnam gerentibus ; 
capite punctulato, fronte valde convexo ; rostro brevi, capite paulo 
angustiore, antice modice excavato, carinis intermediis approximatis, 
basi sulco flexuoso impresso ; oculis subovalibus; clava breviuscula; 
prothorace vix transverso, utrinque fortiter rotundato, confertim 
granulato, dorso utrinque vitta pallida notato; elytris leviter depresaia, 
subcostatis, lateribus ampliato-rotundatis, humeris tuberculo parvo 
instructis, apicibus ad suturam dentato-productis, dorso transversim 
foveato-impressis, granulis minutis nitide nigris seriatim ordinatis, 
maculis indistinctis vittatim notatis ; corpore infra nigro, subnitido ; 
abdomine granulis minutis adsperso. Long. 9 lin. 
Hab. Queensland (Rockhampton). 

A broad dull-coloured species indistinctly striped or mottled 
with greyish ; the numerous minute glossy granules on the elytra 
are seated on slightly raised lines, the alternate ones, of which 
there are three on each elytron, including one close to the suture, 
are more pronounced ; the set© are only large when compared 
with the granules from which they arise. It is probably near 
T. incertut, MacLeay, jun., which, however, is described as 
" oblongo-ellipticus niger cinereo-squamosus," Trans. Ent. Soc. 
New South Wales, i. p. 221. 



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MH. F. P. FA8C0E OK THE CITROULIONIDJB. 13 

Talaurinus MOL08SU8. T. oblongus, niger, nitidus ; capite rottroque 
brevibus, sparse punctulatis, illo lato, hoc paulo angustiore, rarinis 
intermediis brevibus, coujunctis, baud prominulis ; scapo pone oculum 
baud protenso ; clava parva, subelliptica ; prothorace subtransverso, 
ampliato, utrinque fortiter rotundato, granulis majusculis sat confer- 
tim munito ; elytria pone medium paulo latioribus, humeris tubercu- 
latis, apice subrotundatis, ad suturam perparum divaricatis, seriatim 
tuberculatis et granulatis, squamulis minutis in cavitatibus munitis, - 
tuberculis oonnullis oblongis, vel ad basin transversis, plurimis conicis, 
ad latere inaequaliter granulatis ; abdomine segmentis tribus ultimis 
squamis maculatim notatis. Long. 9 lin. 
Hab. West Australia. 

A robust species, with a short scape and small antennae, whose 
immediate affinities are not obvious. The tubercles on the elytra 
are thus disposed : the second interstice has five, mostly oblong, 
tubercles ; the third has from fourteen to sixteen, extending from 
the base, where they are somewhat transverse, to the apex, the 
fourth three, the fifth or humeral twelve, but three or four of the 
posterior only are conical ; the outer row has nine or ten mostly 
rounded tubercles or large granules j the first or sutural interstice 
is also rather roughly granulate. 

Talaurinus melanopsis. T. oblongo-subovatus, niger, nitidus, 
supra esquamosus, granulis tuberculisque, singulis setam minutam ge- 
rentibus, eonfertim munitus ; capite antice fortiter granulato ; rostro 
brevissimo, craaso, modice excavato, pone apicem snlco A-formi im- 
presao, basi inter carinas utrinque granulo unico notato ; antennis 
gracilibus ; prothorace transverso, lateraliter rotundato, sat eonfertim 
granulato, lobis ocularibus obsoletis ; elytris ovalibus, in medio latiori- 
bus, basi subtruncatis, humeris calloso-productis, seriatim tubercu- 
latis, regione scutellari granulatis, tuberculis conicis, versus apicem 
manifeste minoribus; corpore infra sparse nigro-setoso, in medio 
setis lougitudinaliter condensatis ; pedibus piceis. Long. 6 lin. 
Hab. West Australia. 

The angular transverse groove just behind the apex of the very 
short rostrum, followed by a corresponding elevation, which is 
formed by the union of the two inner oblique carinas, differenti- 
ates this species from any of its section among the tuberculate 
species of Talaurinus, 

Talaurinus simulator. T. oblongo-ovatua, niger, nitidus, supra 
granulis tuberculisque majusculis, squamulam minutam gerentibus, eon- 
fertim munitus; capite fere laevigata; rostro craaso, fortiter excavato, 
basi profunde bifoveato ; antennis craaaioribus ; prothorace minus 



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14 MB. F. P. PA8COB OK THE CUBCUXIOinD.B. 

transverso, granulis majusculis subdepressis munito, lobii ocularibua 
manifestis ; elytris pone medium latioribus, ban arcuatis, bumeris vix 
productis, tuberculis majusculis usque ad apicem instruct!*, lateribtu 
in cavitatibus albido-squamosis ; corpore infra sparse punetulato, baud 
setoso. Long. 8 lin. 
Hob, West Australia. 

The principal differences between this and tbe last species are 
the larger size of the tubercles, more ovate outline, stouter an- 
tennra, the presence of ocular lobes, and the incurved base of the 
elytra ; the sculpture of the rostrum, moreover, is essentially 
different, and resembles that of T. tuberculatus ; but the rostrum 
itself is much thicker and shorter, and the head is concave in 
front. 

Talaurinus Maclbayi. T. subangustatus, niger, squamis supra 
cineraceis silaceisque vittatim, lateribus albis, vestitus; capite roa- 
troque setigero-punctatia, hoc brevi, capite vix angustiore, fortiter 
trisulcato, carinis intermediis subparallelis ; funiculo articulis quatuor 
ultimis subrotundatis ; prothorace subtransverso, utrinque arapliato- 
rotundato, granulis sat confertim munito, sed in medio pone apicem 
longitudinaliter interrupto ; elytris prothorace baud latioribus, ( $ ) 
paulo angustioribus, humeris haud productis, apice late rotundatis, 
seriatim irregulariter foveatis, lateribus insequaliter granulatis, supra 
tuberculis majusculis conicis in seriebus tribus ordinatis; corpore 
infra pedibusque albo-squamosis maculis nigris irroratis ; abdomine 
nudo, maculis albo-squamosis notato, segmento ultimo, in utroque 
sexu, medio nigro-velutino. Long. 7 Un. 
Hob. King George's Sound. 

A very distinct species, which, but for its strongly convex fore- 
head, I should have referred to Amyoteru* ; in the first row the 
tubercles, two or three in number, correspond to gaps in the 
second row, which has six or seven tubercles, whilst the outer row 
has eight. I dedicate this species to William MacLeay, jun., Esq., 
who has added so much to our knowledge of this group. 

Talaurinus encaustus. T. ovatus, niger, squamulis minutis, supra 
silaceis albisque variegatus, lateribus abdomineque albis nigro-irrora- 
tis ; rostro capite haud angustiore, fortiter trisulcato, carinis inter* 
mediis divaricatis, capiteque setigero-punctatis, vix squamosis ; funi- 
culo articulis quatuor ultimis obovatis ; prothorace transverso, utrinque 
rotundato, granulis sat confertim munito, sed in medio pone apicem 
longitudinaliter interrupto, lobia ocularibus leviter prouunulis, dorso 
utrinque snbvittatim plagiato; elytris brevibus, convexis, lateribus 
rotundatis, in medio prothorace manifeste latioribus, tuberculis eonicis 



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MR. F. P. PASCOE ON THE CUBCULIONIDJB. 15 

minusculis numerosis, granulisque intermixtis, instructis, supra irre- 
gulariter albido-plagiatis, apice sat late rotundatis ; tarsis intermediis 
posticisque angustis. Long. 7 lin. (rest. incl.). 
Hab. King George's Sound. 

The head and prothorax in this species are not unlike those of 
the preceding ; but the short convex elytra with their numerous 
tubercles are essentially different. 

Talaurinu8 TENUIPB8. (PI. II. fig. 2.) T. niger, opacus, lateri- 
bus aliquando abdomineque niveo-maculatis ; rostro capite angustiore, 
basi antice in medio bifoveato ; fronte fere obsolete granulata ; funiculo 
articulis quatuor ultimis rotundatis; clava basi oblongo-obconica; 
prothorace transverso, antice dilatato, ante medium latiore, turn ad 
basin gradatim angustiore, basi ipse quam apice multo angustiore, 
granulis elevatis subconicis sejunctim munito ; elytris ovato-cordatis, 
insequaliter granulatis, singulis tuberculis conicis in seriebus duabus 
ordinatis, tuberculo humerali bifido, apicem versus minus granulans ; 
pedibus elongatis, gracilibus ; tarsis, pnesertim posticis, linearibus, 
longiusculis. Long. 4-5 lin. 
Hab. Swan River (Albany). 

The description is made from an individual nearly deprived of 
scales, but having a shorter and more characteristic prothorax 
than another individual, which has small silaceous scales on the 
upper parts and the sides dotted with pure white spots; the 
femora and tibiae also are clothed with white scales. This species 
is allied to T. hystricoBus. So far as the linear tarsi are concerned, 
there are intermediate forms which take us back to the very short 
tarsi of T. rugiccps, MacLeay, jun. 

Talaurinus TEB8ELLATU8. (PI II fig. 11.) T. oblongo-ovalis, niger, 
variegatim albido- silaceoque sejunctim squamosus; rostro antice 
parum excavato, capite paulo angustiore, cum capite fuscis, vitta grisea 
supra oculum alteraque in medio, ad apicem rostri divisa, ornatis ; 
funiculo articulis quatuor ultimis subtriangularibus ; clava basi elon- 
gato-obconica ; prothorace longitudine vix latiore, lateribus ampliatis, 
granulis parvis asperso, fusco, dorso vittis tribus albidis ornato ; elytris 
postice gradatim latioribus, apice subtruncatis, subseriatim granulatis, 
interstttiis fortiter foveato-impressis, albidis, silaceo-variegatis, sparse 
fusco tessellato-maculatis ; corpore infra nitide nigro ; abdomine 
segmento singulo trimaculatim silaceo-squamoso ; roesosterno pro* 
minulo ; pedibus nigro-maculatis. Long. 7 lin. 

Hab. Western Australia (Champion Bay). 

A species, like many others, lying between Talaurinus and 
Sclerorhinus ; it may to a certain extent be compared with T. 
Manghsii. 



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16 MB. F. P. PASC0E ON THE CUBCULTONIDJS. 

Talaurinus grniculatus. T. oblongo-ovalis, niger, squamis griseis 
silaceisque variegates ; capite granulate ; rostro brevi, antice parnm 
excavate, triangulariter impresso, triangulo utrinque albo-marginato ; 
prothorace modice transverso, apice quam baai augustiore, remote 
granulate, griseo, supra vittis duabus silaceis ornate ; elytris breviter 
ovatis, baai paulo depressis, humeri* tuberculatis, tenuiter striato- 
punctatis, interstitiis elevato-granulatia, anterius granulis minoribna 
depressis, posterius et lateraliter roajoribus conicis, dorao griseis, sub- 
vittatim silaceo-variegatis, lateribus albis ; pedibus albido-squamosis, 
femoribus apice nigris. Long. 8 lin. 
Hab. West Australia. 

Allied to T. Manglesii, Boh.j but differently coloured, with 
shorter more depressed elytra, smaller granules at the base, and 
much fewer posteriorly. 

Talaurinus lemmus. T. ovatus, niger, plagiatim griseo-aquamoaua ; 
rostro brevi, in medio fortiter anguste sulcato, sulco baai bifurcate ; 
clava antennarum funiculo vix craasiore, baai elongate- obconica ; 
prothorace transverso, utrinque rotundato, basi quam apice parum 
augustiore, supra sparse granulate, vittis tribus griseis ornate ; elytris 
subcordatis, humeris dentato-productis, seriatim profunde foveatia, 
transversim parce granulatis, apicibus paulo divaricatia, supra plagia 
griseis notatis, lateribus sejunctim albido-squamosis; corpore infra 
nitide nigro. Long. 4 lin. 

Hab. Western Australia. 

In appearance like T. spinosus, MacLeay, jun., but the elytra 
rather granulate than tuberculate, and a totally different rostrum. 

Talaurinus pupa. T. ovatus, niger, fere esquamosus, capite roa- 
troque granulatis, hoc magis rugoso, in medio paulo, apice fortiter 
excavate, fronte sulco V-formi impresso ; antennis nitide nigris, clava 
latiore ; prothorace transverso, utrinque rotundato, baai quam apice 
parum latiore, supra sat confertim fortiter granulate, lateribus tuber- 
culatis; elytris subcordatis, humeris dentato-productis, seriatim 
conico-tuberculatis, sed regione suturali granulis parvis instruct!*, 
lateribus albido-maculatis ; corpore infra nitide nigro. Long 4 lin. 
Hab. West Australia. 

Allied to the preceding, but nearly without scales above, and 
the elytra tuberculate. In two females, which are considerably 
broader than the males, there is an indistinct whitish stripe on 
each side of the prothorax. 

Talaurinus cariobus. T. elongate-ovatus, squamulis minutis parce 
adspersus ; rostro longiore, in medio valde excavate, baai subtiliter 
transversim sulcato; funiculo articulis subpyriformibus; clava baai 



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MB. *. P. P18C0E OK THE CURCULTONIDiE. 17 

oblongo-obconica ; prothorace longiore quam latiore, subcylindrico, 
antice in medio profunde longitudinaliter, ad latent transvenim 
et pone medium irregulariter transvenim sulcato, sulcis minori- 
bus basin versus longitudinaliter impresso; elytris ovalibus, pro- 
thorace ubique paulo latdoribus, nodulosis, cavitatibus foveiformibus, 
humeris hand prominulis ; corpore infra tenuiter remote punctulato. 
Long. 5-6 lin. 
Hab. West Australia. 
Mr. MacLeay would probably arrange this species in his fourth 

section " Foveati ; •' the elytra, however, are neither granulate or 

tuberculate, and are without a trace of sets. 

Talaurinus capito. (PL II. fig. 70 T. fusco-niger, opacus, 
sparse setosus ; capite magno ; rostro brevi, ad apicem capite latiore, 
antice vix excavate, linca impressa spatia duo ovata in medio 
includente ; oculis parvis; antennis validis ; funiculo articulis duobus 
basalibus longiusculis, caeteris subobconicis, ultimo longiore ; clava 
basi oblongo-obconica ; prothorace latitudine vix longiore, basi quam 
apice angustiore, in medio utrinque subangulato, ubique confertim 
granulate ; elytris obovatis, seriatim foveatis, interstitiis transvenim 
conferte granulatis, apice rotundatis ; corpore infra setis numerosis 
appressis munito; tarsis modice dilatatis. Long. 9 lin. (rost. 
ind.). 
Hab. Champion Bay. 
Eemarkable for the large size of the head, and the regularity 

of the sculpture ; T. anguttatus, MacLeay, jun., has a similarly 

marked rostrum. 

Talaurinus ljsvicollis. (PL II. fig. 8.) T. ovatus, niger, sub 
nitidus, esquamosus; capite rostroque disperse subtiliter punctatis, 
hoc longiore, ad apicem latiore, in medio oblique bicarinato ; anten- 
nis setosis ; funiculo articulis quatuor ultimis valde transversis ; clava 
breviter elliptica j prothorace transverso, utrinque rotundato, supra 
Uevigato, subtilissime remote punctulato, lateribus obsolete granulate ; 
elytris ovato-cordatis, basi prothorace in medio latioribus, profunde 
et grosse foveatis, foveis magnis, inssqualibus, apice parum productis ; 
corpore infra nigra, impunctato, segments singulis in medio macula 
pallide ochracea ornatis. Long. 7 lin. 
Hab. Victoria. 
This species has no relationship to any of the three species of 

the Foveati group described by Mr. MacLeay, jun. It seems to 

be the only species of Amycterin® with a smooth prothorax. 

The rostrum is marked in a manner not unlike T. Ma*ter*ii y 

MacLeay, jun. 

LIHN. JOURN. — 800L0GT, TOL. XIL 2 



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18 MB. r. P. PASCOE OK THE CUBOTJLIONIBA. 

MOLOCHTUS. 

JRostrum crassum, antice transversim arcuato-excavatum, baei sul- 
catum. ProtKorax angulis posticis obliquis, ad elytra baud 
arete applicable ; tarsi articulis omnibus dilatatis. Gtttera ut 
in Talaurino. 

The only exponent of this genus is an insect not very unlike 
OubicorhynehuB tnaximu*, MacLeay, jun. ; but its affinity is appar- 
ently more with Talaurinus, the sculpture of its rostrum being a 
somewhat extreme modification of the typical characters, but 
having the tarsal joints unusually dilated. The granules on the 
prothorax are fitted into one another, somewhat like the scales on 
a fish. 

Molochtus ©agates. (PI. II. fig. 9.) M. oblongus, subplanatas. 
niger, nitidissimus ; fronte valde convexa, opaca, subtiliter punctata ; 
rostro utrinque supra aerobes fortiter punctato, lamina triangnlari 
profunde excavato; scapo modice elongato ; funiculo articulis duobus 
basalibus obconicis, cseteris oblongo-moniliformibus ; clava longe 
pedunculate ; prothorace transverso, antice sulcata, supra eonfertis- 
•ime granulato, postice utrinque dente parvo initructo ; elytris trans* 
verse foveatis, tuberculis conicis confertim instructis, bumeria 
rotundatis dente minore annatis; corpore infra tenuiter punctato. 
Long. 9-11 tin. 

Hob. West Australia. 

Cubicorhynchus cichlodbs. C. ovatus, niger, inteirupte suaceo- 
squamosus ; rostro latissimo, late excavato, in medio canaliculato ; 
fronte rostroque vittis duobus silaceis ornatis; funiculo articulis 
quatuor ultimis breviter obconicis ; oculis longe ovatis ; prothorace 
transverso, sat remote nitide granulato, supra albido-trivittato ; 
elytris pone medium latioribus, transversim subcorrugati*, seriatim 
granulatis, dorso utrinque vitta albida decora to; corpore infra nitide 
nigra, aegmentis singulis abdominis in medio silaceo-notatis. Long. 
A-Al lin. 
Hob. West Australia. 

A well-marked species, somewhat resembling Tdlaurinu* criee- 
tut, but which, except for the spine or tooth over its eye, might 
have been referred to Sclerorhinu*. Another species, Aamiko- 
lophus nootohioides, Hope's MS., is probably, according to the 
short description of Mr. Waterhouse, the male of O. Bokemom • 

* In this specie* and one or two others not described, the anterior coxa are 
not contiguous; but as they are so in C. calcaratus, MacLeay, jun., which cannot 



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MB. F. P. PABCOl OK THE OUBGULIOXIDJE. 19 

(0. angular*, MacLeay, jun.). The O. tcotobioide* of some col- 
lections (not of Hope) may be distinguished by the following 
characters: — 

CUBICORHYNCH US 8TBRILI8. C. mOT090 fTffrvllt, ted 

rifioribnsy funiculo articutia subpyrifonsriboat 
remote grmimloeo; elytris inCentltiit tee obsolete granulans, tarsis 
nunut diktats. Long. 5-6 tin, 
J5W. Vk 




Chbiottphus. 

Bottrum angustius, basi proftinde transversim sulcatum, in medio 
anguste canaliculatum. Oeuli majusculi, ovati, tenuiter granu- 
kti, prothoraci contigui. Otttera ut in Tdtaurimo. 

In IUaurmu$ the eye is small, round, and away from the pro- 
thorax ; and the- sculpture of the rostrum, which is rather deep, 
especially in proportion to its breadth, cannot be considered a 
modification of that of Talourinu*. The species described below 
is remarkable for its pale ochreous-grey colour, with a few patches 
of brown, and for its prominent conical shoulders. 

Chbiottphus aoromialis. (PI. II. fig. 10.) C. oblongo-oratns, 
niger, sat dense pallida griaeaceati-squainoaus fuaco-plagiatns ; eapite 
roetroqne supra grieeecentibua, kteribue nigris; an tennis aquamosis, 
nodiee ekwgatis; funiculo artieulis daobus basalibus obeoaieie, 
ceteris sabobeonicb; cUts anguste elongata; prothotaee spice quam 
basi toe duplo anguatiore, utrinqae fortiter rotundato, pone apieem 
transrerstm impresso, dorso granulis divereia nitide nigris birittatim 
obsito, lateribns etiam granulans, interspatiis snbanreo-sqnamo- 
eii; elytris seriatim forcatu, interstitiis, regione suturali excepta, 
uregnlariter conico-tuberculatis, apicibus panlo productis; corpora 
infra nitide nigro, sternis medioque sbdominis griseo-sqnamosis. 
Long. 6 tin. 

Hab. Western Australia (Champion Bay). 

Albxibhba. 

(Amycterinae.) 

Caput transrersum, antice conyexum ; rostrum crassiusculum, sed 

be Bsparatad from them, the character in this esse ia not of generic value. I 
give C.<m$ulaH$Mtbb male of C.Bo kmm ion the authority of Mr. DuBouley, 
who takes it abundantly at Champion Bay. No species was described when 
Iauordaire diftawmtiatad the genua ; it remain*, therefore, without a type. 

2» 



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20 MR. F. P. FASCOE ON THE CURCULlONTDJEr 

capite multo angustius, basi sulcatum, bituberculatum. Scro&cs 
arcuatae, ad oculos baud protons®. Oculi ovati, tenuiter granu- 
lati. Scopus breviusculuB (in A. notata longior); JunicuJms 
articulis duobus basalibus breviter obconicia, caateris trans- 
versis ; clava breviter ovata. Prothorax subtraaBversus, apiee 
multo angustior, basi utrinque obliquus, ad elytra baud arete 
applicatus, lobis oeularibus paulo prominulis. Elytra elongato- 
cordata, apicibus productis. Pedes breviusculi ; tarsi articulis 
tribus basalibus angulis anticis productis, subtus hispidis. 

In the bitubecculate base of the rostrum this genus resembles 
Oditesus ; but the scape, although rather short, is that of the more 
typical Amycterinro. A line of granules at the sides of the pro- 
thorax gives it the appearance of being serrated. The scuteUum 
is not always apparent, owing to the elevation of the elytra at its 
sides. The coloration of A. notata is somewhat complicated, and 
is apparently rather variable. 

Alrxirhba notata. (PL II. fig. 4.) A. oblongo-ovata, nigra, 
squamia piliformibiu cervinia fuaco-variegata, aetiaque nigria adaperaa ; 
roatro rude punctata, in medio anguste canaliculato, baai tuberculia 
duobus couicia divaricatis munito; capite aubtihter umbrino-aqua- 
muao; prothorace inasquali, latitudine paulo breviore, aubaeriatinB 
granulato, utrinque, apice excepto, parallelo, pone apieem et baai Ion* 
gitudinaliter impreaao, dorao fuaco, medio et vttta lateraH albo ; elytria 
aulcato-punctatia, interetitiia alternia convexis, vel coatatia, singulis 
poatice nodulia duobus, interiore majore, munitia, baai truneatia, dorao 
macuba irregularibua fuacia bene limitatia ornato; eorpore infra fiiaco, 
pilis elongatia remotia vestito ; pedibua aJbo-aquainoaia, aetia nigris 
adsperaia. Long. 6J lin. 

Hab. Western Australia. 

Albxirhsa a u rita. A. oblongo-ovata, uigra, opaca, aubtiliter vagc 
griseo"squamulo8a ; rostro breviuaculo, basi profunde excavato-anl* 
cato ; acapo brevi ; prothorace longitudine latitudini aequati* utrinqae 
rotundato, tuberculia validia ronfertim munito, in medio longitudimv- 
liter canaliculato, pone apieem tranaveraim aulcato ; elytria anbaeriaw 
tim fortiter foveatia, interetitiia elevatia, tuberculatia, tuberculia 
minuaculia, poatice singulatira nodulia duobus, interiore majore* 
munitia, sutura aquamulis auhsilaceis adsperaia, baai arcuatia, humeri* 
projectis, apice rotundatis, suturu tuberculato-productia ; corpore 
infra in medio longitudinaliter dense fusco-setuhiao ; abdomine 
utrinque ferrugujeo-iuaoiilato ; pedibua albo-squamoais, setulis ad- 
speraia. Long. 5 lin. 



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. lfB. T. P.. PA800I OJT THX CVRQVLIOXTDM. 21 

Umb. West Australia, 

Besides the colour, which, however, varies much in intensity, 
the form of the prothorax, and of the elytra at the base, will at 
once differentiate this species from the last. 

Albxirhba palsifica. A. oblongo-ovata, nigra, opaca, humeri* (in 
unico spec.) griseo-squamosis ; scapo b r ev iu sc u lo ; prothorace at in 
pnecedente, sed minus rotundato, canalicula vittaque utrinque griseo- 
squamosis; elytris subseriatim fortiter foveatia, interstitiis elevatia, 
irregulariter tubereulatis, coraibua duobus ad suturam supra apicem 
obaitis, et spice ipso siinilibus, humeris vix productis, corpore infra 
nigro-setosulo ; pedibus albo-squamosia, setulis adspersis. Long. 5 
lin. 
Hab. Western Australia (Champion Bay). 

The two horn-like projections (contiguous, and therefore appar- 
ently one) on the suture above the apex of the elytra are peculiar 
to this species. 

The following table will give an idea of the principal charac- 
ters of the genera of the long-scaped Amycterime ; Alexirhea, 
however, might perhaps have been better placed with the short- 
scaped genera (" Euomides " of Lacordaire). 

Rostrum (or head) crested (either with tubercles or spines). 

With ocular lobes Acantholophus, Schon. 

Without ocular lobes. 
Rostrum broad. 

Forehead flat, a transverse suture separating it from the 

rostrum , Oubicorhynchus, Lac. 

Forehead convex and rugose. Kyborhynehut, MacLeay, jun. 
Rostrum narrow. 

Eyes coarsely faceted Anascoptes, n. g. 

Eyes finely faceted Polycreta, n. g. 

Rostrum not crested. 

Male with anal forceps Psalidura, MacLeay. 

Male without anal forceps. 
Scape extending beyond the eye. 
Base of the prothorax closely applied to the elytra. 
Head and rostrum concave. 

Amycterus, Schon. 
Head convex. 
Rostrum broad, with two oblique ridges. 

Talaurinus, MacLeay, jun. 



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22 MS. P. P. PA800E OK THE CUBCULIOHIM. 

Bostrum broad, with a straight edge on each aide. 
Sclerorhinus, MacLeay, jun. 

Eoetrum narrow Chriotyphus, n. g. 

Base of the prothoraz not closely applied to the elytra. 

Molochtus, n. g. 
Scape not extending to the posterior border of the eye. 

Afarirhea, n. g. 

Mtoteotus. 

Caput antice convexum, integrum; ratrum crassum, versua 
apicem triangulariter eicavatum; strobes arcuatie, ab oculoe 
distantes, postice bene limitatie. Scopus brevis, gradatim in- 
crmuuAoBiJknieului validus. Oetdi tenniter grannlatL Fro* 
thorax transrersus, lobis ocularibus prominulis, oculoe fere 
obtegentibus. Elytra ovata, basi incurvata. Tarsi breves, 
sublineares, articulis tribus basalibus angulis terminalibua 
spinosis, ciliatis. Abdomen segmentis tribus intermediis sub- 
aqualibus. 

It is not without hesitation that I place this genus among the 
short-scaped forms of Amycterin© ; but its large ocular lobes 
nearly covering the eyes in repose, and a certain resemblance in 
its contour, induce me to think that itisneaierto^bn^forAJfiiit 
than to any other genus, although some of the Talsmrmi are not 
very dissimilar. The abdomen in the following species is of a 
remarkably square form, die last segment being as large as the 
three preceding together ; it is also thickly clothed with golden- 
brown spine-like hairs. 

Myotbotus obtubus. (PI. II. fig. 5.) M. subovatus, panlo plana* 
tot, sqiiamositate obscure umbrina tectus, aetis nigris erects ad- 
spersus ; eapite rostroque dense squamous, hoc basi utrinque modiee 
excavato ; antennis dense squamoais ; funiculo siticnlis duobns base- 
libus breviusculis, cssteris yalde transversis; clava brertter elliptica ; 
prothorace ad lstera paulo ampliato, granulis depressis imgulariter 
adsperio ; elytris postice gradatim latioribus, ad apicem declmbus, 
apice ipso late rotundato, dorso, regione suturali excepts, insequaliter 
tubtiliter granulans ; eorpore infra pedibusque, unguicuhs solis excep- 
tis, dense griseo-squamosia. Long. 5 lin. 

Hob, Queensland (Rockhampton). 

Catachanus sciktillans. C. OTatus, supra, captte, rostro pedi- 
basque squamis margaritaceo-viridibua, in certa lues splendide aurco- 



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MB. V. P. PUB001 OK VHB OUEOULIONIDJE. 23 

viridibus, infra tote essruleis sejunctim vestitus; antennis nigris; 
protborace oblongo ; elytrii protborace multo latioribus, substriato- 
punctatis, interstitiis planatis. Long. 4 lin. 
Hab. Philippine Islands. 

Besides the difference of colour, this species has a narrower 
prothorax, and the front between the eyes not depressed as in C. 
eircuhts. 

Euqnathus bractratus. E. angustus, ovatus, niger, supra capite 
rostroqae sqnamis concoloribus, aureo-viridibus intermixtis, vestitus ; 
capite inter oculos rostroque sat fortiter excavatis ; antennis nigris ; 
scapo paulo arcuato; funiculo articulo primo valido; protborace sub- 
transverso, utrinque manifeste rotundato ; scutello parvo ; elytris sub- 
striato-punctatis ; corpore infra pedibusque sqnamis csnileo-viridibus 
tectis. Long. 2J lin. 
Hab. Tsusima. 

A narrow species, with sparkling golden-green scales, dotted 
about among others of a deep black. Tsusima is an island in 
the Corean Channel, where this species was found by Mr. Arthur 
Adams, B.N. 

Eugnathus chloroticus. E. ovatus, niger, squamis pallide aureo- 
viridibus sejunctim, infra pedibusque magis dense, vestitus ; antennis 
nigris; scapo recto; funiculo articulo primo ampliato; protborace 
transverso, utrinque parum rotundato ; scutello viz conspicuo ; elytris 
lathisculis, striate-punctatis, apicibus acuminata, paulo divaricatis. 
Long. 3 lin. 

Hab. Formosa; North China. 

There is an admixture of brownish scales on the elytra, vary- 
ing in extent in my two specimens, but very slight indeed in one 
of them. 

Orthorhinus palmares. (PL I. fig. 7.) O. cylindricus, 
niger, squamis concoloribns plerumque vestitus ; rostro, spice excepto, 
rugoso-punctato ; funiculo articulis secundo tertio quartoque con- 
junctim ( cf ) primo baud longioribus, ( $ ) brevioribus ; prothorace 
sat confertim grosse granulato, interspatiis subtiliter vage squa- 
moso, disco utrinque albo-subvittato ; elytris sulcato-punctatis, in- 
terstitiis, praesertim alternis, fortiter elevatis et uniseriatim granulans, 
squamis subsilaceis, vel subalbidis, fascias duas arcuatas formantibus, 
nnam ante, alteram pone medium sitam ; corpore infra sat vage brun- 
nescenti-squamoso ; tarsis omnino subalbidis, anticis in maribus vald e 
dilatatis et nigro-fimbriatis. Long. 8 lin. 

Hab. Ceram. 

Orthorhinus arrogans. O. oblongo-ovnhs, niger, squamis con 



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24 MB. F. P. PABCOB OH THE CUBCULIOKJDJi. 

eokvibos pkrumque vestitas; rostro rugoso-punctato ; funiculo arti- 
cnlo seeundo qiuun primo ( 6* ) paulo, ( ° ) dimidio breviore; protho- 
race sat eonfertim grosse granulato, interspatiis subtiliter squa- 
moso, lateribus plaga subobliqua ornato; elytris sulcato-punctatis, 
ponctis approximstiw, interstitus convexis, magis remote granulatis, 
fascia media areuata maculiaqnc potticis albis ornatis ; tarsis anticis 
minus dilstarii Long. 6-8 tin. 
Hmb. Ceram; Amboyna; Bourn. 

At the first glance these two species have much the same ap- 
pearance ; bat their contour will at once distinguish them. The 
markings are somewhat variable ; in one of my specimens of the 
species before us the posterior spots are absent. 

Cehchreha. 

(ErirhininaB.) 

Rostrum cylindricum, arcuatum ; scrobes anteinedian©, recto. 
Scopus oculum haud attingens ; funiculus 7-articulatus ; clava 
adnata. Oculi angusti, subfortiter granuJati. Prothorax paulo 
transversus, apice tubulatus, basi bisinuatus ; lobis ocularibus 
haud prominulis, vel obsoletis. Scuteilum nullum. Elytra ob- 
longa, prothorace latiora, basi reflexo-marginata. Pedes validi ; 
femora incrassata, mutica ; tibia intus bisinuat®, apice cal ca- 
rat®; tarsi triarticulati, articulo ultimo ampliato-rotundato ; 
coxa antic® contiguse. Abdomen segmentis duobus basal ibus 
ampliatis. Corpus oblongum. 

Among the few genera of Erirhininffl with tbree-jointed tarsi, 
this genus may be known by its straight scrobes, afunicle of seven 
joints, and the absence of a scuteilum. The three species de- 
scribed below are densely scaly, except their antennae and tip of the 
rostrum, and have erect curiously hooked bristles sparingly scat- 
tered on the upper surface. 

Cenchrbna fasciata. (PI. III. fig. 9.) C. supra griseo-squa- 
mosa, fuscescenti-nebulosa s rostro prothoraci longitudine aequali; 
antennis subtestaceis ; prothorace crebre punctato; elytris fortiter 
sulcato-punctatis, interstitiis, presertim alternis, elevatis, paulo pone 
medium fascia lata brunnea ornatis ; abdomine infra in medio argenteo* 
squamoso. Long. 1| lin. 

Hab. Aru; Waigiou. 

" Cbnchrena pcscila. C. supra cervino-brunneo-squamosa, elytris 
niveo-maculatis j rostro prothorace paulo longiore, squamis conco* 



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MB. F. P. PA8C0B OH THE CUBCULIOXIDiB. 25 

loribus leviter induto ; antennis subtestaceis ; prothorace crebre punc- 
tate; elytris sulcato-foveatis, interstitiis elevatis, macula humerali 
alterisque paucia adspersis; corpore infra griseo-squamoso. Long. 
lf-li lin. 
Hab. Batchian. 

Cbnchrbna 8UTURALI8. C. supra fuscescenti-squamosa, elytris 
dimidio basali sutura albis; rostro prothorace manifeste longiore, 
ferrugineo, apice excepto, dense squamoso; antennis subtestaceis ; 
prothorace crebre punctato; elytris sulcato-foveatis, interstitiis ele- 
vatis, regione humerali et pone medium pallidioribus. Long. 1 j lin. 

Hab. Sula. 

Theohia. 

(EriphininaD.) 

Rostrum cylindricum, arcuatum ; scrobes medians, rectae. Scopus 
ocolum vix attingens ; funiculus 7-articulatus ; clava adnata. 
Oeuli rotundati, grosse granulati. Prothorax transversus, apice 
parum productus, lobis ocularibus nullis. Scutellum distinctum. 
Elytra suboblonga, prothorace paulo latiora. Pedes breviusculi ; 
femora incrassata, mutica ; tibue intus bisinuatffl, apice haud cal- 
caratsB ; tarsi triarticulati ; coxa anticsB contiguee. Abdomen 
Begmento secundo ampliato. 

Allied to the last genus, but very distinct from it on account of 
its scutellum, and the tibiae without the uncus or spur at the apex. 
Judging from my specimen, it is probable that the insect in a fresh 
state is tolerably closely covered with scales. 

Thbchia pvgmjba. T. subcylindrica, brunneo-rufa, squamis pallide 
griseis vestita ; rostro prothorace paulo longiore, basi fronteque ca- 
pitis aejunctim squamosis ; antennis pallidioribus ; funiculo articulo 
primo eloDgato, reliquis brevibus ; clava ampla, ovata ; prothorace 
latitudine longitudini aequali, apice constricto, antice paulo angustiore* 
ntrinque modice rotundato ; elytris prothorace paulo latioribus, paral- 
lelis, apicem versus gradatim rotundatis, striato-punctatis, interstitiis 
modice convexii ; tibiis anticis intus late mucronatis. Long. 1 lin. 
Hab. Champion Bay. 

TlTHEKE. 

(Erirhinin».) 

Caput parvum, exsertum ; rostrum elongatum, tenue, arcuatum, 
basi angustius; scrobes pramediansB, rectae. Scopus oculum 

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26 MB. F. P. PAflOOE OH THE OTJBCULIOKID^. 

attingens ; funiculus septemarticulatus, articulis duobus basali- 
bas elongatis, cssteris breviter obconicis ; clava distincta. OcttJi 
mediocres, tenuiter granulati. Prothorax apice angustus, lata- 
ribus ampliato-rotundatus, basi truncatus. Elytra subcordi- 
formia, prothorace vix latiora. Pedes antici majores ; femora 
incrassata, infra dentata ; tibia subrecta, apice hand uncinate; 
tarsi articulo tertio lobis angustis, divaricatis, quarto elongato ; 
unguictdi divergentes; pectus elongatum, ampliatum; coxm 
anticse globos©, sejuncto. Abdomen segmento secundo am- 
pliato. 

A curious genua, for which at present I am unable to suggest 
any affinity ; provisionally it may be placed after Meriphus. 

Tithbnb mcBOCBPHALA. (PI. III. fig. 13.) T. nigra, subnitida, 
capite pone oculos macula fulva ornato, roatro capite quintuple km* 
giore, supra tricarinato, carinis apicem versus serratis; antennas 
ochraceis, acapo clavaque infuscatis ; funiculo articulo primo secundo 
longiore ; prothorace longitndine latitudini ssquali, tenuiter confertim 
punctulato ; elytris striato-punctatis, punctii approximatis, intersti- 
tiis confertim punctulatb ; tibiis anticis intna longe pilosis. Long. 
24 tin. 

Hob. Sarawak. 

Mbtrioxbna bubvittata. M. pallide brunnea, elytris vitta testacea 
arcuata ab humero fere usque ad apicem signatis ; rostro minus tenuato, 
opaco, manifeste punctata, basi supra oculum utrinque prodncto ; an- 
tennis fuivis; prothorace minus leviter punctato, qnmquecarinato, 
marginibus irregulariter erosis; elytris striato-punctatis, interttitua 
quinto et octavo elevatis; corpore infra ferrugineo-testaceo, subtilHer 
punctulato. Long, lilin. 
Hob. Macassar. 

The upper part of the rostrum at the base is bifurcated, and 
forms a well-marked ridge above each eye. In my specimens of 
this species and its only congener, M. sericollis (ante, vol. x. 
p. 442), the abdomen has six segments ; but this may possibly 
be sexual. It was a mistake to compare the genus to Apion ; the 
contour at least is not unlike Oxycorynus. 

Bblus Wallacbi. B. elongatus, chalybeatus ; antennis piceis ; rostro 
nigro; capite tenuiter punctulato ; prothorace subconico, subtthter vage 
punctulato, in medio haud canaliculate, lobo scutellari bifido ; scutello 
valde transverso ; elytris postice gradatim latioribus, subseriatim punc* 
tatis,panctis in regione suturali majoribus, apice paulo productis nigro- 
funicnlatis, singulis postice maeulis duabus, e squamulis niveis con- 



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MB. *. P. PASOOB OK THE OUBOTTLIOHIDJL 27 

densatis, ornatis ; corpora infra nitidissime viridi-metalfico, lateribus 
albo-maculatis ; femoribus tibiisque, anticit exceptis, nitide rufo-ferru- 
gmeis. Long. 6 lin. 
Hab. Aru. 

Belu* is one of the few genera of Coleoptera common and 
confined to the Papuan group and Australia. From the former 
we are indebted to Mr. Wallace for the two species here de- 
scribed, the only ones known at present ; whilst Australia has 
about thirty-six. 

Bslus INORNATU8. B. angustior, obscure nigro-fiiscus, elytris pur- 
purascentibus, pilis griseis rage vestitus ; capite parce rottro obsolete 
punctulato; antennis ferrugineis; protborace transverso, in medio 
subcanalkuUto, supra rugoso-punctulato ; scutello valde transverso ; 
elytris postice minus gradatim latioribus, rude confertim punctulatis, 
apicibus mucronatis; corpore infra nitide nigro ; femoribus ferrogi- 
neis, Tel rtifo-ferrugineis. Long. 4-6 lin. 

Hab. Mysol; Morty. 

This and the preceding are yery distinct species ; in my speci- 
mens both have the anterior femora bidentate beneath ; but this 
is not a specific character ; I am not even sure that it is a sexual 
one, although hitherto it has been used for the differentiation of 
species. 

Buof8 CCBLK8TINA. E. brevis, nitidissime cssrulea, violaceo resplen- 

dens; antennis rufo-fuscis, clava elongata, nigra ; rostro breviusculo; 

capite prothoraceque impuuctatis, hoc in medio transversim impresso ; 

scutello subquadrato, viridi-nitente ; elytris subsulcato-punctatis, 

. punctis mediocribus, sutura nigra j pygidio pedibusque nigro-cyaneis, 

illo sat sparse punctato. Long. If Un. 
Hab* New Guinea (Dorey). 

The anterior tibia) longer, curved, and sometimes running into 
a falcate process at the apex ; in the females the anterior tibia 
are stouter, bulging out a little between the base and the middle, 
and having one or two spurs at the apex ; but there are some ex- 
ceptions. M. Jekel, in ' Insecta Saundersiana,' divides the genus 
into three groups, depending principally on the form of the body. 

Euops violacba. B. brevis, nitidissime cssruleo-violacea ; antennis 
ntfb-fuscis, minus ekmgatia ; rostro breviusculo; capite et prothorace 
subtilissime transversim corrugatis, punctis minutis adspersis ; scu- 
tello subquadrato ; elytris sulcato-punctatis, punctis majusculis, sub- 
approximatis, sutura nigra ; pygidio cyaneo, punctis distinctis parvis 
adsperso ; pedibus cyaneo-fuscis. Long. If lin. 

Hab. Ceram. 



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28 MB. F. P. PASCOB OK THE CTTBCULIOlttD*. 

Euops plicata. E. brevis, iiitklissime esmleo-viridis, violaeeo re- 
splendens ; antennis fuseis ; capita sat rode punctato ; rostro brevi- 
usculo ; prothoracc transversim fortiter reticuUtim crebre comigato ; 
scutello brevi, subquadrato ; elytris fortiter stdcato-punctatis, inter- 
stitiis subcostatis, sparse impresso-punctatis, sutura nigra; pygidio 
viridi sat sparse punctato ; corpore infra femoribusqoe nitide firidibus ; 
tibiis tarsisque viridi-fuscis. Long. 1} lin. 

Hab. Macassar. 

Euops tbigemm ata. B. brevis, nitide nigrescens, elytris violsccas j 
antennis fulvis, clava griseo-tomentosa ; capite rostroqne cbslybeatis, 
illo breviusculo ; protborace lrevigato, impunctato ; scntello subqua- 
drato, aureo-viridi ; elytris subsulcato-punctatis, punctis baud approxi- 
matis, interstitiis latis, subplanatia, sntura nigra, huraeris aureo-viridi- 
bus ; pygidio stro, sat sparse punctato ; corpore infra atro ; pedibos 
riifo-castaneis, femoribus viridi-lavatis. Long. 1| lin. 

Hab. Batchian; Dorey. 

Euops jbrosa. E. brevis, viridi-fosca, nitida, elytris cbalybeatis; 
capite rostroque aureo-viridibus, illo rarius punctato ; antennis pieeis ; 
prothorace comigato, basi minus impresso, lateribus foveato et aureo- 
ycl ssreo-micante ; scutello transversim subquadrato; elytris sat for- 
titer sulcato-punctatis, punctis approximate, interstitiis subcostatis, 
sparse subtiliter punctulatis, basi bumerisque aureo-viridibus, sutura 
nigra; pygidio, corpore infra femoribusque aureo-viridibus; tibiis 
tarsisque nitide castaneis. Long. \} lin. 

Hab. Batchian; Sarawak; Sula. 

The sculpture is like E. plicata, but it is more marked, especi- 
ally on tbe prothorax. 

Euops claviobra. B. brevis, nitide nigra ; capite pone oculos for* 
titer punctato ; rottro breTiusculo ; antennis fuseis ; clava valde am* 
pliata, articulis sex prascedentibus conjunctim longiore; oculis vix 
contiguis ; prothorace subtiliter raro punctato, in medio vitta nitidis- 
sime aurea ornato ; scutello subquadrato, aureo-viridi ; elytris sub- 
sulcato-punctatis, punctis minusculis, distantibus, interstitiis latis, vix 
convexis, bumeris bete aureo-viridibus ; pygidio sat sparse punctato ; 
corpore infra pedibusque fusco-nigris. Long. 1 J lin. 

Hab. Queensland. 

This species is like the two preceding in having three bright 
green spots on the shoulders and scutelltun respectively ; the re- 
markable size of the club is at once diagnostic. 

Euops eucalypti. E. subhrevis, nitide nigra, capite prothoraceque 
nigro-aeneis, sat sparse punctatis ; rostro breviusculo ; antennis cas- 
taneis, clava am pla, quasi 4-articulata ; oculis baud contiguis; pro* 



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MR. F. P. PASC0E ON THE CUBCULIONIDJE. 20 

thoraoe utrinque ampliato-rotundato ; scutello subquadrato, impunc- 
tato; elytris sulcato-punctatis, punctis majusculis approximate, 
interstitiis convexis; pygidio confertim punctata; pedibus anticis 
elongatis ; femoribus anticis ampliatis ; tibiis anticis modioe elongatis. 
Hab. Queensland (Gayndah). 

The anterior legs are as long and their femora an large as in 
E. diviso, represented on Plate III. fig. 6. It is found, Mr. 
Masters writes, on young gum trees (Eucalyptus), probably on the 
foliage. 

Euops ambthystina. B. angusta, supra nitide violacea, subtus, 
rostro femoribusque aureo-viridibus, antennis, tibiis tarsisque fusco- 
purpureis vel viridibus; rostro brevi; clava antennarum ampliata; 
capite prothoraceque tenuiter sparse punctatis, scutello subquadrato, 
nigra; elytris subsulcato-punctatis, punctis magnis, approximatis, 
intcrstitiis uniseriatim subtilissime sparse punctulatis, sutura, basi ex- 
cepta, nigra; pygidio violaceo; tibiis anticis elongatis. Long. 
21in. 

Hab. Singapore. 

Euops divisa. (PI. III. fig. 6.) E. subangusta, omnino nitide fla- 
vescens, parte dimidia elytrorum nigreseente excepts; rostro longiore, 
apice infuscato; antennis longiusculis ; clava saturatiore, articulo 
ultimo elongato ; capite prothoraceque impunctatis ; scutello subqua- 
drato ; elytris sulcato-punctatis, punctis foveiformibus, approximatis, 
interstitiis convexis ; pygidio leviter punctulato ; pedibus anticis elon- 
gatis; femoribus anticis (<S) valde ampliatis, tuberculis dnobus vel 
tribus aliquando instructis. Long. 2 lin. 

Hab. Dorey; Saylee; Batchian; My sol. 

Euops Jbkblii. E. cyanea, nitida, elytris purpurascentibus ; capite 
pone oculos elongato, conico, rarissime subtiliter punctulato ; rostro 
(<$) plus minusve elongato, arcuato, ultra medium gradatim latiore, 
aliquando prothorace manifeste longiore; antennis longiusculis; pro- 
thorace subtiliter punctulato, utrinque pone oculos (S) spina recta 
vel arcuata armato ; elytris subsulcato-punctatis, punctis parvis, di- 
stantibus, interstitiis latis, parum convexis, humeris aureo-viridibus, 
dente minuto pone angulum instructis ; pygidio nigra, sparse pune- 
tato ; corpora infra chalybeo-nigro ; pedibus purpureis vel chalybe- 
atis ; coxis anticis aureo-viridibus. Long. 3$ lin. 
Hab, Aru; Dorey; Salwatty; Waigiou; Amboyna. 
A remarkable species which perhaps might be considered the 
type of a distinct genus. I have the pleasure of dedicating it to 
M. Jekel. 



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80 MB. P. P. PA8COE ON THE OTTRCVLIOSTDM. 

Imachba. 

( Anthonomin©. ) 

Rostrum validum, vix arcuatum, baei compressum ; serobes me- 
dian©, obliqu® Tel subtransvers©. Oeuli perampli, rotundati, 
supra contigui, tota latera capitis occupantes. Scopus oculum 
impingens ; funiculus 7-articulatus, articulo primo amplo, reli- 
quis parvis, gradatim brevioribus ; clava elongata. Prothorax 
conicuB, apice truncatus. Scutellum distinctum. Elytra ampla, 
humeris obliquis. Pectus leviter excavatum. Pedes poitici ma- 
jores ; femora crassa, mutica ; tibia fere reoto ; tarsi normales ; 
unguiculi appendicular. Abdomen segmentis tribus intermediis 
©qualibus, lateribus valde arcuatie. 

Probably a saltatorial genus like Orehestes t to which it is obvi- 
ously allied ; the stout rostrum, however, with the nearly trans- 
Terse aerobes and large eyes, occupying most of the head, are 
trenchantly diagnostic characters. 

Imachra roficollis. J. late ovata, supra sparse griseo-pQosa; rostro 
rufescente, basi excepts infascata ; antennis fulvis, clava funiculo longi- 
tudine aequali ; proihorace rufo, sat crebre punctulato j scutello ely- 
trisque nigris, his proihorace fere duplo latioribus, striato-punctatii, 
interstitus subplanatia ; corpore infra nigrescente, segmentis tribus 
ultimis abdominis exceptis, his pedibusque rufescentibus* Long. 
Ulin. 

Hob. 8arawak. 

Themebopis. 

(Prionomerin©.) 

Caput elongatum; rostrum subcylindricum ; serobes obliqu©. 
Oeuli perampli, fortiter granulati, supra contigui. Scopus 
gracilis, flexuosus ; funiculus 7-articulatus, articulo primo elon- 
gato, ceteris brevissimis ; clava magna, laxe articulata. Pro- 
thorax conicus. Elytra ampla, subquadrangularia, epipleuris 
diBtinctis. Femora antica elongata, vaUdissima, dente magno, 
antice crenulato, infra armata ; tibia antic® fortiter arcuate, 
versus apicem crassiores ; femora postica minuscula, infra den- 
tata ; tibia omnes calcarat©. Abdomen segmentis tribus interne- 
diis longitudine ©qualibus. 

The abruptly descending side of the elytra or epipleura is 
marked off from the dorsum by a sharp ridge clothed with coarse 



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J£JL P. P. PA80OB OH THE OUBCULTOfllDJS. 31 

brownish hairs, which are carried on to the sides of the prothorax, 
forming a continuous fringe ; nothing so marked occurs in any 
other Prionomerin known to me. It is one of Mr. Bates's dis- 
coveries. 

Thbmbropis pimbriata. (PI. III. fig. 7.) T. umbrina, sparse 
griseo-pilosa ; rostro subnitido, minus piloso; antennis flavidis; 
funiculo articulo ultimo clavaque, articulo ultimo excepto, infuscatis; 
prothorace crebre punctate; scutello subrotundato ; elytris postice 
latioribus, lineatim sulcate-punctatis, singulis in medio tuberculo 
validissimo conico, lateraliter compresso, instructis ; tibiis tarsisque 
posticis et intermedin testaceis. Long. 2 lin. 

Hob. Amazons. 

OcHYROMERA. 

( Prionomerinse.) 

BoMtrum elongatura, arcuatum, apicem versus dilatatum ; scrobes 
premediansB, infra marginem inferiorem oculorum currentes. 
Antenna graciles ; funiculus 7-articulatus, articulo primo am- 
pliato, secundo longiusculo; clava distincta, magna. OcuU 
subrotundati, fortiter granulati vel subtenuiter granulati (0. 
rufescens). Prothorax transversus, basi parum bisinuatus. 
Scutellum mediocris. Elytra prothorace manifeste latiora, sub- 
cordiformia vel subovata. Coxa antic© contigu®, intermedin 
approximates. Femora antica valida, dente integro magno infra 
armata; tibia antic© fortiter arcuate ; femora intermedia et 
postica minora, infra fortiter dentata; tibia oinnes calcaratsB. 
Abdomen segmentis tribus intermediis sub&qualibus. 

It may perhaps be thought necessary hereafter to separate ge- 
nerically the two rather isolated species described below. The 
members of the PrionomerinsB are probably numerous, but indivi- 
dually very scarce both in South America and the Malasian 
region, where alone they have been hitherto found. 

Ochvromsra DI88IMILI8. (PL III. fig. 3.) 0. fusco-nigra, rostro 
basi subtiliter lineatim punctate ; oculis rotundatis, fortiter granulatis, 
antennis infuscatis; clava sublaze articulata; prothorace confertim 
impresso-punctato ; elytris elongato-cordiformibus, striato-punctatis, 
interstitiis planatis, impunctatis; corpore infra fusco-castaneo, griseo- 
piloso ; tarsis subpiceis. Long. 2\ lin. 

Hob. Sarawak. 

The upper surface of this species has a somewhat varnished 



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82 MB. 7. P. PA8C0E ON THE CUBCULIONIDJE. 

appearance, due to very minute silvery hair-like scales only visible 
under the microscope. 

Ochyromsra RUFK8CEN8. 0. supra pedibusque rufo-fulva, tenuiter 
griseo-pilosa, setulU intermixtis ; rottro subferrugineo, basi striate ; 
antennia testaceia; oculia rotundatis, subfortiter granulatis; pro- 
thorace apice aubtubulato, utrinque rotundato, punctis spareii pilia 
fere obtectia ; elytria breviter aubovatia, aulcato-punctatia, apice late 
rotundatis ; corpore infra rufo-caataneo, tenuiter griaeo-piloso ; tibiis 
anticis apicem versus incrassatis. Long. 2 lin. 

Hob. Singapore. 

Stwkada. 

(Prionomerin®.) 

Rostrum tenuatum, arcuatum, basi haud incrassatum, apice dila- 
tatum; scrobes submedianae, infra oculos currentes. Oculi 
prominuli, rotundati, fortiter granulati. Scopus gracilis, ocu- 
lum attingens ; funiculus 6-articulatus, articulo primo ampliato, 
tribus sequentibus gradatim brevioribus, duobus ultimis rotun- 
datis ; clava distincta, ovata. Prothorax transversus, basi an- 
gustatus, truncatus. Elytra prothorace manifesto latiora, sub- 
ovata, humeris callosa. Tibia apice muticn. Catera at in 
Ochyrotnera. 

Notwithstanding the six-jointed antenna?, this genus is more 
nearly allied to Ochyromera (rufescens) than to either of the three 
other incongruous genera having the same number of joints. The 
scales on the species described below are so small and at such dis- 
tances apart as to exercise little effect on the colour. 

Syn*nada currucula. S. fulvo-testacea, squamulis minntis subar- 
genteis sejunctim vestita ; rottro prothorace fere triplo longiore, apice 
paulo dilatato, basi lineatim striato j antennia pallide fulvia, clava infus- 
cata ; prothorace valde transverso, utrinque rotundato, punctis aparats 
squamulis piliforuiibus obtecto ; elytris breviter subovatis, apice ro- 
tundatis, aulcato-punctatia, punctis approximatis, interatituaconvexis, 
sparse setulosis j tibiis anticis intus setis sex nigris fimbriatis. Long. 
1J line. 

Hob. Macassar. 

The Table below comprises all the genera of the Prionomerinse 
at present known having the anterior femora furnished with a 
large triangular tooth. Piazorhinus, the only genus which offers 
an exception to this character, was merely compared, and only as 



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MB. F. P. PABCOE OK THE CURCULJOinD^. 33 

to habit, by Schonherr with Rhynchites, It is founded on a North- 
American species unknown to me (P. Scutellaria, Say). 

Funicle 7 -jointed. 
Tooth of the anterior femora crenate externally. 
Club of the antennae loosely jointed. 
Eyes round, dose to the prothorax . . Ectyrtus, Pasc. 
Eyes oblong, remote from the prothorax. 

Themeropis, n. g. 
Club of the antenna closely jointed. 

Elytra flattish Camptochirus, Lac. 

Elytra convex Prionomerus, Schon. 

Tooth of the anterior femora entire Ochyromera, n. g. 

Funicle 6-jointed. 
Prothorax broadest at the base. 

Scape attaining the eye Zeiona, Pasc. 

Scape not attaining the eye Omphasus, Pasc. 

Prothorax contracted at the base. 

Bostrum long, slender Synnada, n. g. 

Bostrum short, robust Nychiomma, Pasc. 



ZfiPHIAXTHA. 

(Tychiin©.) 

Bostrum cylindricum, arcuatum; serobes postmedian®. Oculi 
rotundati, fortiter granulati, supra approximate Scopus apice 
curvatus; funiculus 6-articulatus, articulo primo ampliato, 
casteris a secundo gradatim latioribus ; clava ovata. Prothorax 
transversus, apice truncatus, basi subbisinuatus. Scutellum 
triangulare. Elytra ampla, prothorace multo latiora, pygidium 
obtegentia. Femora crassa, infra dentata; tibia fere rectee, 
apice calcarat© ; unyuiculi appendiculati. Abdomen segmentis 
tribus intermediis subequalibus. 

I place this genus near Mleschus and Lignyodes, although the 
abdominal segments are not very obviously curved at the sides. 
Endeus y a West-African genus which I have not seen, has also a 
six-jointed funiculus, but the elytra are parallel at the sides and 
scarcely broader than the prothorax. 

Zkphiantha pubipbnnis. Z. fulvo-rufa, acutello elytrisque nigres- 
centibus, pube grisea, setulisque interjectis, sat dense vestitis ; rostro 

LIHK. JOUKIT. — ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIE. 3 



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34 MB. P. P. PA8C0E OK THE CUBCULIOKID^. 

capiteque vix pubescentibus, illo prothorace sesquilongiore ; antennis 
rufescentibus ; prothorace minusculo, subtiliter pubescent©, pnnctis 
raris fere obsoletis impresso ; elytris modice convexis, latcribus ro- 
tundatis, basi prothoracis duplo latioribus, lineatim sulcato-punctatis, 
punctis approximate, interstitiis planatis, uniseriatim punctulatis : 
corpore infra rufo-testaceo, subtiliter pubescente. Long, 1J lin. 
Hob. Sumatra. 

Perbhjebius. 

(Cryptorhynchin©.) 

Rostrum mediocre, apice paulo dilatatum ; scrobes oblique. Oeuli 
o vati, groBse granulati. Scap us bre viuaculus ; funiculus articulis 
duobus basalibus brevibus, primo parum ampliato ; clava sub- 
globosa. Prothorax subtransversus, antice angustus, basi 
bisinuatus, lobis ocularibus prominulie. Elytra oblonga, supra 
subdepressa, prothorace latiora. Pedes breviusculi; femora 
valida, sublinearia, infra dente parvo instructa; tibia com- 
press®, basin versus angulatse ; tarsi normales. Bima pecto- 
ralis incompleta ; pectus antice profunde emarginatum. Abdo- 
men segmentis duobus basalibus ampliatis. 

This genus differs from Colobodes in its stouter rostrum, the 
shortness of the basal joints of the funiculus, the sublinear femora, 
the angular tibiae, Ac. When the femora are linear or sublinear, 
the tooth beneath, if present, will be small and abruptly connected 
to the femur ; if the femora are thickened, fusiform, or clavate, the 
tooth will more or less gradually merge into the femur : the differ- 
ence will be understood on referring to PI. I. fig. 5, a, and fig. 9, a 
(Odosyllis congesta and Berosiris picticollis), 

Pbrrh^sbius bph ippigbr. (PL I. fig. 6.) P. oblongus, niger, squamis 
grisescentibus umbrinisque dense tectus, nonnullis elongatis erectis ad* 
spersus ; capite inter oculos profunde foveato ; rostro prothorace brevi- 
ore, apice excepto, dense squamoso ; prothorace ante medium transrer- 
aim quadrituberculato-fasriculato, in medio longitudinaliter snbsuleato, 
dorso pallide trivittato ; scutello elevato ; elytris sulcatis, interstitiis 
alternis magis elevatis et subnodoso-fasciculatis, fascieulis nonnullis 
nigris, in medio macula magna communi umbrina ornatis ; corpore 
infra pedibusque roseO-griseis, his squamis erectis adspersis. Long. 
4Jlin. 

Hob. Dorey; Aru; Macassar; Morty. 

Pachyonyx ARANE08U8. P. oblongus, piceus, ubique pube depi 



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MB. F. P. PASCOI OK THE CUBCULIOWLDJS. 35 

grisea restitus; antennis bete ferrugineia; data tomentosa, quam 
funiculo manifeste longiore ; prothorace conico, antice quadritubercu- 
Uto, tuberculis dense pilosis; elytris sulcato-punctatiB, apicibus late 
angulatis, supra tuberculis parris, singulis circa septem, dense pubes- 
centibus obsitis. Long. 4 lin. 
Hob. Cochin-China. 

Differs from the Natal species, its only congener, in the large 
size of the club of the antennae, and the equal distribution of the 
pubescence ; this to the naked eye has a cobweb-like texture and 
colour. 

Ocladius Babani. O. ovatus, niger, suhnitidus, elytris maculis non- 
nulhs (singulis circa quinque) ochraceis, e squamis piliformibus con- 
densatisformatis ; rostro utrinque rude bilineatim punctato ; antennis 
ochraceis ; prothorace fortiter, pnesertim lateraliter, sulcato-foveato ; 
elytris seriatim punctatis, punctis oblongis, distantibus, singulis setulam 
gerentibus ; corpore infra squamositate ferruginea yestito; femoribus 
tibiisque fortiter sulcatis. Long. 2 lin. 

Hob. Syria. 

This yery distinct species of a South-African genus, which has 
had, hitherto, only one representative in the European fauna (in- 
cluding the countries bordering the Mediterranean), is named in 
memory of Gabriel de Baran, a most acute entomologist, and my 
companion in many pleasant excursions in the south of France. 

ZXNET7DS8. 

(Cryptorhynchin®.) 

Bottrum validum, arcuatum, antice depressum; scrobes submedi- 
awe, pone rostrum cito currentes. Antenna breves; scapus 
crassiusculus, ab oculum distans; funiculus articulis duobus 
basalibus brevibus, secundo ampliato, coteris valde transyersis, 
ultimo clay» latitudine ©quali ; elava obsolete articulata, sub- 
ovata, pube8cens. Oeuli laterales, tenuiter granulati. Pro- 
thorax ampins, apice productus, basi bisinuatus, lobis ocularibus 
obsoletis. Elytra subcylindrica, prothorace haud latiora. 
Pedes breyiusculi ; femora valida, mutica ; tibia sulcata*, recte, 
intus bisinuataa ; tarsi normales ; unguiculi diyergentes. Bima 
pectoralis pone coxas anticas terminata; mesoeternum cordi- 
forme, antice semicirculariter excavato. Abdomen segmento 
secundo amplo. 

A remarkable genus, closely resembling and, in fact, allied to the 

3* 



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86 MB. P. P. PA800E OK THE CUBCULIOKTDJB. 

Chilian Emplmrus dmtipes ; but from the form of the niesosternum 
it should be placed next to the New-Zealand Oredo, Wh. This is 
another example showing that Lacordaire's subtribes do not always 
form natural groups. The mesosternum, however, is constructed 
differently from that of Oreda ; in the latter it is projected for- 
ward, hiding the point of the rostrum in repose, while in Ze- 
neudes it is sloped backwards, with a sort of wing on each side to- 
wards the coxae and the apex of the canal, therefore, open and 
indefinitely limited. One of the most marked characters of the 
genus is that the scape only extends about halfway to the eye 
from the point of its insertion ; another remarkable character is 
that the second joint of the funicle is larger than the first. The 
insect is one of Mr. Masters's recent discoveries, and is found on 
decaying bottle-trees (Sterculia rupestru). 

Zsnbudes sterculijb. Z. oblongua, subcylindricus, fuacua, aquamia 
concoloribus ochraceiaque maculatim aejunctim vestitus ; rostro capite 
duplo longiore, nitidisaime nigro, basi iiibgibboso et utrinque sulcato ; 
antennis piceis, rarissime aetuloais, clava excepta ; protborace longi- 
tudine latitudini aequali, pone apicem valde constricto, lateribus rotnn- 
dato, disco carinulato ; scutello minuto ; elytris striato-punctatis, in- 
teratitiis latis convexis, apice rotundatis ; femoribus tibiiaque sparse 
squamosis. Long. 4-5 lin. 

Hab. Queensland (Gayndah). 

Cyamobolus bicinctos. C oralis, niger, aqnamulia ailaceia valde 
adspersus, lineis dense albido-aquamoaia ornatna; rostro dimidio 
apicali nitidiaaimo ; antennis femigineis, funiculo articulo aecundo 
quam primo quadruplo longiore ; prothorace insequaliter sat Tage 
punctata, dorao antice versus latent lineis doabus notato ; scutello 
rotundato; elytris substriato-punctatis, punctis profundis oblongis, 
interstitiis subangustis, remote punctulatis, fascia basali alteraque 
pone medium suturaque versus apicem dense albido-aquamoaia; 
corpore infra pedibusque squamis albidis adsperais. Long. 6 lin. 
Hob* Malacca. 

Compared with C. Sturmii, Boh., this species is less rugosely 
punctured, the striae on the elytra nearly obsolete, and the dispo- 
sition of the white lines different. 

Cyamobolus subsbllatur. (PI. I. fig. 12.) C. ovalis, niger, albo 
varius; rostro crassiore, basi rugoso-punctato, apice vix nitido; 
antennis piceis, funiculo articulo secundoqaam primo triplo longiore ; 
prothorace subampliato, insequaliter tenuiter punctato, punctis albo- 
squamosis, interspatiis lsmgatis; scutello dense silaceo; elytris 



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ME. F. P. PA8COE 09 THE OUBOULIOXWA. 87 

striato-punctatis, ponctit oblongis, approximatis, interstitiis paulo 
convexis, squamis concoloribus adspersis, macula majuscula commuui 
basali, fascia pone medium suturaque versus apicem dense ochraceo- 
squamosis; corpore infra pedibusque squamis ochraceis adspersis 
femoribus posticis supra linea ochracea, e squamis condensatis formats, 
munitis. Long. 6 lin. 
Hob. Saylee. 

The prothorax has a somewhat smooth appearance, only inter- 
rupted by the punctures. 

Ctamobolus duplicates. C. ovalis, niger, albo varius; rostro 
tenuiore, basi excepto, nitido ; antennis ferrugineis, faniculo articulo 
secundo quam primo vix sesquilongiore ; prothorace conico, punctis 
majoribus minoribusque intermixtis sat confertim impresso; elytris 
striato-punctatis, punctis ovalibus, approximatis, interstitiis latis, 
rugosis, irregulariter punctatis, pone bumeros macula magna rotun- 
data, et a medio lineis duabus, postice conjunctia, dense ochracco- 
squamosis ; rima pectorali magis elongata ; pedibus ochraceo-squaino- 
sis. Long. 6 lin. 
Hob. Saylee. 

The greater length of the pectoral canal extending to between 
the intermediate coxae must be regarded as exceptional ; all the 
species of Oyamobolu* have pale ochreous tarsi, and the scales are 
apparently more numerous under the femora, and, occasionally, 
also above, especially of the posterior pair. ft Marci, Boh., does 
not belong to this genus. The three species described above have 
longer legs, and particularly as regards the anterior pair, than 
either ft DehaanU or ft Sturmii ; the sexes, as Lacordaire ob- 
serves, are pretty nearly alike. 

Cybostkthus. 

(Cryptorhynchinae.) 

Boitrum fere rectum ; scrobes prssmedians. Oeuli majusculi, ro* 
tundati, antice approximati. Elytra basi prothorace baud latiora* 
Femora crassa, infra dentata ; tibia subarcuato, squamis decum- 
bentibus. Rima pectoralis pone coxas anticas terminata ; me- 
iOiternwm fornicatum. Catera ut in Gyamobolo. 

The affinity is perhaps not so much to Cyamobolu* as the habit 
and coloration would lead one to suppose. The character of the 
mesosternum (m youttiere) should place Oyamobolu* near the Cryp- 
torhyncku* allies ; but Lacordaire makes it an exception, and puts 



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88 MB. F. P. FAflOOE OK THE OXTBOULIOHIDJI. 

it next to Euthyrhinuc, with which Oydottethus appears to have 
more affinity. The ocular lobes leave the eyes nearly free in 
repose. 

Ctdostbthus solutus. (PL I. fig. 11.) C. oralis, niger, supra 
squamis concoloribot albisque signatus tectus; rottro caataneo, ca- 
pite duplo longiore, tenuiter, apice magit punctulato ; antennii sub- 
piceis ; funiculo articiilit duobus basalibus longioribus, secundo quam 
primo longiore ; clava magna elongato-obovata ; protborace inbtiliter 
granulato, in medio linea alba ornato ; elytrii striato-punctatis, prope 
suturam, pnecipue dimidio baaali, fortiter granulatis, margins baaali, 
macula obliqua ante medium et postice linea maculari, aliquando ma- 
culis duabus, albis ornatii ; corpore infra densissime albo-squamuloso ; 
pedibua sparse squamosis, tarsis albo-pilosis. Long. 5 lin. 

Hob. Ceram. 

Cydostethus linkolatub. C. ovalis, fuscus, squamis concoloribus, 
griseis irroratus, griseoque signatus tectus ; rottro castaneo, punctis 
elongatis majusculis minus adsperso ; antennis subpiceis, funiculo ar- 
ticulis duobus basalibus brevioribus ; prothorace lineis tribus ornato, 
minus subtiliter granulato ; elytris striato-punctatis, striis griseis, di- 
midio basali versus suturam fortiter granulato, margine basali, macu- 
lisque (vel lineis) duabus griseis ornatis ; corpore infra femoribusque 
basi densissime albo-squamulosis ; tarsis albo-pilosis. Long. 5 lin. 

Hob. Amboyna; Tondano. 

The white markings in both these species are variable. 

Stbotelus. 

(CryptorhynchiniB.) 

Mutra ad latera baud carinata. Mecoetemum fornicatum. Femora 
basi attennata, infra dente parvo armata. Catera ut in Bhynchode. 

Cyamobolu* Fallen*, Boh., is the type of this genus, which 
Lacordaire has referred to Bhynchode*, Wh., chiefly on account 
of the pointed apex of the elytra. The characters given above do 
not, however, in my opinion, permit their association. 

Cechania. 

(CryptorhynchiniB.) 

Rostrum rectum, cylindricum; scrobes presmediang, obliqiue. 
Scopus brevis, oculum attingens ; funiculus elongatus, articnlis 
nltimis transversis ; clava majuscula, distincta. OeuU minus- 



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MR. F. P. PASOOB OH THE OUBCULIONJDJS. 80 

* 

culi, leviter granulatL Prothoras transversus, apice tubulatus, 
lobis ocularibua obsoletis. Elytra subcordiformia, basi protbo- 
race haud latiora, apice acuminata. Pedes breves; femora 
valida, sublinearia, infra dentata ; tibia breves, rectse ; tarsi ar- 
ticulo tertio late bilobo. Rima pectoralis inter coxas interme- 
dias protensa, apice cavernosa. Abdomen segmentis duobus 
basalibus valde ampliatis. Processus intercoxalis latissimus. 

Euthyrhinus, which this genus resembles in its habit and straight 
rostrum, is at once differentiated by its pectoral canal terminating 
before the intermediate coxee, and the scape not nearly reaching 
the eyes. 

Cbchania b re mit a. C tat late oralis, nigra, fusco-maculatim albido- 
squamosa; capite prothoraceque sejunctim squamosis; rostro anten* 
nisque piceo-ferrugineis, funiculo articulo basali quam secundo fere 
dnplo longiore ; elytrit sulcato-punctatis, sulcis inter puncta nitidis ; 
corpore infra pedibutque ferrugineis, sejunctim albido-squamosis. 
Long. 2 lin. 

Hob. Japan (Nagasaki). 

JECHMTTBA. 

(Cryptorhynchin©.) 

Rostrum breviusculum, paulo arcuatum ; serobes medians. Funi- 
culus brevis; clava valida, ovata, distincta. Oculi mediocres, 
leviter granulati. Proihorax transversus, apice tubulatus, lobis 
ocularibus obsoletis. Elytra subcordiformia, prothorace basi 
haud latiora, apice acuminata. Femora crassa, infra canalicu- 
lata et dente mediocri instructa ; tibia sulcata) ; tarsi normales. 
Rima pectoralis inter cozas anticas terminata. Abdomen seg- 
mentis duobus basalibus valde ampliatis. Processus intercoxalis 
latissimus. 

Another Euthyrhinus form, but very distinct, if only on account 
of its canaliculate femora. In the species here described the me- 
tasternum is a little concave and slightly ridged on each side 
between the intermediate and posterior coxae. The scales are 
perfectly round and imbedded, as is usual in most of the allied 
genera, in the derm, and only very slightly separated from one 
another. 

jEchmura buys. AS. fusca, omnino sat dense albido-squamosa ; 
rostro capite vix longiore, basi griseo-squamoso, reliquo castaneo ; 
antennis rufo-testaceis, funiculo articulo basali crasso, qnam secundo 



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40 MB. F. P. ZABOOE ON THE CUHCULIOKIDJI. 

dnplo longiorc, ceteris transversis; prothorace fortiter transverso; 
seutello punctiformi ; elytris sulcata, interstitus late planatts ; tartis 
rufo-fulvis. Long. 1J lin. 
Hab. Singapore. 

Orochle8I8 maculosa. 0. elliptic*, fuses, maculatim griseo-squa* 
moss; rostro breviusculo, castaneo, tenuiter punctulato; antennis 
nitide ferrugineis; funiculo articulis duobns basalibus ssqualibus; 
clava distincta ; prothorace subconico, rage granulato, vittis tribus 
indistinctii notato ; seutello nigro, minuto : elytris oblongo-cordstis, 
striato-punetatis, punctis grossis, ovalibus, interstitiis convexis ; tarsis 
articulo tertio Talde dilatato, Long. 2} lin. 

Hab. Sslwatty. 

Differs from the normal forms of Orocklesis in its more cordi- 
form elytra. 

OD08YLLI8. 

( Cry ptorhy nchin® . ) 

Postrum paulo arcuatum, sat breviusculum ; scrobes submedianss, 
obliquie. Scopus brevis ; funiculus articulis nltimis transversis ; 
clava ovata, pubescens. Oculi rotundati, tenuiter granulati. 
Prothorax late transversus, utrinque fortiter rotundatus, apice 
tubulatus, lobo scutellari producto, lobis ocularibus aut modice 
prominulis, aut fere obsoletis. Seutellum elevatum, esquamosum. 
Elytra cordiformia, baai prothorace haud latiora, apice acumi- 
nata. Pedes antici majores ; femora valida, sublinearia, infra 
dentata ; tibia breviuscul®, compressed, arcuatss ; torsi articulo 
tertio late bilobo. Bima pectoralis pone coxas anticas pre- 
tense* apice cavernosa. Abdomen segmento secundo ampliato. 
Processus intercoxalis modice latus. 

The species of this genus have a short compact body with a 
broadly oval outline, and the upper surface more or less studded 
with minute granules, those on the interstices of the elytra 
irregularly arranged in from one to three rows. The ocular lobes 
are subject to disappear ; but they are sufficiently well marked in 
O. otomaria and O. terrena. Nedymora (ante, vol. xi. p. 209) dif- 
fers from this genus in its pectoral canal, open at the apex and 
passing beyond the intermediate cox©, being thrust, as it were, 
into the metasternum. 

Odosyllis conobsta. (PI. I. fig. 5.) 0. nigra, sejunctiin, elytris 



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MB. T. P. PA8COS ON THE CXTBCTTLIOKIDJB. 41 

macnlathn griseo-squamosa ; rostro modioe elongato, piceo, apicem 
Terras subtiliter punctulato; antennis piceo-ferrugineis, funiculo 
articulis duobui basalibus elongatis, longitudine ssqualibus; clava 
rabadnata; protkorace granulis nitidis sat sparse adsperso; scu- 
tello oblongo, parte apicali lubcuneifonni ; elytris sulcatis, interatitiis 
parum convexis, granulis subbi- Tel triseriatim ordinatis ; femoribus 
magis linearibus, dente minuto instructis ; tibiis posticis apice bino- 
cinatis. Long. 41 lin. 
Hob. Tondano. 

Odosyllis atomabia. O. nigra, albido-squamosa; rostro castaneo, 
apicem versus impunetato; antennis nitide testaceo-ferrugineis; fu- 
niculo articulis duobus basalibus ceteris conjunctim duplo brevioribus, 
secundo primo longiore ; clava adnata ; prothorace granulis minutis 
opacis sparse adsperso; scutello nigro; elytris sulcatis, interatitiis 
convexis, in medio granulis minutis nitidis uniseriatim ordinatis ; tibiis 
anticis valde compressis. Long. 3 tin. 

Hob. Singapore. 

Odosyllis obanulicollis. O. nigra, sparse griseo-squamosa ; 
rostro castaneo, apicem versus impunetato ; antennis nitide testaceo- 
ferrugineis; funiculo articulis duobus basalibus ceteris conjunctim 
longitudine ssqualibus, secundo primo longiore; clava distincta; pro- 
thorace confertim granulato, granulis majoribus minutisque inter- 
mixtis; scutello nigro ; elytris sulcatis, interatitiis latis, vix convexis, 
granulis oblongis nitidis subbiseriatim ordinatis : abdomme sat dense 
squamoso; tibiis anticis longioribus, minus compressis; tarais sub- 
ferrugineis. Long. 3 lin. 

Hab. Tondano. 

Odosyllis vitiosa. O. nigra, rusco-squamosa, obscure maculatim 
ochraceo-varia; rostro castaneo, apicem versus tenuiter vage punctu- 
lato; antennis testaceo-ferrugineis; funiculo articulis duobus basali- 
bus ceteris conjunctim multo brevioribus; clava subadnata; protho- 
race granulis minutis subnitidis vage adsperso, vittis tribus ochraceis 
obscure notato; scutello nigro; elytris sulcatis, interatitiis convexis 
in medio subseriatim granulatis ; corpore infra femoribusque sejunctim 
ochraceo-squamosis ; tibiis anticis parum arcuatis; tarsis subferru- 
gineie. Long. 2 lin. 

Hab. Waigiou; Saylee. 

Odosyllis tbbbxna. O. fuses, sejunctim griseo-squamosa, protho* 
race squamis concoloribus vario ; rostro tenuiore, piceo, sparse sub- 
tiliter punctulato; antennis nitide ferrugineis; funiculo articutis duo- 
bus basalibus brevibus, ceteris sat valde transverais; clava distincta, 
valida, breviter ovata ; prothorace granulis plurimis nitidis adsperso ; 



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42 ME. F. P. PAACOE ON THE CUBOULIOiriDJB. 

elytris sulcatis, interstitiis ccmvexis, granulis nitidis tubbi- Tel trise- 
riatim ordinatis ; femoribui dente magno armaria. Long. 3 J lin. 
Hab. Menado. 

Odosyllis irrorata. O. nigro-fusca, sejunctim griseo-squamosa, 
prothorace squamis concoloribus vario ; rostro piceo subtiliter punctu- 
lato ; antennis nitide ferrugineis ; funiculo articulis duobus basalibut 
aat longiusculis, longitudine fere sequalibus, ceteris transTersis; 
clava adnata, breviter ovata ; prothorace granulU plurimis nitidis ad* 
sperso, disco basi utrinque squamis ochraceis magis confertis signato ; 
scuteilo ovato ; elytris sulcatis, interstitiis convexis, granulis oblongis 
nitidis uni- vel subbiseriatim ordinatis; femoribui dente mediocri 
armatis. Long. 3 lin. 

Hab. Saylee. 

Closely resembles the last, but (inter alia) with a shorter 
rostrum, a longer funicle, and an ovate scutellum. 

Pelephicub. 

(Cryptorhynchina.) 

Rostrum elongatum, arcuatum ; scrobes median©, obliquae. Funi- 
culus articulis quatuor ultimis submoniliformibus ; clava ob- 
longa, subcylindrica, tomentosa. Oculi rotundati, subtenuiter 
granulati. Prothorax transversus, apice tubulatus, lateribus 
postice subito verticalis, lobis ocularibus prominulis. Scutellum 
elevatum, punetiforme. Elytra cordiformia, basi prothorace 
haud latiora, apice acuminata. Pedes ut in Odosyllide. Mima 
pectoralis ad coxas intermedias protensa, apice subaperta. Ab- 
domen segmento secundo ampliato. Processus intercoxalis 
angustus. 

One of the peculiarities of this genus is the sudden deflection 
of the sides of the prothorax posteriorly, and in consequence pre- 
senting a sharp angle at the part, below which the side is deeply 
excavated, apparently for the reception of the anterior femora. 
In other respects it differs from Odosyllis in the cylindrical form 
of the club of the antennae, and in the longer pectoral canal nearly 
open at the apex. 

Pblsphicus 8TIGMATICU8. P. fuscus, squamulis concoloribus gri- 
seisque, vage intermixtis, vestitus; capite supra oculos maculia tribus, 
e squamulis minoribus late grisescentibus condensatis, ornato ; rostro 
nitide ferrugineo, tenuiter vage punctulato ; antennis testaceo-ferra- 
gineis, funiculo articulis duobus basalibus longitudine asqualibus; 
prothorace supra subplanato, apice abrupt* tubulato, dorso granulis 



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MB. T. P. 2AM0K OW THS GUWCVHDWIDM. 



psoas vix nitidis mnito; erytris s n lcat i s, interstitns ktk, modice 
conve sis ; tibib sntiets mtes koge cibatis. Long. 3 tin. 
Hmk. Seyke. 

Endtmia gbmikat*. J?. tnhcJIipdfm, grisea, sqaamis griseis fuscis- 
qne sejnnetim restate; rostro protborace panlo longiore, castaneo, 
fere unpunetato ; antamis paUide castanets; fnnicnlo articalo primo 
quam secando longiore; dare fnnicnlo panlo breriore; protborace 
subconieo, lobis oeolaribos rix pronrinotis, dorso plaga raricgata fnsca 
ornato ; dytris sn b s triato - panrtstis , singulis in medio plaga fasea in- 
determinata notatis; eorpore infra pedttmsqne giiseo-sqaaaiosts, his 
fnsco-snbannnlatis Long. 4 tin. 
Hmk. Batchian. 

I hare only the female of this species, which differs from the 
correspoiiding sex of J£. vipio in being much broader, more eon- 
Tex, and the club of the antenna decidedly starter than the 
funicla, 

Bebosxbis. 

(Cryptorhynchina).) 

Rostrum attenuatum, elongatum, arcnatnm ; scrobes submediana?, 
obliqu®. Funiculus articulis duobus basalibns aubaequalibus, 
obconicis, qnatnor vel quinque nltimis moniliformibus, in clavam 
quasi continuatis, sed elava distinct*, ovata, articulata. OcuU 
grosse grannlatL Prothorax subconicus, utrinque paulo rotun- 
datus, lobis ocnlaribus prominulis. SeuUllum esquamosum, 
rotundatum. Elytra oblongs Tel oblongc-ovata, prothorace 
panlo latiora. Femora clavata, infra dente magno instructa ; 
tibial flexuostB, squamosa?, hand sulcata ; tarsi normales. Buna 
pectoralis inter coxas intermedias protensa, apioe aperta. Ab- 
domen segmento secundo ampliato. 

Ouamobolus Marci, Boh., belongs to this genus, which is at once 
differentiated from Cyamobolus by its clavate femora armed with 
a large angular tooth ; and the pectoral canal nearly extending to 
the posterior border of the intermediate cox® places it nearer 
Neckyrus and Macromerus ; the former genus, however, may, on 
the other hand, be thought nearer Cyamobolus on account of its 
sublinear mutic femora. 

Bbrosiris PICTICOLLI8. (PI. I. fig. 9.) B. fuscus, sqnamnlis brnnneo- 
griseis omnino dense tectus,sqnainis majorflms adspersus; rostro apicem 
versus valde remote ponctulato ; funkulo articulis duobus basalibos 
brevibus ; prothorace in medio tinea elevata nuda notato, disco plaga 



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44 MB. F. P. PABCOK ON THE CUBCULIOKID^. 

magna laste fusca, utrinque pallide marginata, ornato, lateribus vage 
punctatis, basi macula fusca notatis; elytria oblongis, striato-foveo- 
latis, interstitiis angustis, macula arcuata indistincta, communi, fus- 
cescente, ante apicem signatis. Long. 5i lin. 
Hab. Sarawak. 

Berosiris violatus. B. angustior, niger, aquamulia griaeb dense 
tectus setulisque interjectis ; rostro multo tenuiore, apice vage tenu- 
iter punctulato ; funiculo articulis duobui basalibus fere asqualibus, 
tertio quartoque ovalibus; prothorace hand carinato, dorao in medio 
fusco et crebre fortiter punctato ; elytria oblongis, substriato-foveatis, 
singulis parum pone medium macula fusca notatis; corpora intra 
pedibusque subalbido-squamosis, tibiis basin versus annulo fusco va- 
riegatis. Long. 5 lin. 

Hab. Java. 

Berosiris cribratus. JB. minus elongatus, niger, squamulis macu- 
latim griseis dense tectus ; rostro tenuato, obsolete punctato ; funi- 
culo ut in precedent* ; prothorace in medio carinato, crebre fortiter 
punctato; elytris profunda fortiter seriatim punctatis, maculis non- 
nullis albis ornatis; abdomine segmento baaali fortiter punctato; 
femoribus tibiisque fusco subannulatis ; tibiis posticis elongatis. Long. 
4i lin. 

Hab. Sarawak. 

Berosiris hepatic us. JB. niger, squamulis rufo-brunneis dense 
tectus ; rostro minus tenuato, subtiliter puuctulato ; funiculo longi- 
usculo, articulo secundo quam primo longiore, tertio quartoque sub- 
obconicis ; clava sat majuscula ; prothorace vage punctato, in medio 
carinulato ; elytris oblongis, basi paulo depressis, lateribus subparal- 
lelis, vix striatb, punctis inconspicuis seriatim impressis, singulis plaga 
magna oblonga ad medium extents ornatis ; abdomine fortiter sub- 
▼age punctato ; pedibus concoloribus. Long. 6 lin. 

Hab. Tondano. 

The preapical callus is strongly marked in this species. 

Berosiris devotus. JB. ovalia, niger, squamulis albidis, supra fus- 
cescenti varius, omnino dense tectus ; rostro tenuato, tenuiter punctu- 
lato ; funiculo articulo secundo 'pyriformi et quam primo longiore, 
tertio orali ; prothorace vage fortiter punctato, haud carinato ; elytris 
oblongo-cordatis, substriato-punctatis, interstitiis latiusculis; abdo- 
mine vage sat fortiter punctato. Long. 6 lin. 

Hab. Goram. 

Lobotrachelus stioma. L. breviter ellipticus, niger, nitidut, supra 
fere esquamosus, infra lateribusque prothoracis dense niveo-squamosis ; 
rostro prothorace vix breviore, ferrugineo, ntveo-squamoso ; antennis 



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MB. F. P. PAS0OE OK THE CTJBOXJLTOWID^. 45 

fulvis, clava breviter ovata, quam funiculo multo latiore ; protborace 
transverso, subconico, lobo scutellari squamis elongatia niveia dense 
tecto ; elytrii aulcato-punctatia, subtiliter sparsim albq-pilosis, postice 
etpone acutellum magia condenaatia j fetnoribua infra dente acuto 
mnnitia ; taraia aubflavia. Long. 1 lin. 
Hab. Australia (Gayndah). 
This species is interesting as the only representative at present 

known in Australia (and the discovery of which we owe to Mr. 

Masters) of what is evidently a numerous group in the Malay 

archipelago. 

Lobotrachblus PLAOiATUS. L. breviter ellipticus, niger, anbnitidus, 
aquamia elongatia niveis Veatitus, supra plagia nudia notatua ; roatro 
niveo-aquamoao; antennia fulvis, clava oblonga, anguata; prothorace 
transverso, subconico, lobo acutellari triangulariter producto, in medio 
plaga magna denudata obsito ; elytria sulcato-punctatis, pone humeros 
plaga magna rotundata, alteraque communi ad apicem notatis ; cor- 
pore infra aat denae niveo-aquamoao ; femoribua minus squamosis, 
intermediia infra dente fere obsolete ; taraia aubflavia. Long. 1 lin. 

Hab. Florea. 

Lobotrachblus lintbus. L. ellipticus, niger, aquamia piliformibua 
albia sat sparae veatitua, supra plagis eaquamoaia notatua; roatro 
niveo-aquamoao; antennia fulvis, clava ovali; prothorace modice 
tranaverao, baai in medio plaga magna denudata obsito, lobo acutel- 
lari acuto; elytria sulcato-punctatis, interatitiia aquamia biseriatim 
ordinatia, pone humeros plaga magna aubtranaveraa alteraque pra> 
apicali ad latent notatis ; corpore infra magia denae aquamoao ; pedi- 
bus fuscis, vel ferrugineis; femoribua anticis dente cariniformi, inter- 
mediis et posticis dente acuto, inatructia; taraia aubflavia. Long, 
llin. 

Hab. Macassar. 

Remarkable for the cariniform tooth of the anterior femora. 
The scales are more scattered than in the last, and completely 
piliform. 

Lobotrachblus albirostris. L. aubellipticua, fuscus, supra pedi- 
buaque aquamia piliformibua albia aat sparse veatitua; antennia fulvis, 
tenuioribua, clava ovata acuminata; prothorace modice tranaverao, 
lobo acutellari obtuao, lateribua infra denae aquamoao ; elytria magia 
elongatia, sulcato-punctatis, interstitua aquamia biseriatim ordinatia ; 
corpore infra aat sparse squamoso ; femoribus omnibus dente parvo 
inatructia. Long. 1 lin. 

Hab. Macassar. * 

There is a remarkable rounded hollow occupying a large part 



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46 ME. F. P. PABCOB ON THE OUBCULIONIDiE. 

of the last abdominal segment in my specimen, which may perhaps 
be sexual ; there is also a slightly elevated longitudinal line on the 
metasternum. 



Brephiope. 

(Isorhynchin®.) 

Rostrum subtenuatum, apicem versus latius ; serobes submedianss. 
Oculi subovati, antice supra paulo approximate, fortiter granu- 
lati. Scapus oculum haud attingens ; funiculus 7-articulatus, 
articulo primo crassiore, c&teris a secundo gradatim latioribus ; 
clava ovata, distincta. Prothorax transversus, conicus, basi bi- 
sinuatus. Scuiellum distinctum. Elytra obovata, basi protho- 
race parum latiora, humeris obsoletis. Ritna pectoralis inter 
coxas intermedias terminata, apice paulo cavernosa. Femora 
sublinearia, infra canaliculata et dente minuto instructa ; tibia 
compress®, arcuatro; torsi normales. Abdomen segmento se- 
cundo quam tertio manifesto longiore, segmentis intermediia ad 
latera haud arcuatis. 

The second abdominal segment is intermediate in length be- 
tween the two extreme forms in the species serving as the type of 
of this genus ; here, therefore, it is probably only a transitional or 
specific character. The affinities of the genus are not very ob- 
vious ; and it is possible a better place may be found for it. 

Brephiope castanba. B. rufo- vel aliquando fasco-castanea, nitida ; 
rostro prothorace paulo longiore ; faniculo articulis quinque ultimk . 
valde transversis ; oculit nigris ; prothorace subreticulatim punctate ; 
elytris ante medium latioribus, sulcatis, sulcis indistincte Hneatim 
punctatis, interstitiis planatis t uniseriatim subtifissime punctulatis, 
singulis in medio squamulis oblongis niveii condentatis maculatis; 
corpora infra sparse punctulato, segmentis tertio qoartoque abdominis 
punctis majusculis in serie unica transversim dispositis ; femoribus 
punctatis, punctis singulis squamulis albis repletis. Long. 1 J tin. 

Hob, Sulaj Ceram. 

Metetra. 

(Isorhynchina?.) 

Rostrum parum incrassatum, apicem versus sensim latins. Rima 
pectoralis lata, profunda, postice in mesosterno bene limitata. 



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MB. F. P. P JACOB 09 THE CTJBCTTLIONID.E . 47 

Tarsi lobis articuli tertii baud divergentibus. Catera ut in 
Lobotrachdo. 

In the species described below the legs are shorter and the pro- 
thorax proportionally larger than in Lobotrachclus, with which 
genus, however, it agrees in the remarkable character of having 
the medi-basal portion of the prothorax prolonged so as to cover 
the Bcutellum. 

Mktbtra suturalis. M. elliptica, nigra, nitida, sutura lineaque 
laterali elytrorum niveo-squamosis ; rostro toto capiteque inter oculot 
carinatis, illo piceo, sat confertim oblongo-punctato ; antennis fulvis ; 
funiculo articulo primo qoam secundo paulo longiore, cseteris brevibus, 
gradatim incrassatis ; prothorace longiore qiiam latiore, modice con- 
fertim punctato; elytris fortiter sulcato-punctatis, interstitiis setulis 
albis minutis sparse vestitis; corpore infra niveo-squamoso ; pedibus 
piceis; femoribus dente modice elongate instructis; tarsis fulvis, 
articulis tribus basalibos conjunctim elongato-triangularibns. Long. 
Ulin. 

Hob. Waigiou. 

Tblephae strioilata. T. ovalis, rufo-fusca, pilis albis vel ochra- 
ceis sparse vestita; antennis subtestaceis ; oculis minoribus; protho- 
race modice transverso, crebre punctato, callo laterali magis limitato ; 
elytris utrinque mediocriter rotundatis, sulcato-punctatis, basi, pone 
medium apiceque pilis albis longiusculis obsitis, fascias tres indeter- 
minatas formantibm ; abdomine segmento secundo valde ampliato. 
Long. 1 i lin. 
Hab. Batchian; Sarawak. 

The genus Telephae (ante, voL x. p. 487) must, I think, be 
placed with the Isorhynchin®. Lacordaire says that " the only 
absolute character " which separates that group from the Zygo- 
pin» is found in their " perfectly cylindrical rostrum." I confess, 
however, failing in most cases to appreciate this subtle distinc- 
tion ; as a rule, perhaps, the rostrum of the Zygopinae is more 
subulate, and the eyes occupy a greater portion of the head, at 
least in the more typical species. One of the best characters 
seems to be that the eyes are uncovered in repose. They have each 
a seven-jointed funicle and a small scutellum, in two genera 
covered by an extension of the prothorax. As a rule, the species 
are either naked or partially covered with loosely set narrow or 
hair-like scales, more or less assuming the form of pubescence. 
All the members of the Isorhynchin© here described (and there 
are a few more) are, except one, due to Mr. Wallace's researches ; 



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48 MB. F. P. PA8COE OK THE OTTBCTTLIOHIM. 

the exception is the only instance of the occurrence of this group 
in Australia. Telephae itself might be taken for one of the Prio- 
nomerin© ; but it may be at once distinguished, inter ofto, by the 
anterior cox® not being contiguous. The species described above 
differs from T. laticollit in its oval outline, the lateral callus on 
the prothorax tuberculiform, the prothorax itself considerably less 
transverse, Ac. ; the hairs on the elytra are confined to the inter- 
stices as in the other species, and give the parts they cover a stripy 
appearance. 

Tblkphab concrbta. T. ovalis, nigra, sparse maculatim niveo-pilosa ; 
rostro prothorace paulo breviore, basi sat rode punctata) ; antennis 
subtestaceis ; oculis ampliatis ; prothorace subtransverso, crebre punc- 
tata), caflo laterali producto et niveo-piloso ; elytris convexiusculis, 
sulcato-punctatis, macula communi pone scutellum, tribui alteris 
aptcem versus sitis, niveo-pilosis ; femoribus anticis majoribus; tibiis 
anticis brevibus j tarsis piceo-teataceis. Long. 1£ lin. 

Hab. Batcbiau. 

Tblbphab luctuoba. 7. late ovalis, nigra, elytris sparse maculatim 
niveo-squamosis ; rostro prothorace paulo breviore, basi sat rude 
punctata); antennis piceo-testaceis ; oculis modice ampliatis; protho- 
race modice transverso, crebre punctata), callo laterali obsoleto ; elytris 
in medio paulo depressis, vel fere excavatis, sulcato-punctatis, basi 
macidis quatuor ornatis, $cil. una ntrinque humerali, et duabus sutura- 
libus communibus, quarum una media, altera apicali, obsitis ; femori- 
bus anticis minus ampliatis; tibiis anticis magis elongatis, tarsis 
piceo-testaceis. Long. 2 tin. 

Hab. Batchian; Oilolo; Sarawak. 

Tblkphab dknticollib. T. late ovalis, nigra, sparse maculstitn 
niveo-squamosa; rostro prothorace paulo breviore ; antennis fuscis ; 
prothorace subtransverso, crebre punctata), utrinque dente mammilli- 
formi, pilis niveis tecto, instructo; scutello niveo; elytris sulcato- 
punctatis, basi, interstitio septimo in medio, vittaque suturali ad 
apicem niveo-squamosis ; femoribus anticis magis ampliatis, dente 
magno armatis; tibiis sat elongatis; tarsis fulvo-piceis. Long. 2 
tin. 

Hab. Dorey; Sarawak. 

Tblbphab mbtata. T. ovalis, nigra, maculatim niveo-squamosa, 
scil. macula utrinque basi prothoracis, elytrisque maculis octo, qoarum 
duabus commUnibus suturalibus, una basali, altera media, et tribus 
singulo elytro; prothorace coufertim tenuiter punctulato; elytris 
leviter sulcato-punctatis, interstitiis planatis sparse albido-piloais ; 



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MB. F. P. PASCQE OS THE CUSCUXJOHLDJB. 49 

corpore infra nigro, nictaaterno ntrinque nrrco-maculato ; tarsisfuhia. 
Long. 1| tin. 
Bab. Batrhtaw 

Tbukphab bbpbtita. T. otaEs, nigra, sparse grneo-aquaiDulosA, 
rostra, pedibus antemusque rufo-eastaneis, Ulo prothonce breriore, 
nitido, basi solum subtiliter punctnlato ; prnthoraee sobtransverso, late- 
ribus rotnndato, haadealloso ; elytra modioe courexis, sukaio-puncta- 
tos, interstttiia planatis, basi, parum pone medium, apiceque squamulis 
aat dense obsitis fasciaa Ires bene determinatas formantihus ; tibiis 
antkia breribus, valde arcuatis. Long, li tin. 

H«6. Sarawak. 

The underparts are in a fresh state probably oorered with round 
sflrery scales ; there are indications of this in other species. 

Telbph ab bblligbba. T. oralis, fusea, supra, aat rude aquamuloaa ; 
empite nndo, erebre teouiter punctulato ; rostro prothoraee breriore ; 
antennia tettaceit; oculia majusculis, fere contiguia; prothoraee sub- 
transYerso, laieribus rotnndato, baud calloao ; elytria supra depressis, 
auleato-ponctatis, dorao plaga magna medio, apice lateribuaque 
griaeta; pedibos piceis; tibiis tarsisque pallidioribus ; tibiis antkns 
longiuaculis. Long. 1J tin. 

Hob. Sarawak. 

Otheppijl 

• (Isorhynchins.) • 

Bostrwm mediocre, apicem versos latius, basi longitudinaliter 
angulatnm. Antenna submedianae ; funiculo articulo basali 
incrassato, ceteris tenuatis, gradatim crassioribus ; clava dia- 
tincta. Oculi magni, orati vel rotundati, antice approximates. 
Protkorox transversus, subconicus, lobo scutellari paulo pro- 
ducto. Seutellum distinctum. Elytra cordiformia, basi pro- 
thoraee haud latiora, pygidium obtegentia. Pedes mediocres ; 
femora modice elongata, valida, sublinearia, infra dente tenuato 
instructa; tibiw breviuscu]», recta*, calcarat®; tarsi articulo 
primo oblongo-triangulari, sec undo bre\i, tertio lato, bilobo, 
ultimo minusculo; unguiculis parvis. Jlima pectoralis meso- 
sterno terminata. Abdomen segmento secundo breyiosculo. 

In the first three species described below the eyes are narrowed 
beneath, and the end of the pectoral canal is distinctly marked by 
a raised semicircular margin. Patches of snow-white scales on 
the upper margin of the hiud femora occur in most of the species 
of this genus. 

Limr. jouek. — zoology, TOL. xii. 4 



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50 MB. F. P. PA8COE OK THE CUBCXTLIOJUD^. 

Othippia distioma. 0. nigra, subnitida, tenuiter pilosa, prothorace 
utrinque macula magna basali, apiceque elytrornm rufo-ocbraceia ; 
rostro piceo-f usco, carinulato, apicem versus manifeste latiore ; an- 
tennis fulvis ; funiculo articulo basali longiore, crasso, reliquis bre- 
viusculis, longitndine subaequalibus et gradatim erassioribus ; pro- 
tborace impunctato, in medio parcius piloao; elytris late sulcatis, 
interstitiis planatis ; corpore infra fusco ; abdomine segmentis tribua 
intermediis longitudine fere ssqualibus ; pedibus parce pilosis ; tarns 
fulvis. Long. 1 J lin. 
Hob. Sarawak. 

The appressed hairs in this species are only seen under a very 
strong lens, and they appear whitish and silky against the 
light. 

Othippia jubata. 0. fusca, pilis ochraceis sejunctim vestita ; capite 
rostroque piceo-testaceis, hoc carinulato et apicem versus paulo 
latiore; antennis fulvis; funiculo articulis secundo tertioque con- 
junctim primo longioribus ; clava breviter ovata ; prothorace dimidio 
basali in medio alte fasriculato-cristato; scutello conspicuo; elytria 
late sulcatis, interstitiis planatis, sutura ante medium dense fsscicula- 
tis; corpore infra castaneo-fusco, verisimiliter niveo-squamoso ; 
abdomine segmento secundo fere obtecto; pedibus rufo-testaceis, 
parce albido-squamosis. Long. \\ lin. 

Hob. Sarawak. 

I have only one example of this very distinct species, which, 
when fresh, is probably rather closely covered above with coarse 
ochraceous hairs. 

Othippia pbolbtabia. 0. breviter elliptica, nigra, squamoaitate 
subgrisea, squamis interjectis, vestita; rostro ferrugineo, vel nigro, 
modice arcuato; antennis fulvis; funiculo articulo primo secundo 
longiore, ceteris breviusculis, clava breviter ovata ; prothorace trans* 
verso, medio supra scutellum subcristato, lobo scutellari rotundato ; 
elytris sulcatis, basi circa scutellum paulo depressis ; corpore infirm 
sat dense albido-squamoso ; femoribus intermediis et posticis fere 
obsolete dentatis. Long. \\ lin. 

Hob. Sarawak. 

This species is covered with a somewhat deciduous greyish sort 
of squamosity like some saccharine exudation. 

Othippia punbbbis. 0. nigra, nitida, subnuda ; rostro basi quinque- 
sulcato ; antennis fulvis ; funiculo articulis tribus basalibus longitudine 
fere aequnlibus; prothorace transverso, erebre punctata, pone apicem 
fortiter constrictor elytris sulcato-punctatis, interstitiis subtilissime 
pilosis, in medio sat valde convexis, regione scutellari depressis, 



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MB. 7. P. PASCOS OH THB CCTKCTXIOXms. 51 

macula basafi eirea scuteDum hneaque suturali pace medium albo- 
pfloms; corpore infra albo-squamoao Long. If tin. 
HA Ceram. 

OrairpiA podagbjca. O. rosea, opaea, subouda, protaoraee nitkk 
nigro; roatro eastaneo, ban foBgitodmahter angukto ; antennis furris, 
fuuirulo tensaore, articnlo sc c undo qnam primo kmgiore; prothorace 
mram tmnfeno, spane punctulatOy band eonstncto; erytns sol* 
eato-pmietatia, iaterstkiis tenuiter pilosis, in medio eonrexb, singulis 
macolis-pams tribus nrreo-pilotis ornatis, waL una basah ptope 
seuteuum, una ad latera fere in medio, tertiaque apieab; corpore 
infra albo-aquamoso ; tarn postieis artieulo pcimo ekmgato-amptiato. 
Long. If fin. 
Hab. M jaoL 

This and the preceding species are much alike in appearance, 
but are strongly contrasted in nearly all the characters here giren. 
The form of the basal joint of the posterior tarsi is probably de- 
pendent on sex. 

EeiOHA. 

(Isorhynchins3.) 
Bottrum basi rotnndatnm. Antauue artienlo basali funiculi hand 
incrassato, secundo longiusculo, vix tenuiore. Pygidium libe- 
rum. CctierU fere at in Otkippia, sed femoribas minus elon- 
gatis. 

In many respects this genus is allied to the preceding ; but the 
three characters here given will not allow of their being con- 
joined. The eyes in the species described below hare extremely 
minute facets. The dark bands seen in the figure are the un- 
covered portions of the derm. 

Egion a l*ta. (PL III. fig. 2.) B. rufo-castanea, variegatim albido- 
squamosa; rostro subvalido, tat confertim punctulato, leviter piloao; 
antennia testaceis ; clava parva, oblique articulata ; prothormce crebre 
punctata, supra squamis piliformibus sparse vestito, ad latera magis 
squamoso ; scutello parro ; elytris profunde sulcatis, regiooe scutel- 
lari fasciisque duabua magnis — una medians, altera apicali — a squamis 
condensatis formatis, notatis, apicibus valde rotundatis ; corpore infra 
fusco ; pedibus sparse pilosis. Long. 1 J lin. 

He*. Macassar. 

P8CKI0LEA. 

(Isorbynchin©.) 
Roctrum validum, a basi ad apicem gradatim latins ; tcrobes pro- 
medians*. Oculi rotundati, antice approiimati, tenuiter granu- 

4* 



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62 MB. W. P. PA800B OK THE CUBOULIOKIJ)^. 

lati. Scopus oculura vix attingens ; funiculus articulo primo 
ampliato, cseteris gradatim brevioribus et crassioribus ; clava 
ovata distincta. Prothorax parvus, transversus, basi parum ro- 
tundatus. Scutellum distinctum. Elytra trigonata, convexa, 
prothorace basi multo latiora. Pectus brevissimum. Ooxm 
antic® parum separata?, intermedia? dietantes. Femora modice 
el on gat a, incrassata, haud canaliculata, infra dente valido in- 
Btructa ; tibia subrect©, apice mucronatro ; tarsi articulo ultimo 
elongate Abdomen segmentis tribus intermediis gradatim 
paulo brevioribus, ad latent arcuatis. 

The shortness of the pectus brings the rostrum in repose 
directly against the anterior coxa, and not to pass between them, 
as in some other genera of this group, owing to their contiguity, 
or nearly so. The eyes are almost frontal. The affinities of the 
genus are not very evident. 

Psbniclba publlaris. P. tota nitide fulva, mandibulis nigra ex- 
ceptis, esquamoaa ; roatro prothorace haud longiore ; antennis pallida- 
oribus; prothorace utrinque vix rotundato, basi latiore, sparse 
punctato; elytra basi prothorace sesquilongiore, valde convexis, 
leviter wleatis, sulcis fortiter punctatis, interstitiis parum convexis ; 
metasterao antice processuque intercoxali fortiter sparse punctatis, 
rehquis impunctatis. Long. 1 J lin. 

Hob. Dorey. 

Panigena. 
(IsorhynchinaB.) 

Bostrum subtenuatum (vel paulo incrassatum, arcuatum, apicem 
versus parum dilatatum ; scrobes submedian®. Oculi medio- 
cres, rotundati, antice approximati, fortiter granulati. Scopus 
gracilis ; funiculus articulo primo ampliato, secundo longius- 
culo, ceteris obconiois; clava distincta. Prothorax conicus, 
basi ampliatus, bisinuatus. Scutellum distinctum. Elytra 
cordata, prothorace multo latiora, humeris obliqua. Pectus 
canaliculatum. Coxw antics basi approximates. Femora sub* 
linearia, infra dentata ; tibia subsulcatss, flexuos®, vel inter- 
media rect®, apice calcarat®. Abdomen segmentis duobus 
basalibus ampliatis. Corpus convexum, subrhomboideum, lsavi- 
gatum. 

The pectoral canal is limited behind by the anterior coxa?,, and 
is therefore incapable of receiving the rostrum. The eyes are of 
moderate size, rounded, and placed just above the base of the 



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m. F. P. PASCOI OH THE CTOCITLIOKTD.S. 53 

rostrum, leaving a tolerably broad front to the head above them ; 
they are nearly contiguous in the first two species, less so in P. 
cyamoptera, and still further apart in P. pedettris. 

Paniobna chalybba. P. nitidisshna, cyaneo-iridescens ; capite 
rostroque nigra, illo subtiliter vage, hoc basi sat rude punctatis, et 
prothorace pattlo longiore ; oculis supra subcontiguis ; antennis fulvis ; 
funiculo articulo secundo quam primo manifeste longiore ; prothorace 
impunctato ; scutello subquadrato, nigro ; elytris circa scutellum 
panlo devatis, seriatim fbrtiter remote punctatis, interstitiis latU; 
eorpore infia nigro ; pedibus piceis, sqnamnlis pilifbrmibut albis sparse 
vestfrb; tarsis pkeo-fulvis. Long. 1} tin. 

Hmb. Batchian. 

Paniobna violacba. P. nitide violacea, capitc rostroque nigris, illo 
snbtilissinie punctulato, hoc prothorace paulo longiore, apice viz 
labore; antennis fulvis; funiculo articulo secundo qnam primo 
longiore ; dava valida, ovata ; oculis supra contiguis ; prothorace im- 
punctato; scutello nitide nigro, rotundato; elytris seriatim sat 
fortiter remote punctatis; eorpore infra nigro; pedibus uigro-piceis ; 
tarsis piceo- fulvis. Long. 1J lin. 

Hob. Batchian. 

The eyes are absolutely in contact in this species ; it has also a 
narrower antenna! club, and is not so broad and massive as the 
preceding. 

Paniobna ctanoptbra. P. nitide nigra, elytris cyaneis; rostro 
prothorace parum longiore, cylindrico, apice vix latiore ; antennis 
fulvo-testaceis; funiculo articulis duobus basalibus longitudine s»qua- 
libus; dava dongato-ovata ; oculis hand contiguis; prothorace 
magis transverso, impunctato ; scutello scutiformi ; elytris sat tenuiter 
seriatim remote punctatis; eorpore infra pedibusque piceis; tarsis 
subfulvis. Long. 1J lin. 
Hab. Saylee. 

There is an interval between the eyes equal to about a quarter 
part the diameter of one of them. In this and the last species 
the rostrum is nearly cylindrical, only a little flattened, without 
being dilated, at the apex. 

Paniobna pbdbstris. P. nitide cyanca; capite castaneo, disperse 
ptxnctato; rostro valido, prothorace breviore, rufo-piceo; antennis 
fulvis ; funiculo articulo secundo quam primo longiore ; dava pallida, 
ovato-acuminata ; oculis baud contiguis; prothorace subtilissime 
sparsim punctulato ; scutello nigro ; elytris seriatim tenuiter remote 
punctatis; eorpore infra nigro; metasterno late excavato; pedibus 
rufo-piceis. Long. H lin. 

Hob. Mysol. 



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54 MB. T. P. PA8C0E ON THE CUBCTJLIONIDA. 

This species has a much more robust rostrum than either of the 
preceding. A variety, probably from Salwatty, has a sensibly finer 
punctuation of the elytra. 

(Ebbius. 

(Isorhynchin®.) 

Caput parrum ; rostrum modice tenuatum, apicem versus dilata- 
tum; aerobes prromedianro. Oculi mediocres, rotundati, pro- 
minuli, antice modice approximate, fortiter granulati. Scopus 
elongatus, oculum vix attingens; funiculus articulo primo 
ampliato, secundo longiusculo, catena breviter obconicis ; elava 
ovata. Prothorax transversus, subconicus, basi subbisinuatus. 
Scutellum distinctum. Elytra cordiformia, prothorace multo 
latiora. Pectus breviusculum, haud canaliculatum. Coxa 
antic® approximate Femora modice incrassata, infra canali- 
culata et dentata ; tibia anticae rectse, posticae et intermedin 
arcuat®, apice haud calcaratae ; tarsi normales. Abdomen seg- 
mentis duobus basalibus ampliatis, intermediis ad latere arcuatis. 
Processus intercoxalis latissimus. 

This genus diners, inter alia, from Panigena in not having the 
tibiae spurred. In the species described below the eyes have re- 
markably large facets, and the aerobes commence much nearer 
the apex of the rostrum than is usually the case. The dense 
patches of snowy scales on the upper margin of the femora are met 
with also in Thyestetha, Telaugia, Idotasia, and other genera of 
the Zygopinse, as well as in Othippia (ante, p. 49). 

CEbrius lutbicobnis. (PL III. fig. 3.) 0. piceo-niger, nitidus ; 
rostro prothorace plua sesquilongiore, basi striato, apice hevigato ; 
antennis luteis, clava infuscata ; prothorace apice angusto, basi valde 
dilatato, utrinque paulo rotundato, fortiter punctato ; elytris seriatim 
punctata, punctis majusculis, linearibus, interstitiis planatis, irapunc- 
tatis ; corpore infra nitide fusco ; metasterno late excavato, et aeg- 
mentis duobus basalibus abdominis fortiter punctatii; femoribus 
intermediis et posticis infra, pnesertim posticis, dente majusculo 
instructis, margine superiore dense niveo-squamoso. Long, li lin. 

Hob. Mysol; Waigiou. 

LIS800LEKA. 

(Isorhynchinaa.) 

A Panigena differt rima pectorali inter coxas anticas continuata 
et articulo primo funiculi majusculo, quam secundo duplo 
longiore. 



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MB. P. P. PABOOI OH THB CTOCTLIOHmS. 55 

The pectoral canal in this genus is continued between the 
anterior coxa?, the opposite surfaces of these being exposed and 
forming in part the sides of the canaL 

Lissoolbna picipkkkis. L. snbrbombica; capite prothotaceque 
rnfb-caataneia, elytris paceu ; rostro longitudme prothoracis, parnm 
arcnato, apice hand latiore, capite impnnctato ; antennis rnfb-caata- 
neia, elava elongato-orata, nigrieante ; oralis contiguis ; prothorace 
anbtuiasime punctnlato ; acutello piceo ; elytris cof dif onniboa, seria- 
tim tenmter remote pnnctnlatis ; corpore infra subcastaneo; abdo- 
mine segmento primo fortiter punctata, reliqnis bevigatis j femoribna 
tibusque fuseo-piceia ; tarsia fulvis. Long. 1} tin. 

Sab. Sumatra. 

The subjoined table of the Isorhynchin® will show the dia- 
gnostic characters of the genera I have here proposed. 

Intermediate segments of the abdomen nearly equal in length. 
Pectoral canal not passing behind the anterior coxae. 

Pectus elongate Lobotrachtlus, Schon. 

Pectus very short Psemclea, n. g. 

Pectoral canal prolonged to the mesosternum. 
Penultimate joint of the tarsi with divaricate lobes. 

Ekadinocerus, Schon. 
Penultimate joint of the tarsi with approximate lobes. 
Scutellar lobe of the prothorax covering the scutellum. 

Metetra, n. g. 
Scutellar lobe of the prothorax not covering the scutellum. 
Basal joint of the funicle incrassate. 

Othippia, n. g. 
Basal joint of the funicle slender. Egiona, n. g. 
Second abdominal segment as long or nearly as long as the two 
next together. 

Anterior femora very large Tekphae, Pasc. 

Anterior femora of the normal size. 
Pectus canaliculate. 
Pectoral canal passing behind the anterior cox©. 

Body oblong, pubescent Oonophorus, Schon. 

Body rhomboid or elliptic, naked. 

Eyes contiguous Lissogltna, n. g. 

'Eyes not contiguous Brephiope, n. g. 

Pectoral canal limited by the anterior coxa?. 
Femora toothed. 



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66 MB. 7. P. PA8COE OK THE CDBCULIONID^. 

Body oblong, pubescent Elattocerus, Schon. 

Body trapezoid, naked Panigma, n. g. 

Femora not toothed Isorhynchus, Schon. 

Pectus not canaliculate QSbrius, n. g. 

Pseudocholus LATicoLLis. P. (<J) obovatus, nitidissime niger, 
elytris saturate metallico-viridibus; rostro dimidio basali rude, reliquo 
gradatim minus punctata; antennis nitide ferrugineis; funiculo 
articulo secundo quam primo parum breviore; prothorace yalde 
ampliato, sat remote tenuiter punctulato; elytris lineatim sulcsto- 
punctatis, sulcis basi rugoso-punctatis, interstitiis planatis, subtiliter 
remote punctulatis; corpore infra sat tenuiter punctato; pedibua 
elongatis; tarsis anticis articulis duobus basalibus longe pilosis. 
Long. 5i lin. 
Hab. Ceram. 

The genua Pseudocholus was founded by Lacordaire on an im- 
perfect specimen from New G-uinea. Mr. Wallace found several 
species in the Malayan islands, some of which are here described. 
The antenna?, which were wanting in Lacordaire's type, are 
slender, the scape scarcely attaining the eye, the first joint of the 
funicle not enlarged, and the club tomentose and four-jointed. 
The males have apparently longer or broader tarsi, fringed with 
long hairs. 

Pseudocholus BA8ALI8. P. (<£) obovatus, niger, nitidus, elytris 
araeis ; rostro sat sparse tenuiter punctulato, punctis apicem versus 
magis aspersis ; antennis ferrugineis ; funiculo articulo secundo quam 
primo sesquilongiore ; prothorace tenuiter sparse punctulato ; elytris 
lineatim sulcato-punctatis, interstitiis planatis, impunctatis, basi 
versus scutellum albo-squamosis ; corpore infra tenuiter punctato, 
punctis singulis squama alba instructis ; tarsis anticis articulo primo 
elongate. Long. 5 lin. 

Hab. Gilolo; Morty. 

Pseudocholus orichalcbus. P. subellipticus, orichalceus ; rostro 
sat confertim, basi fortiter punctato; antennis ferrugineis; funiculo 
articulis duobus basalibus elongatis, longitudine aequali, reliquis con- 
junctim haud longioribui ; prothorace longiore, sat confertim tenuiter 
punctato; elytris lineatim sulcato-punctatis, sulcis basi latioribus, 
rngosis, interstitiis planatis subtilissime remote punctatis; corpore 
infra sat confertim tenuiter punctato. Long. 4i lin. 

Hab. Bouru. 

Pseudocholus cinctub. P. rhombotdeus, seneo-niger, parum niti- 
dua ; prothorace elytrisque vitta laterali stramineo-squamosa ornatis ; 
rostro prothorace vix latiorc, antennis ferrugineis; prothorace in 



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MB. F. P. PASCOX OK THX OUBCTXIQlSmx. 57 

medio levitar, ad later* fortiter punctato, puncta singulis squama 
minuta atraminea munitis, disco ntrraque kmgitudinaliter excavato, 
squamis stramineis sat dense obsito ; elytris lineatim sulcata, intersti- 
tiis pnnctalatis ; eorpore infra rusco-castaneo, subtiliter punctnlato ; 
femoribus tibiisqne ponctis numerosis singolis squama elongata vel 
filifonni munitis. Long. 4 tin. 
Hab. Saylee (New Guinea). 

This species will hardly fail to recall the Brazilian Cholus aUri- 
rinctys, Germ. It will be recollected that Lacordaire was struck 
with the resemblance of the only species he knew to the members 
generally of that New-World tropical genus. 

Metanthia. 

(Baridinse.) 

Rostrum robustum, arcuatum, basi gibbosulum, apice depressum, 
vix dilatatum; scrobes submediana3. Oculi ovales, tenuiter 
granulati. Antenna valid®; scapus breviusculus ; funiculus 
articulo primo ampliato, cscteris cum clava continuatis. Pro- 
thorax conicus, lobo scutellari paulo producto, lobis ocularibus 
haud prominulis. ScuteUum distinctum. Elytra elongato- 
trigonata. Pectus haud ampliatum, canaliculatum. Coxa 
antic® manifesto separate. Femora sublinearia, mutica, infra 
canaliculate ; tibia rectae, apice calcaratsB. Abdomen segmentis 
duobus basalibus ampliatis, oonnatis. Corpus anguste sub- 
rhomboideum, in M. nitidula ellipticum. 

Prom Ipsickora this genus differs in its approximate coxae, less 
marked, however, in M. nitidula, thick rostrum, raised at its base, 
and short stout scape, not nearly attaining the eye. M, nitidula 
has shorter and more cordate elytra than the first three species. 

Mstanthia PYBIT08A. (PL III. fig. 4.) M. splendide aureo- 
viridis, igneo micans, scutello, femoribus tibiisqne vel laete azureis vel 
anreo-viridibus, tarsi* nigris ; rostro sparse subtiliter punctato; antennis 
Jerrugineis; prothorace sparse punctato; elytris seriatim punctata, 
interstitiis subtiliter punctulatis; eorpore infra inaequaliter punctato. 
Long. 3£ tin. 

Hab. Dorey; Saylee. 

Mbtanthia bbbnina. M. omnino atra, nitida, antennis fascis 
capite nitidissimo, impunctato; prothorace subtilissime sparse 
punctato; elytris seriatim punctata, serie prima basi puncta majori- 
bus, apicem versus gradatim minoribus, seriebus reliquis subtiliter 



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58 MB* *. P. PA8C0B OK THE CIJBCULIOKIM. 

punctatis, interstitiis fere impunctatis; segmento ultimo abdominis 
bifoveato. Long. 2f tin. 
Hab. Batchian. 

Metanthia cvanea. M. supra saturate cyanea, subtus nigra, 
omnino nitida; rostro subtiliter punctato; antennis ferrugineis; 
prothorace subtitissime punctato ; elytris tenuiter seriatim punctatis, 
interstitiis impunctatis ; tibiis tarsisque castaneis, articulo ultimo tar- 
sorum piceo. Long. 2$ lin. 

Hab. Waigiou. 

Metanthia nitidula. M. elliptica, atra, nitida, supra minus con- 
vexa, impunctata ; rostro protborace baud longiore, subtiliter Tage 
punctulato ; antennis ferrugineis ; protborace antice sat subito con- 
stricto, lateraliter gradatim leviter latiore ; elytris oblongo-cordifor- 
mibus, obsolete striatii, basi excepta; corpore infra rarissime sub- 
tiliter punctulato ; femoribus punctb oblongis majusculis impresais. 
Long. 2J lin. 

Hab. Batchian. 

Ipsichora. 

(Baridina.) 

Rostrum elongatum, subulatum, basi baud gibbosulum, apice vit 
dilatatum ; scrobes Bubmediance. Oculi ovati, tenuiter granu- 
lati. Scopus gracilis, oculum baud attingens ; funiculi* articulo 
basali ampliato, ceteris gradatim crassioribus, in clavam con- 
tinuatis. Prothorax transversus, antice tubulatus, basi bisi- 
nuatus. Elytra protborace vix latiora, oblongo-cordiformia. 
Pectus ampliatum. Coxa antic© valde remotse. Pedes medio- 
cres ; femora subelongata, modice incrassata, infra canaliculata 
et dente minuto instructs ; tibia recta, apice calcarat®. Abdo- 
men segmentis duobus basalibus ampliatis. 

"With the rostrum of Pseudocholus this genus differs in its 
shorter legs, and the femora stouter and canaliculate beneath ; 
the species, instead of the bronze or dark olive of that genus, are 
of a rich blue, but varied, even individually to some extent, by 
violet or copper reflections. The males appear to have the 
anterior tarsi larger and fimbriated as in Pseudocholus. 

Ipsichora cupido. I. subelliptica, ubique nitidissima, supra cserulea, 
protborace violaceo vel purpureo ; rostro prothorace fere sesquilon- 
giore, obsolete punctato, nigro, basi capiteque chalybeatis ; antennis 
fusco-castaneis ; prothorace utrinque modice ampliato, pone apioem 
in certa luce quasi sulcato, subtitissime vage punctato ; elytris fere 



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MX. F. P. PABCOE OH THE CUBCULIOVIDJL 69 

obiolete striatis, striis subtUiathne punctulatis, interstitiis punctulis 
mwutisadspersis; oorpore infra metallico-Yiridi ; pedibos plus minusre 
chalybeatis; tarsis nigris. Long. 3J lin. 
Hab. Cersm. 

Ipsichora ccblbstis. J. subelliptkm, ubique nhidissima, supra pedi- 
busque cssruleis; rostro prothormce aesquilongiore, subtiliter punctu- 
lato, aliquando basi excepta nigro ; antennis femigineii ; prothorace 
nt in pnecedente, sed paulo magis punctulato ; elytris fere obsolete 
striatis, leviter sed manifeste punctulatis, interstitiis impunctatis; 
corpore infra metallico-viridi, sparse albo-setuloso ; tarsis nigris. 
Long. 3J lin. 

Hab. Dorey; Saylee. 

Very like the preceding, but there is a manifest difference in 
the punctuation. 

Ipsichora pulchklla. J. elliptic*, nitidissima, cssrulea, prothorace 
splendide aureo-cupreo ; rostro minus elongato, nigro, basi capiteque 
metallico-Tiridibus ; antennis nigris; scapo breviusculo; prothorace 
ntrinqne minus ampliato, pone apicem quasi sulcato, tenuitervage 
punctulato ; scutello nigro ; elytris fere obsolete striatis, striis subti- 
liter punctulatis, interstitiis punctulis minutissimis adspersis; corpore 
infra splendide metallico-viridi ; pedibus chalybeatis; tarsis nigris 
Long. 2} lin. 

Hab. *Salwatty (New Guinea). 

Ipsichora fxmorata. I. subelliptica, cssrulea, rostro pedibusque, 
femoribus exceptis, chalybeatis; rostro minus elongato, basi paulo 
currato; antennis ferrugineis; prothorace subtransverso, sat vage 
punctata, apice haud sulcato; elytris lineatim striato-punctatis, 
punctis modice approximate, interstitiis subtiliter remote punctulatis ; 
femoribus magis incrassatis, run's, basi apiceque chalybeatis exceptis ; 
tarsis nigris. Long. 2} lin. 

Hab. Aru. 

Myctides. 

(Baridinae.) 

Bostrum paulo arcuatum, apice haud dilatatum, prothorace duplo 
longiua ; torches antemediante. Scopus ab oculo remotus ; fu- 
nicului articulo primo elongato, a secundo in clavam continu- 
stus. Oculi ovalee, magni, tenuiter granulati, prothorace con- 
tigui. Prothorax conicua, apice angustus, parum productus. 
Scutellum partum. Elytra subconvexa, cordiformia, basi pro- 
thorace yix latiora, humeris rotundata. Pygidium parrum. 
Femora vix incrassata, infra dente parvo instructs ; tibia recite, 



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60 MB. F. P. PASCOE OK THE CURCULIOtflDA 

sulcata. Pectus ampliatum, convexum. Coxa antic® distantes. 
Brostemum postice latum, truncatum. Abdomen segtnentia 
duobus basalibus ampliatis, connatis. Corpus rbomboideum. 

The Baridina with the sterna forming a continuous level, for 
which Lacordaire forms his " sous-tribu Madarides "*, appear to 
be rather abundant in the Malasian islands, Bseudocholus being 
especially well represented. I have here only worked out a few 
genera, leaving several species undescribed, which I do not think 
it desirable to publish on the strength of my present materials, so 
uncertain are the limits to be placed to their generic and specific 
characters. Thus one of these doubtful forms has a canaliculate 
pectus, which, according to Lacordaire, would take it out of the 
" Lyteriides," to which, however, it obviously belongs, and among 
which I have placed those now described ; at the same time I 
think it probable that such a character is here only of specific 
value. Lyterius itself is unknown to me, except as illustrated by 
Boris complanatus (Dej. Gat.), which, however, disagrees with the 
genus, as denned by Schonherr, in the scape not attaining the eye, 
an important character; Lacordaire only knew the American 
species melas, as instabilis does not, he says, belong even to the 
subfamily. I have another species from Fiji. As yet only three 
or four species of the genus Boris out of the whole subfamily are 
known from Australia. 

Myctide8 barbatus. M. niger, nitidua; rostro fusco, sparse 
punctulato, (of) infra, basi excepto, ferrugineo-barbato ; antennis 
piceo-fuscis ; funiculo articulo primo quam secundo duplo Ion- 
giore; prothorace punctis parvis raris distinctis impresso; scuteUo 
subrotundato ; elytris prothorace sesquilongioribus, pone humeros 
paulo incurvatis, lineato-impressis, lineis, basi versus scutellum ex* 
cepta, punctatis, interstitiis planatis, subtiliter sparse punctulatis; 
corpore infra pcdibusque punctis argenteo-squamigeris adspersia. 
Long. 2| lin. 

Hab. Batchian. 

Cynetuia. 

(Baridinsa.) 

Rostrum elongatum, basi sulcatum et incrassatum, apice dilata- 
tum ; aerobes postmedianae. Scopus ab oculo remotus ; funi- 
culus articulo primo secundo baud crassiore, ultimis brevibus, 

* It must be recollected, however, that Lacordaire himself states, •• the passsge 
from one to the other is effected in a manner almost insensible." 



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MB. F. P. PAJSC0B 09 THE CUBCULIONIDJE. 61 

in clavam continuatis. Oculi prothoraci contiguL Prothorax 
subconicus, apice latior, paulo productus. Scutellum distinctum. 
Elytra oblonga, supra paulo planata, prothorace vix latiora. 
Pygidium par v urn. Femora longiuscula, sublinearia, postica 
infra canaliculata, omnia dente parvo instructa ; tibia antic© 
subflexuos®, reliquae arcuata, sulcata, apice fortiter mucro- 
nata. Pectus leviter excavatum. Coxa antic® distantes. 
Prostemum latum, postice truncatum. Abdomen segmentis 
duobus basalibus ampliatis, connatis. 

Allied to Myctides, but with the rostrum dilated at the apex, 
the aerobes commencing behind the middle, the elytra flat along 
the suture, &c. The species described below is not unlike Paris 
trirgata, Boh.* 

Cynbthia intbrrupta. (PI. III. fig. 12.) C. elliptica, fusco-nigra, 
vix nitida, hneis albido-squamosis ornata ; rostro basi capiteque crebre 
punctulatis, illo deinde ad apicem castaneo, subtiliter sparse punctu- 
lato ; antennis castaneis, scapo pallidiore ; prothorace sat confertim 
punctato, disco lateribus utrinque vittato ; elytris pone humeros lati- 
oribus, ante apicem callosis, lineatim sulcatis, interstitiis planatis, 
secundo excepto uniseriatim punctulatis, interstitio tertio vitta inter- 
rupta albido-squamosa ornatis; corpore infra castaneo, vittia duabus 
albido-squamosis ornato. Long. 3 lin. 

Hab. Sumatra. 

ACYTHOPBUS. 

(Baridinaa.) 

Caput parvum ; rostrum arcuatum, basi crassius, supra gibbosuium, 
versus apicem gradatim tenuatum, apice ipso paulo depressum ; 
scrobes median® vel postmedianae. Scopus ab oculo remotus ; fu- 
niculus articulo primo ampliato, reliquis in clavam continuatis. 
Oculi tenuiter granulati, prothoraci contigui. Prothorax trans- 
versus, apice tubulatus, baud productus, basi fortiter bisinuatus. 
Scutellum parvum. Elytra prothorace vix latiora ( $> P), postice 
angustiora. Femora mutica, infra subcanaliculata. Caterautin 
Myctide. 

Near Myctides, only the rostrum is very much curved and 
thickened at the base, and the femora are entire beneath. The 
position of the aerobes in the first three species described below 
shows that it is only a specific character (or possibly sexual); the 

* This species, judging from Mr. Wallace's collection, has a distribution ex- 
tending from Sumatra to New Guinea. 



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62 MB. P. P. PA8C0B Olf THB OUBCULIOKIDJB. 

last species is an aberrant form, but there is nothing to warrant 
its separation generically except the smaller tarsi. 
Acythopbus TBiSTis. (PL III. fig. II.) A. obovatus, obscure fuscus, 
opacus ; rostro crassiore, basi manifeste magts curvato, leviter gibbo- 
sulo et confertim punctato, versus apicem punctis gradatim minoribus 
et magis adspersis ; scrobibus medianis j antennis ferrugineis ; pro- 
thorace in medio valde ampliato, ubique crebre reticulato-punctato ; 
elytris lineatim sulcatis, interstitiis planatis, transversim rude puncta- 
tis ; pygidio nigro, transverso ; corpore infra pedibuaque fuscis, punc- 
tis, singulis seta minuta alba instructis, adspersis. Long. 2} lin. 
Hab. New Guinea (Saylee). 

Acythopbus tenuirostris. A. obovatus, obscure fuscus, opacus; 
rostro tenuiore, basi supra leviter gibbosulo, punctis vix confertis 
minus impresso, reliquo fere impunctato ; antennis fuscis ; prothorace 
subaequilaterali, apice subito tubulato, confertim punctulato; elytris 
subcordiformibus, lineatim sulcatis, interstitiis planatis, transversim 
punctatisj pygidio nigro; corpore infra pedibusque nitide nigris, 
leviter sparse punctulato. Long. 2\ lin. 
Hab. Tondano. 

This species may be readily recognized by its slender rostrum, 
at least in the female. 

Acythopbus palmabi8. A. niger, nitidus, rostrum conferte rude 
punctatum ; scrobibus pnemedianis ; antennis nigris, scapo longiusculo, 
clava elongata magna ; prothorace ampliato, crebre fortiter punctato ; 
elytris lineatim sulcatis, interstitiis planatis, transversim leviter im- 
presso-punctatis, uniseriatim subtiliter setulosis; pectore utrinque 
coxas proxime dente obtuso instructo ; pedibus anticis multo majori- 
bus, tarsis ipsis majusculis, articulo tertio profunde bilobo. Long. 
2J lin. 
Hab. Amboyna. 

The length of the fore legs with their broader tarsi and the 
large tomentose club are at once distinctive of this species. My 
specimen is, I think, a female, notwithstanding the length of the 
fore legs. 

Acythopbus curviro8TRI8. A. niger, subnitidus, rostro piceo, 
basi valde arcuato, incrassato, crebre rude punctato, ( $ ) dimidio api- 
cali tenuato, laevigata ; scrobibus postmedianis ; antennis piceis, clava 
late ovata; prothorace vix ampliato, confertiasime rude punctato; 
elytris lineatim sulcatis, interstitiis planatis, transversim uni- vel bi- 
seriatim punctatis; pectore squamis ocbraceis adsperao; epipleura 
metathoracis segmentoque primo abdominis utrinque dense ocbraceo- 
squamosis. Long. 2 lin. 

Hab. Gtlolo; Batchian. 



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MB. 7. P. PASC0X ON THE OUBOULIONIDJI. 63 

The rostrum is more abruptly curved at the base in this than 
in any other of the species here described ; in the male the ros- 
trum is punctured throughout, and the scrobes commence a little 
nearer the middle. There is a little patch of white scales at the 
base of the prothorax on each side in two of my specimens. 

Acythopbus BIGKMINATU8. A. oblongus, ater, aubnitidus, elytrit 
albo-quadrimaculatis ; rostro ferrugineo, minus elongato, baai pro- 
funde inciao et valde gibboso, confertim punctata, punctis apicem 
versus minutis ; antennia aubferrugineia ; funiculo brew, articulo primo 
quam aecundo triplo longiore ; prothorace baud confertim punctata, 
lateribua leviter rotundatis; elytris elongato-cordatis, lineatim aul- 
catia, interstitiis aubrugoais, tertio maculis duabua albia— una basali, 
altera prseapicali — e squamis condensatis, notato ; pectore sterniaque 
punctis majoribua, abdomine minoribua, punctis albo-aetigeris, ad- 
spersis; tarsia minusculis. Long. 1J-2J lin. 

Hab. Batchian; Aru, 

Laopia. 

(BaridinaD.) 

Caput spharicum ; rostrum elongatum, cylindricum, apice dilata- 
tum; aerobes antemedian®. Scopus ab oculo remotuB ; funi- 
culus in clavam continuatus. Oculi ovati, tenuiter granulati, 
prothorace baud contigui. Prothorax suboblongus, utrinque 
rotundatus, apice angustus, truncatus. Scutettum parvum. 
Elytra obovata, prothorace viz latiora. Pedes longiusculi, 
femora viz incrassata, mutica ; tibia arcuatse ; tarsis articulo 
ultimo minusculo. Pectus ampliatum. Coxes antic® modice 
distantes. Presternum postice latum, truncatum. Abdomen 
segmentis duobus basalibus ampliatis, connatis. 

The characters in this genus are nearly the same as in Myctides ; 
but the dilated apex of the rostrum, the eye not in contact with 
the prothorax, the small claw-joint, and the different contour are 
sufficiently diverse. Although the anterior femora are not den- 
tate, there are two or three very small points beneath, probably 
not always present. My specimens of the two species here de- 
scribed appear to be females. 

Laodia. niveopicta. (PI. III. fig. 8.) L. anguste oralis, nitidia- 
aima, picea, elytris atria, maculia niveia, e squamia condensatis, nota- 
taa, acil. duabua basi prothoracis, duabua singulo elytro — una basali, 
altera pneapicali ; rostro piceo, prothorace plus duplo longiore, lineis 



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64 MB. F. P. PASCOE ON THE CUBCtTLIOITIM. 

eleVatis longitudinalibus, interstitiis, apice excepto, punctata, mu- 
nito; funiculo articulo primo quam secundo fere duplo longiore; 
prothorace in medio sat sparse punctulato, lateribus confertim granu- 
lato; elytris lineatim sulcatis, interstitiis uniseriatim punctulatis; 
corpore infra sat confertim albo-setosulis ; abdomine punctis minutis 
adspersis. Long. 1 lin. 
Hab. Macassar. 

Laodia niveospabsa. L. ovata, nitidissima, atra, elytris maculia 
parvis albis quatuor, e squamis condensatis, notatis, scil. singulis 
una basali, altera apicali ; rostro piceo, prothorace triplo longiore, 
lineato ut in prsecedente ; funiculo articulis duobus basalibua ssquali- 
bus ; prothorace in medio sparse punctata, lateribus rugoso-punctatis ; 
elytris lineatim sulcatis, sulcis punctis remotis manifeste impressis, 
duobus suturalibus ad basin majusculis; corpore infra sparse niveo- 
setosis ; tibiis tarsisque piceis. Long. 1} lin. 

Hab. Amboyna. 

LT8TBU8. 

(BaridinsB.) 

Rostrum paulo arcuatum, apicem versus gradatitn dilatatum, pro- 
thorace longius; aerobes antemedianae. Scopus oculum haud 
attingens ; funiculus articulo primo ampliato, a secundo in cla- 
yam gradatim continuatus ; clava magna. Oculi rotundati, 
protboraci haud contigui, tenuiter granulati. Prothorax coni- 
cus, apice truncatus, lobo scutellari late emarginato pro recep- 
tione basis scutelli. Scutellum magnum. Elytra equilatera- 
liter triangularia, humeris paulo producta, rotundata. Femora 
subincrassata, infra dentata ; tibia arcuate. Pectus incurva- 
tum ; prosternum postice breve. Coxa antic® fere contigu©. 
Abdomen segmento primo ampliato. 

The anterior cox© only feebly separated, and with the usual 
non-continuity of the line of the sterna, imply a technical position 
of this genus near Madopterus ; but its trapezoid form compared 
with the cylindrical one of the latter is not favourable to any consi- 
deration of affinity. I have a second species from Tsusima, in the 
Corean Straits, distinguished, inter alia, by its closely punctured 
prothorax. 

Lystrus bculptipennis. (PI. III. fig. 1.) L. trapeioideus, fusco- 
niger, parum nitidus ; rostro crebre lineatim punctato j antennis fer- 
rugineis; clava articulis sex pnecedentibus funiculi longitudine sequali; 
prothorace confertim granulate, in medio postice linea elevata in* 



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KB. F. P. PASOOl ON THE OUBOULIOKIDJL 65 

structo; scutello transverso; elytrii fortiter sulcatis, interstitik 
elevato-carinatis, carinis Uteraliter impresso-punctatis ; corpore infra 
squamositate sabaulphorea tecto; femoribus tibiisque sat crebre 
punctatis, bis lineu elevatis instructs. Long. 2 tin. 
Hob. Singapore; Macassar. 

SlMOCOPIS. 

(Baridinffi.) 

Caput parvum, sphsericum ; rostrum modice elongatum, arcuatum, 
basi leviter incrassatum, paulo compressum, reliquo valde de- 
presso (vel laminiformi), apicem versus gradatim dilatatum ; 
aerobes. subbasalee. Oculi rotundati. Scopus oculum baud at- 
tingens ; funiculus articulis duobus basalibus elongatis. JProthc- 
rox transversus, ampliatus, basi late bisinuatus, lobis ocularibus 
fere obsoletis. Scutellum subquadratum. Elytra subcordi- 
formia, protborace vix latiora, humeris obliquis. Pectus leviter 
excavatum. Coxa antics distantes. Pedes breviusculi ; femora 
incrassata, mutica ; tibia breves, incurvat®, mucronataa ; tarsi 
articulo ultimo elongato ; unguiculi liberi. Abdomen segmentis 
duobus baaalibufl ampliatis. 

Like Elasmorkinus, Lac., in its depressed rostrum, wbich is even 
more remarkable than in that genus on account of its breadth, and 
the longitudinal middle portion is so attenuated as to be almost 
diaphanous. In other respects it differs from Masmorhinus f of 
which I have a second species, in its free claws. I am not quite 
certain of the habitat of the only example I have seen of this spe- 
cies ; unfortunately its antenna? are incomplete. 

Simocopi8 umbrinu8. (PI. III. fig. 10.) S. late obovatus, fusco- 
umbrinus ; capite sparse pnnctato ; rostro quam prothorace vix lon- 
giore, nitido, impunctato ; prothorace nitido, valde transverso, in medio 
sparse, ad latere irregulariter striato-pnnctato, basi utrinque squamis 
elongatis ochraceis vestito ; elytris opacis, lineatim sulcato-punctatis, 
interstitiis rugosis, transversim crebre punctatis, basi squamis elon- 
gatis ochraceis vestitis ; corpore infra tenuiter sparse setosulo ; pedi- 
bus, prsssertim femoribus, magis dense squamosis. Long. 4 tin. 

Heb. Brazil? 

The following tabular view of Lacordaire's " groupe Lyteriides," 
one of the divisions of his " sous-tribu Madarides " (Gen. t. vii. 
p. 249), includes the new genera proposed above : — 

LIKK. JOUBX. — ZOOLOOT, VOL. XII. 5 



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66 MB. P. P. PABOOB OK THE 0UB0T7LIOHIDJS. 

Rostrum cylindrical. 
Pygidium fipee. 

Pectus with a horn-like projection Microstate*, Lac. 

Pectus without a horn-like projection. 

Rostrum robust Metanthia, n. g. 

Rostrum slender. 
Anterior cox® slightly separated . . Zyrtrus, n. g. 
Anterior coxae widely apart. 

Rostrum slender throughout Myctides, n. g. 

Rostrum thicker at the base. 
Prothorax produced at the apex. 

Cynethia, n. g. 
Prothorax truncate at the apex. AcythopeU*, n. g. 
Pygidium covered, or nearly so. 

Scape remote from the eye Laodia, n. g. 

Scape nearly attaining the eye. 

Femora canaliculate beneath Iprichora, n. g. 

Femora not canaliculate beneath .... Pseudocholu*, Lac. 
Rostrum lamelliform. 

Claws connate Masmorhinut, Lac. 

Claws free Simocopis, n. g. 

Lyteriu9> Schon., is omitted as a doubtful member of this group. 
Zyteriu*, Lac., is probably not identical with SchSnherr's genus 
(see Gen. vii. p. 250). Eumycteru* (from Asia Minor), unknown 
to me, is placed by Schdnherr in Cossoninae. It is possible that 
Tithcne (ante, p. 25) may have affinity with this " groupe." 

Peodiootes. 

(Calandrinffi.) 

Megaprocto congruit, sed scapus elongatus, elytra prothorace 
latiora, et femora magis clavata, postica breviora. Bostrum 
tenuatum, arcuatum. Pygidium obtusum. Tibia flexnossa. 

There are a number of intermediate (and undescribed) species 
allied to Sphmocorynus and Megaproctu*, which it is almost im- 
possible to distribute into well-limited genera, but which cannot 
be united without also merging the two above mentioned into one 
genus with them. For those in my collection belonging to 
Lacordaire's " groupe Sphenocorynides," which has the pygidium 
horizontal (or a little deflexed), including the species in question, 



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MS. F. P. PASOOE OK THB CUBOTTUOiriDA 67 

I have adopted the following genera, under which I hare arranged 
them as well as the variability of the characters will allow me : — 

1. Elytra broader than the prothorax. 
Spktnocorynu*, Schon. Bostrum short, stout. 
ProdiocUs, n. g. Bostrum slender, curred ; femora clavate. 
Tyndidcs , n. g. Bostrum slender, straight ; femora sublinear. 

2. Elytra not broader, or only very slightly, than the pro- 

thorax. 
Meyaproctu*, Schon. Elytra narrowed from the base to the 

apex. 
Perip\emu9 y n. g. Elytra with parallel sides ; anterior femora 

stout ; club with the spongy part obsolete. 
Zetheui, n. g. Elytra with parallel sides; femora long, 
slender ; club with the spongy part produced. 
Under Prodiocte* I place Spkcnophoru* Dehaani, Gyll., a species 
with ascending mesothoracic epimera, and select the following for 
description as best illustrative of the genus. Other species are 
from the Philippine Islands, Borneo, Ceram, Amboyna, and New 
Guinea. 

Pbodioctks qu in* hi us. (PI. IV. fig. 2.) P. ellipticus, umbrinus; 
rostro prothorace kragiore, basi confertim squamigero-punctato, reliquo 
capiteque nudis, oitide castaneis ; scapo funtculo cum clava longiore ; 
prothorace oblongo, pone medium incurvato, basi valde rotundato ; 
scutello minuto ; elytris brevibus, pone basin latioribus, haud striatis, 
maculis majusculis nigro-velutinis, pallida marginatis, decoratis, scil. 
una communi pone scutellum, et duabus lateralibus, una humerali 
altera ante apicem, obsitis ; pygidio modice elongato, sparse setigero- 
punctato; corpore infra obscure umbrino-punctato ; pedibus vage 
setigero-punctatis. Long. 8 lin. 

Hab. Borneo (Muruk). 

Pbodioctks pavoninus. P. elliptkus, rufo-ferrugineis, supra indu- 
mento flavescente guttatim notatus ; rostro prothorace breviore, supra 
ad apicem guttato-punctato ; antennis indumento pallido vestitis ; fu- 
niculo articulo secundo quam primo longiore; prothorace oblongo, 
guttis numerotis, nonnullis contiguis, dorso lineaque laterali ornato ; 
scutello indumento tecto; elytris latitudine plus sesquilongioribus, 
seriatim punctatis, interstitiis guttatis, singulis maculis duabus nigris, 
concinne flavo- marginatis, una humerali, altera ante apicem, ornatis; 
pygidio apice bifido, utrinque flavescenti-vittato ; corpore infra fusco, 
obscure guttato; femoribus supra indumento albido tectis; tibiis 
anticis intus fortiter bisinuatis, intermedin et posticis setulis ferrugi- 
neis intus dense ciliatis. Long. 6| lin. 

Hmb. Sarawak. 

5* 



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68 jtjl f. p. pascoe ox the cttbculiohidjs. 

Ttkdedeb. 

(Calandring.) 

Rostrum porrectum, elongatum, rectum, gradatim angustius, sed 
apicem versus dilatatum ; scrobes subhasales. Prothorax elon- 
gato-conicus. Seutellum parrum. Femora sublinearia, postica 
elongata, infra dente minuto instructa ; tibia squamoBO-macu- 
late, intus haud sinuate. Camera fere lit in Megaprocto. 

The two species here described are closely allied ; but the second 
is considerably narrower, the pygidium not compressed at the apex, 
and the prothorax has a very distinct white line on each side. 

Tyndidks PU8TULOSU8. (PI. IV. fig. 4.) T. ellipticus, fuscus, 
punctis numerous, squamositate ochracea repletis, adspersus ; capite 
rostroque basi ochraceo-squamosis, hoc a medio ferrugineo, apice 
excepto, rugoso-punctato ; antennis induinento ochraceo tectia, arti- 
culo basali clavs glabra excepto; prothorace latitudine duplo lon- 
giore, paulo planato, punctis plurimis fere contiguis, linea longitudi- 
nali media lateribusque exceptis; elytris pone basin paulo latioribus, 
deinde parum rotundatis et angustioribus, striato-punctatis, interstitiis 
punctis saepe confluentibus notatis; pygidio versus apicem compresso, 
et supra carinato ; corpore infra, segmentis abdominis in medio ex- 
ceptis, pedibusque plus minusre dense squamoao-punctatis, segmento 
basali rude punctato. Long. 9J lin. (rost. incl.). 

Hob. Sumatra; Malacca. 

Tyndides lineatus. T. anguste ellipticus, punctis numeroaia, aqua- 
mositate alba repletis, adspersus ; cseteris ut in precedents sed pro- 
thorace utrinque linea alba distincta munito, pygidio conico supra in- 
tegro, et abdomine rude punctato, segmentis tribus intermedins in 
medio glabris exceptis. Long. 74 lin. (rost. incl.). 

Hob. Sarawak. 

Mbgaproctub puoionatus. (PL IV. fig. 8.) M. angustus, elon- 
gatus, rufo-ferrugineus ; rostro recto, pone medium paulo recurvato, 
basi gibboso, tuberculis numerosis, apice excepto, adsperao ; scrobibus 
basalibus; scapo flexuoso; prothorace latitudine plus duplo lon- 
giore, obscure areolato-guttato, in medio nigro-yittato, utrinque 
vitta angustiore notato ; scutello oblongo-triangulari ; elytris brevius- 
culis, regione suturali excavatis, striato-punctatis, interstitiis quinto 
septimoque paulo elevatis; pygidio horizontal^ elongato, poatice 
angusto compresso, apice acuto; corpore infra indumento griseo, 
segmentis ultimis quatuor abdominis exceptis, tecto ; pedibus rufes- 
centibus, sparse setulosis. Loog. 71 lin. (rost. incl.). 

Hab. Tondano. 



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mb. f. p. pascoe ok thb ottrculiokidjb. 69 

Zethxus. 

(Calandrinse.) 

Mcgaprocto congruit, sed serobibus basalibus, elytris parallelis, et 
femoribus elongatis gracillimis. 

It is to this species that Lacordaire probably alludes in the 
note t. rii. p. 282. The genus, so far as it is represented by the 
following species, approaches to some undescribed forms of Pro* 
diodes in coloration. 

Zstheus elkctilis. (PL IV. fig. 1.) Z. angustus, rufo-ferm- 
gineua, supra indumenta albido guttatim notatus; rostro paulo 
arcuato, nitide ferrugineo; acapo modice elongato; funiculo articulo 
aecundo quam primo longiore ; clava obovata ; prothorace latitudine 
aeaquilongiore, utrinque rotundato, guttis albidia insqualibua irregu- 
lariter adaperao ; acutello nitide nigro ; elytris latitudine duplo lon- 
gkmbua, supra depressis, obsolete striatic, guttis albis minoribus 
seriatim obsitis, singulis postice macula magna nigra albo marginata 
ornatu; pygidio elongato-conico, acuto; corpore infra obscure 
aibido-guttato ; pedibua fere nudis ; femoribua infra acute dentatis. 
Long. 4| lin. 

Hob. Penang. 

Pebiphemus. 

(CalandrinsB.) 

Bostrwm breviusculum, tenuatum, parum arcuatum, cylindricum ; 
scrobes baaales. Oculi transversi, ad prothoracem haud approxi- 
matL Scopus breviusculus, basi rostri insertus; clava parte 
spongioaa obtecta. Prothorax oblongus, cylindricos. Scutellum 
elongatum. Elytra parallela, prothorace baud latiora. Pygi- 
dium declive. Femora postica elongata sublinearia, intermedia 
breviora, antica compressa incrassata, omnia infra mutica ; tibiae 
sulcata ; tarsi articulis tribus basalibus infra spongiosis ; 
unguiculis parvis, approximatis. Corpus angustum, cylindri- 
cum. 

The cylindrical form, the short slender rostrum with its basal 
aerobes, and the spongy part of the club concealed, trenchantly 
differentiate this genus. The three species composing it are 
homogeneous in point of form and colour, but differ essentially in 
sculpture aa well as in other characters. 

Peeiphkmus rktror8US. (PI. IV. fig. 3.) P. nigrescens, lineis 
giiaeo-tomentosis punctisque squamositate grisea repletis ornatis; 



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70 MB. V. P. PAS0OE OK THE CUBCTJLIOHmS. 

capite inter oculos gibboso, dense squamoso; rostro capite longiore, 
sparse punctulato; prothorace latitudine sesquilongiore, confertim 
leviter punctato, iineis longitudinalibus tribns instructo; elytris 
striato-punctatis, interstitiis planatis, vage subtiliter squamoso- 
punctatis, tertio, apice excepto, griseo, quarto ad septhnnn postiee 
maculatis, fasciam transversam formantibus; pygidio griseo-squa- 
moso ; corpore infra pedibusque sparse griseo-squamosis, illo etiam 
squamositate sat tenuiter vestito ; femoribus posticis margine superiore 
dense squamosis. Long. 5J lin. 

Sab. Sarawak. 

A single row of small scale-bearing punctures marks each of 
the interstices on the elytra. 

Pbriphbmus 8UPXRCILIARIS. P. nigrescens; capite supra oeuloa 
paulo elevato et vage squamoso ; rostro capite duplo longiore, aequi* 
lato, omnino creberrime sat fortiter punctato ; prothorace latitudine 
rix sesquilongiore, confertim fortiter punctato, Iineis tribus longitu- 
dinalibus griseo-tomentosis ornato; elytris totis nigrii, striato- 
punctatis, interstitiis subplanatis, uniseriatim fortiter punctatii, punctia 
extrorsum msjoribus et magis confertis ; pygidio grisco-squamoso ; 
corpore infra pedibusque nigris, nitidis, parcius griseo-squamosis. 
Long 5 lin. 
Sab. Sumatra. 

The punctures on the interstices of the stria on the elytra are 
jery coarse and approximate, the intervening spaces haying the 
appearance of transverse bars. 

Pbriphbmus dblbtus. P. niger; capite supra oculos vix elevato; 
rostro parum arcuato, squamis erectis sub vage instructo, basi multo 
crassiore, fortiter sulcato-punctato, dimidio apicali subtiliter vaga 
punctulato; prothorace minus elongato, confertim sat fortiter punc- 
tato, Iineis tribus longitudinalibus tenuiter griseo-tomentosis ornato ; 
elytris brevioribus, striato-punctatis, interstitiis subplanatis, uniseria- 
tim minus fortiter punctatis, tertio, basi apiceque exceptis, tenuiter 
griseo-squamosis ; pygidio griseo-squamoso ; corpore infra pedibusque 
nigris, nitidis, illo ad latera griieo-squamoso, his sparse squamosis. 
Long. 4J lin. 
Hab, Cochin-China ; Laos. 

The interstices on the elytra are in this species also rather 
strongly punctured, but the punctures are comparatively remote 
and the intervening spaces smooth. 

Potbriophorus coNOBSTUS. (PL IV. fig. 9.) P. elongato-ovalis, 
supra depressus, niger, indumento flavescenti-griseo guttatim notatus ; 
rostro ban confertim apicem versus gradatim minus guttato ; antennia, 
articulo primo funiculi claveque exceptis, indumento grisco vestitis ; 



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MR. F. P. PABOOE OK THE CT7B0TXLI0XIDJL 71 

prothorace oblongo, apice tabulate, irregulariter ted plerumque con- 
fertim guttato ; scutello elongate, angusto, apice acuminato ; elytris 
postice calloais, supra lineatim striata, interstitiis planatis, guttis 
numerosis quadratiformibus, in medio (pnesertim postice) elevatis, 
irregulariter notatis; corpore infra aequaliter pluries guttato; 
pedibus indumento sat dense vestitis, femoribus confertim guttatis. 
Long. 9-10 lin. 
Hob, Malacca. 

The coloration, form of the scutellum, &c. are highly distinctive 
of this fine species. 

Barybtbthus atbr. B. late ellipticus, niger, supra opacus, subtus 
lsevis, nitidus, capite pedibusque ferrugineis, nitentibut, prothorace 
utrinque fortiter rotundato, tenuiter •subrugoso-punctulato, margine 
apicali pone oculos bete fulvo ciliato ; elytris striato-punctatis, inter- 
stitiis latis, convexis, impunctatis ; pygidio brevi, obtuso ; tibiisintus 
bete fulvo barbatis. Long. 6-9 lin. 
Ho*. Dorey. 

This fine insect is at once distinguished from its only congener 
B. melanosoma, Bois., by its punctured prothorax. Lacordaire 
say 8 of B. melanosoma that the penultimate joint of the tarsi is 
alone spongy beneath ; but in my specimens of the present species 
the three' joints are so. In the ' Genera ' (vi. 287), it appears to 
roe, there is some obscurity in the description of the sterna : in 
this species at all events the mesosternum is triangular, the 
angles a little rounded, and its apex received into a notch in the 
raised subquadrangular portion of the presternum behind the 
anterior coxae. 

Diathetes. 

(Calandrina.) 

Barytfetho fere congruit, sed lobo scutellari prothoracis minus 
producto; tibiii sulcatis vel lineatim punctatis; metastemo 
cum mesosterno continuato. 

In Barystethus the scutellum is entirely covered by the scutel- 
lar lobe, the metasternum is much swollen or enlarged anteriorly, 
overlapping the posterior edge of the mesosternum, and the 
tibi» are perfectly smooth ; in Diathete* the metasternum is of 
the normal form, and the tibia are coarsely grooved, the groove 
formed either by a row of close-set punctures or by fewer 
punctures connected by lines, the space between the grooves 
constituting a smooth ridge. This character is, I think, an im- 



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73 MB. P. P. PA80OE OK THE CUBCVLXOITIDJB. 

portent one, and is almost entirely neglected by writers on this 
family. The species are less massive than in Barystethvs, and 
have all, except D. nitidicotti*, a short impressed longitudinal line 
on the base of the rostrum. The tibiae are more or less densely 
fringed with fulvous hairs on the inner margin. 

Diathetics rupicollis. (PL IV. fig. 70 D. eHiptkui, niger, 
parum nitidus, prothorace toto nifo-fulvus; capite, vertice excepto, 
rostroque impunctatis; antennis ferrugmeis; prothorace oblongo, 
utrinque modice rotundato, impunctato, in medio linea longitudinal* 
leviter impreaaa ; scutello punctiformi ; elytris fortiter sulcata, sukis 
puDctis oblongis, singulis seta minuta albida munitis, impreasis ; 
pygidio obtuso, basi rufo-fulvo ; metasterno abdomineque nitide mgris. 
Long. 6J-6 lin. 

Hab. Waigiou. 

Diathbtb8 sannio. D. subellipticus, rufescens, mgro rains; capite 
rostroque subnitide rufo-ferrugineis, illo subtilissime, hoc minus 
leviter puuctulato; antennis fusco-piceis, clava triangulari, parte 
spongiosa brevissima ; prothorace oblongo, utrinque modice rotun- 
dato, ocellato-punctato, plagis nigris, una mediana longitudinal], 
alteris lateralibus, notato ; scutello lineari ; elytris striato-punctatts, 
striis nonnullis parum flexuosis, interstitiis convexis, ahernis manifeste 
latioribus, nigris, rufo interruptis ; corpore infra pedibusque punctis 
squamigeris irregulariter adspersis. Long. 7 lin. 

Hab. Aru. 

This species has ocellate punctures on the prothorax, as in the 
Sphenocoryni. 

Diathbtks nitidicolli8. D. ellipticus, omnino nitide niger ; capite 
vage subtilissime punctulato, rostro basi punctis spanis sat fortiter 
imptesso, reliquo subtiliter punctata; clava transversa, parte spon- 
giosa ampliata; prothorace oblongo, utrinque magis rotundato, in 
medio impnnctato, latere versus punctis gradatim majoribus impresso ; 
scutello elougato-triangulari ; elytris sulcato-punctatis, basin versus 
planatis, postice convexis et in certa luce opacis, vel quasi subveluti- 
nis; corpore infra vage punctato; femoribus infra fulvo ciliatis. 
Long. 6-8J lin. 

Hab. Araboyna; Goram. 

Diathetbs strknuus. D. robustus, elliptico-ovalis, niger; rostro 
crassiore, ad apicem manifeste punctulato ; clava oblonga 5 prothorace 
utrinque versus basin paulo incurvato, disco tenuiter vage punctulato ; 
scutello fere asquilateraliter triangulari ; elytris fere ut io prsscedente, 
sed interstitiis basi magis convexis, et ad apicem maculis griseia 
fascicuiatis notatis ; pygidio postice utrinque paulo excavato, punctis 



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Hji<.hnt>nJ>ele< St .1673. 



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MB. F. P. PA80OE ON THS CTmOtTLIONLDJB. 78 

squamigeris adsperso ; corpore infra pedibusque nitidis, illo in medio 
fere impnnetato j pedibns subocellato-punctatis. Long. 10$ lin. 
Hab. Aru. 

Diathetbs morio. D. oblongo-ovatus, niger, nitidus; rostro basi 
parum tumido, toto ssqualiter punctulato; antennis fusco-piceis ; 
funiculo in clavam continuata, aed clava distincta; prothorace 
oblongo, utrinque modice rotundato, tubtiliter aat vage punctulato ; 
scutello elongato-triangulari; elytris sulcatis, interstitiis planatis, 
punctis minutis valde distinctis adspersis ; pygidio truncate, punctis 
albo-squamigeris dispositis ; corpore infra subtiliter punctulato. Long. 
6 lin. 

Hab. Australia (Cape York). 

Cbrcidocbrus indicator. C. oblongo-ellipticus, supra fuscus, 
punctis plurimis silaceis notatus; rostro modice arcuate, apice nigro ; 
antennis indumento silaceo tectis; clava angustula, basi excepta, 
fusca; prothorace oblongo, lineis duabus angustis distinctis, basi 
paulo divergentibus, notato ; scutello elongato-scutiformi ; elytris 
breviter subovatis, tenuiter striatis, interstitiis planatis, secundo 
quartoque fere omnino fuscis, tertio, quinto et reliquis areolato- 
punctatis, pone medium maculis tribus approximatis, fascism abbre- 
Tiatam formantibus, ornatis; pygidio carinato, rugoso-punctato ; 
corpore infra pedibusque pallide griseis, illo in medio sparse setosulo, 
lateribus femoribusque areolato-maculatis ; tibiis lineatim setuloais, 
posticis lubcompressis, intus biainuatis. Long. 7 lin. 
Hab. Singapore. 

The curious malleiform club of the antenn® renders the genus 
Cercidoeerus easy of recognition, so far as the males are concerned ; 
in the females it is more like that of Sphenophoru*. Some of the 
species are covered with what Lacordaire calls a " velvety efflor- 
escence 5 " or it may be confined to certain indented spots as in 
this species. In the Munich Catalogue, C. aJbicollis, 01. (v. p. 91, 
pi. xxviii. fig. 414), is omitted ; it is a West- African species, and 
the only one not found in Asia or its great adjacent islands. 

Cbrcidocbrus hispidulus. (PI. IV. fig. 5, cf .) C. latior, breviter 
hispidulus, supra pallide ochraceus saturation variegatus; rostro 
modice arcuato, sublineatim granulate, apice nigro nudo, in maribus 
infra barbate; antennis indumento ochraceo tectis; clava, basi 
excepta, nigra; prothorace sat ampliato, dorso subconfertim areolato- 
punctato, lineis duabus pallidis, basi divergentibus, ornate ; scutello 
elongato-scutiformi ; elytris subcordiformibus, tenuiter striatis, inter- 
stitiis planatis, raro subtiliter hispido-punctulatis, sutura fasciisque 
duabus angustis flexuosis pallide ochraceis notatis j pygidio distincte 



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nigro-punctato; corpora infra subebunteo, punctis setuligeris nume- 
rosis instructo ; tibiis compressis, lineatim setulosis, mnticu intus pilis 
longis, reliquis bravibus, dense instructii ; tarsis articulo quarto un- 
guiculisque nigris. Long. 7i lin. 
Hab. Penang. 

A abort, stout, handsome species. 

Cebcidocebus bfpbtus. C. ellipticus, pallide ochraceua, opacus; 
rottro minus arcuato, apice nigro, infra leviter barbato ; antennis nt 
in praec. ; protborace irregolariter punctato, vittis angnstis saturati- 
oribus notato, lateribus imprasso-areolato-punctato ; seutello oblongo- 
scutiformi ; elytris subcordatis, tenuiter striato-punctatis, intentitus 
planatis, uniseriatim vage subtilissime setuloais; pygidio forttter 
carinato, rage punctato; corpora infra pedibusque subeburaeis, 
punctis setigeris, uonnullis areolaris, numerosis instructis; tibiia 
lineatim setulosis, intus breviter pilosis. Long. 6 lin. 

Hab. Singapore. 

This species has a slight resemblance to the last ; but, inter alia, 
the upper surface is not setulose, and the sides of the prothorax, 
metasternum, and its epiBterna are differently punctured. 

Cbrcidocbbus 8ATUBATU8. C. robustus, rusce-umbrinus, subrittatim 
dilutiore notatis ; rostro modice arcuato, indistincte lineatim punctato ; 
antennis totis umbrinis; protborace ampliato, irregulariter ?age 
punctato; seutello elongato-scutiformi ; elytris subcordatis, tenuiter 
striatis, interstitiis planatis, obsolete punctatis ; pygidio minusculo, 
subcarinato, rude punctato; corpora infra pedibusque rusco-variis, 
setulis numerosis adspersis ; tibiis lineatim setulosis, intus, pnesertim 
anticis pilis longis dense instructis. Long. 8 lin. 

Hab. Penang. 

A dark brown species, with pale intermediate stripes. 

Cebcidocbrus nebvosus. (PI. IV. fig. 6, £.) C. subellipticus, 
grisescenti-niger, supra lineis eburneis ornatus ; rostro, sat fortiter 
arcuato, capiteque supra oculos eburneis, et squamositate granulifero 
sat confertim vestitis, illo basi linea longitudinali inciso ; antennis 
eburneis ; clava magna, albido-tomentosa ; prothorace oblongo, areo- 
lato-suaceo-guttato, lineis sex, duabus dorsalibus, duabus utrinque, 
obsito; seutello angusto; elytris oblongis, striato-punctatis, inter- 
stitiis duobus suturalibus quartoque planatis, reliquis parum convexis 
et uniseriatim plus minus conjunction areolato*silaceo-guttatis, lateri- 
bus punctis in striis magis validis, sutura singulatim linea basali 
guttisque duabus pairis ornatis; pygidio carinis tribus eburneis 
instructo ; corpora infra pedibusque eburneis, setis numerosis adsper- 
sis. Long. 6 lin. 

Hab. Java. 



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MB. F. *. PASCOJC OIT THB CUBCITLIONIDJB. 75 

The breadth of the club in this species ( (?) is nearly twice the 
length of the scape. 

Autonopis. 

(Calandrin©.) 

Caput parvulum ; rostrum capite vix crassius, longissimum, arcu- 
atum ; serobes prainedian®. Oeuli parvi, rotundati, prothorace 
distantes. Scopus oculum haud attingens ; funiculus articulo 
basali longiore, csBteris gradatim brevioribus ; clava ovata, 
pedunculata. Prothorax Bubconicus, basi truncatus. Scutellum 
obloogum. Elytra prothorace perparnm angustiora, subparal- 
lela. Pygidium anguste triangolare. Pedes elongati ; femora 
linearia, mutica ; tibia graciles arcuatae, apice unco valido ar- 
matsB ; tarsi breviusculi, articulo primo triangularis secundo 
breviore, tertio cordato, quarto elongato ; unguiculis approxi- 
mate, basi contiguis. Coxa antic® distantes. Abdomen articulo 
primo ampliato, secundo abbreviate 

The pygidium in the Calandrin® appears to be narrower and 
larger in the male, but not to any great extent. The genus 
Galon dr a, represented by our too well-known corn-weevil, is one 
of the most insignificant of the subfamily in size and appearance. 
Autonopis, on the contrary, is one of the most remarkable, and, in 
habit, resembles the South- American Litosomus. There is another 
species from Penang, with, inter alia, a narrower outline and the 
rows of punctures on the elytra very much closer. 

Autonopis linbata. (PI. IV. fig. 10, tf.) A. anguste elliptic*, 
nigrescent, lineis squamosis albis ornata; capite rostroque ferrugineis, 
nitidis, hoc corpore longiore, subtiliter punctulato ; sntennis fusces- 
centibus ; prothorace latitudine fere duplo longiore, apice angustis- 
simo, utrinque paulo rotondato, basi subparallelo, supra crebre punc- 
tato, punctis ad latent majoribus, lineis tribus, etiam duabns pectore, 
ornato ; elytris latitudine baseos sesquilongioribui, seriatini punctatis, 
punctis approximatis, interstitiis planatu, apice parum emarginatis, 
ringnli« lines alba, medio interrupts, ornatis ; pygidio in mare magis 
elongato et angustiore; corpore infra nigro, albo-variegato ; pedibus 
parce squamosis. Long. (rest. incL) &i lin. 

Hob. Malacca; Sumatra. 

Laooekia. 

(Calandrin©.) 

Caput majusculum, breviter conicum ; rostrum rectum, gradatim 



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76 MB. *. P. PASCOE ON THE CUBCULIOKIDJE. 

angustius, prothorace vix longiua ; scrobes baaalea. Oculi 
tranaverai, infra contigui vel fere contigui, prothorace sat di- 
Btantes. Scapus brevis, prothoracem attingena ; funiculus 
articulis modice elongatia, secundo longiore; elava oblongo- 
ovata, articulo basali elongato-obconico, parte apongiosa ampla. 
Prothorax oblongua, apice tubulatua, utrinque rotundatus, bast 
truDcatus. Scutelhm anguatum. Elytra brevia, subparallela. 
Pygidium declive, triangulare, baud elongatum. Pedes longiua- 
culi ; femora perparum incraaaata, infra dente minuto inatructa; 
tibia sulcata, modice arcuatm ; tarsi articulo primo elongato, 
secundo angusto, tertio cordato, subbilobo, quarto tenuato; 
unguicuUs gracilibua divaricatis, basi diatantibua. Coxa antic© 
distantes. Abdomen sutura prima obaoleta. 
This genua may for the present rank near Calandra. 

Laogbnia 80rbx. (PI. IV. fig. 11.) I#. oblonga, nigrescent, opaca ; 
capite rostroque niseis, hoc basi crebre pnnctato, apicem versus piceo, 
impunctato ; prothorace latitudine sesquilongiore, creberrime punc- 
tuUto, punctis unisquamigeris ; elytris confertira striato-punctatis, in- 
terstitiis alternis paulo elevatis, suturaque nniseriatim remote griseo- 
squamosis, singulis plaga elongata rufo-ferruginea obscure notatis ; 
corpore infra punctis squamis griseis repletis maculato ; pedibus di- 
sperse griseo-squamosis. Long. 4} lie. 

Hob. Gilolo; Sarawak. 

Laogenia INTRU8A. L. angustior, nigrescens, opaca ; rostro $ basi 
parum arcuato, omnino, apice excepto, sat parce punctato ; prothorace 
subtiliter creberrime punctulato, punctis plurimis unisquamigeris; 
elytris confertim striato-punctatis, interstitiis angustis, alternis acute 
elevatii squamisque albidis indutis ; corpore infra pedibusque ut in 
pnecedente. Long. 4 lin. 

Hob. Tondano; Sarawak. 



It is requested that the following be substituted for the charac- 
ters of Nedyleda (ante, vol. xi. p. 455) : — 

Nedxleda. 
Rostrum subvalidum, leviter arcuatum, basi paulo compresaum ; 
scrobes promedian®, oblique flexuoete. Oouli angusti, tenuiter 
granulati. Scapus aenaim incrassatus, oculum haud attiugens ; 
funiculus breviusculus, articulo primo duobus aequentibua con* 
juncthn longiore ; clava distincta. Prothorax parvus, apice an- 
gustatua, lateribua basique rotundatus. Scutellum minuscu- 



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KB. r. P. PA8COB ON THE CTOCITLIOKIDJL 77 

lum. Elytra ampliata. Pedes mediocres ; y^ora breviuscula, 
mutica; tibia fere rect®, intus subflexuoss ; tarn articulis 
tribus basalibus sensim dilatatis ; unguiculi approximate Coxa 
poetic® distantes. Proeeum intercoxalis late truncatus. 

This genus agrees with Dorytomus in the absence of ocular 
lobes, and with Erirhinus in its mutic femora. I compare it 
with these two genera as being, in this subfamily, the most fami- 
liar to entomologists. But it is quite distinct from both ; and, like 
many other genera I have proposed in these " Contributions," it 
is only as an approximation in aid of the systematist that I ven- 
ture to do so. In this immense family of Curculionidae there are 
so many modifications of a common form, which, once seen, is 
never mistaken for any other, that it becomes almost impos- 
sible to fix the limits in many instances either of genera or of 
species ; and their affinities will frequently depend solely on the 
relative degrees of importance that may be attached to certain 
characters ; and these characters again will have a generic, or 
even a tribual, importance in some cases, and only an indivi- 
dual importance in others. 



EXPLANATION OP THE PLATES. 

Plato I. 

Fig. 1. Ekmo*capAa StatnUmi; a, side view of the head. 

2. verrucosa. 

3. sdlata. 

4. a, head of RMnoscapha carinata. 

5. Odosyllis congesta ; a, fore leg. 

6. Perrhabius epkippiger ; a, side view of the head. 

7. Ort&orkmus palmari*. 

8. Zeneudss sterculia ; a, antenna. 

9. BerotirispicticoUu; a, hind leg. 

10. BracAycerus turmo. 

11. CydotU t ku* solutus ; a, side view of the head. 

12. tyamobokt* tubseOatuB. 

13. Side view of the head of Endytnia geminata ; a, antenna. 

14. Front view of the head of Imackra ruficoOit ; a, side view. 
10. Fore leg of PeUpkicus stigmaticu*. 

Plato n. 

Fig. 1. Poiycreta metrica ; a, side view of the head. 
2. Talaurinus Unuipes; a, side view of the head. 



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78 ICE. 7. P. PA800E OX THE CUBOVLIOKIBJB. 

Fig. 3. Aoantholophua gladiator ; a, sido view of the head. 

4. Alexirhea notata ; a, side view of the head. 

5. Myotrotus obtuaua; a, side view of the head. 

6. Anaacoptea muricatua; a, side view of the head. 

7. Talaurinus capito ; a, front view of the head. 

8. lavicolUa ; a, front view of the head. 

9. Molochtus gagates ; a, front view of the head ; b, side view. 

10. Chriotyphus acromialia ; a, side view of the head. 

11. Sclerorhinua tessellatua; a, front view of the head. 

12. Side view of the head of Cubicorhynchua cichlodes. 

Plato m. 

Fig. 1. Lystrus sculptipcnnis ; a, side view of the head. 

2. Egiona lata. 

3. (Ebriua luteicornia. 

4. Metanthia pyritosa ; a, side view of the head. 
6. Ochyrotftera dimmiUs. 

6. Euopa ditriaa. 

7. Themeropis fimbriate ; a, side view of the head ; b t fore leg. 

8. Laodia niveopicta ; a, side view of the head. 

9. Cenchrma fasciata ; a, side view of the head ; b, hind leg. 

10. Simocopis umbrinus ; a, side view of the head ; b, front view. 

11. Jcythopeus tristis ; a, side view of the head. 

12. CynetMa inUrrupta ; a, side view of the head. 

13. Titkene nUerocephaia ; a, side view of the head; b, fore tibia and 

tarsus. 

14. Hind tarsus of Ofhippia podagrica. 

15. Scape and side view of the head of Myctides barbatua. 

16. Hind leg of Thechia pygnuta. 

17. Scape and side view of the head of Jcythopeus bigeminattu. 

18. Side view of the head of Ipaickora cupido. 

19. Side view of the head and first two joints of the antenna of Euopa 

Jekelii. 

Plate IV. 
Fig. 1. Zetheua electilia. 

2. Prodiocte* quinarius. 

3. Peripkemua retroraua; a, side view of the head. 

4. Tyndide* pustulosis ; a, side view of the head. 

5. Cereidocerus hiapidulua. 

6. nervoaua ; a, antenna. 

7. Diathetea ruficoUis. 

8. Megaproctua pugionatua ; a, side view of the head. 

9. Poteriophorua eongeatua. 

10. Autonopia Uneota ; a, side view of the head ; b, hind tarsus. 

11. Laogtnia aorex ; a, side view of the head. 

12. Antenna of Cereidocerus indicator. 



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MB. P. P. PA800B OF THB CUEOULIOK1DJI. 79 

Pig. 13. Parte of the stem*, between the anterior and intermediate cox*, of 
Baryststku* ateri a, prosternal prooess; b t c, parts of presternum 
alightlj overlapping the anterior ooiae ; d, meaoeternum ; e, gibboua 
anterior portion of metaaternum. 



The following is a systematic list of the species published in 
the four parts of these " Contributions." 

BBACHTDBRIMJk 

Ottiatira, n. g., xi. p. 440. 

bispinosa, J. e. p. 440. PI. X. fig. 6. Dorey ; Aru; Myaol 5 Waigioa ; 

Amboyna. 
bicornia, /. e. p. 441 New Guinea. 

— planidoraia, /. c. p. 441 Batchian ; Amboyna. 

— ocularis, I. c. p. 441 Singapore. 

pulcheila, l. e. p. 441 Morty ; Macaaaar. 

— leucogenya, L c. p. 442 Sula. 

gibboea, I. c. p. 442 Malacca. 

naao, L c. p. 442 Flores; Menado. 

pun ct a t a, /. c. p. 442 Tondano. 

Mitophorua vittatua, xi. p. 154 White Nile. 

Rhadinosomus impreasus, x. p. 448 Western Australia. 

— Lacordairei, I. c. p. 449 Queensland. 

Ochrometa, n. g., x. p. 449. 

amcena, /. c. p. 450. PL XVU. fig. 6. Western Australia. 

CKnassns, n. g., x. p. 470. 

sellifer, I c. p. 471. PI. XVIII. 

fig. 12 Old Calabar. 

Rhinoacapha basilica, xii. p. 1 Kaioa ; Gilolo ; Batchian ; Ma- 

kian ; Ternate ; Morty ; 

Dorey. 

— aulica, J.e.p.2 Batchian. 

Staintoni, /. c. p. 2. PL I. fig. 1 . . New Guinea. 

— formoaa, I. c. p. 2 Morty. 

alma, /. c. p. 3 Aru. 

opaleecens, /. c. p. 3 Waigiou ; My sol; Dorey. 

Terrucosa, I. c. p. 4. PL I. fig. 2 . . Matabello ; Goram ; Bourn ; 

Amboyna; Sula; Java* 

sellata, /. c. p. 4. PL I. fig. 3 .... Batchian. 

atolifera, L c. p. 4 Waigiou. 

miliaria, L c. p. 5 MyaoL 

carinata, /. 0. p. 5 Morty. 

Pachyrhyuchus argus, xi. p. 154. PL VL 

fig. 8 Philippine Islands. 



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80 MB. F. P. PABOOB OW THK CUBCULIONIDJB. 

Pachyrhynchus eongestus, xi. p. 165 .... Philippine Islands. 

cingulatus, /. c. p. 156 „ „ 

inclytus, /. c. p. 155 „ „ 

pinorum, /. e. p. 166 Luzon. 

Apocyrtus erosus, xi. p. 166 „ 

Wallacei, I.e. p. 156 Batchian. 

— satelles, I. c. p. 167 Kaioa ; Morty. 

nitidulus, I. e. p. 157 Waigiou ; Salwatty. 

Otiokhyncuinji. 

Siteytet glabratus, xi. p. 157 Saylee. 

Elytrurus caudatus, x. p. 471. PL XVIII. 

fig. 5 Fiji. 

Psidiopis, n. g., xi. p. 443. 

filicornis, /. c. p. 444 Amazons. 

Episomus fimbriatus, xi. p. 168 Sarawak. 

turritus, QyU. t I. e. p. 168 North China. 

iconicus, /. c. p. 168 Cambodia. 

Demenica, n. g., xi. p. 168. 

compressa, I. c. p. 159 West Africa. 

Bryochaeta, n. g., xi. p. 160. 

sufflata, L c. p. 160 Old Calabar. 

viridis, /. c. p. 160 „ „ 

pusilla, /. c. p. 161 West Africa. 

Eupiona, n. g., xi. p. 161. 

attalica, /. o. p. 161 Old Calabar. 

Antinia, n. g., xi. p. 161. 

eupleura, /. c. p. 161. PI. VI. fig. 3. Penang. 

Platyomicns pedestris, xi. p. 162. PL VI. 

fig.8 WestAfrica. 

cordipennis, /. c. p. 162 N'Gami. 

Cychrotonui, n. g., xi. p. 162. 

— > viduatus, /. o. p. 163 „ 

Zyrcosa, n. g., x. p. 438. 

Murrayi, /. c. p. 439. PL XVII. fig. 7- Old Calabar. 

Euphalia, n. g., x. p. 467. 

pardalis, I e. p. 468. PL XIX. 

fig. 14 Western Australia. 

Atmesia, n. g., x. p. 468. 

marginata, /. c. p. 469. PL XVIII. 

fig. 3 South Australia* 

glaucina, xi. p. 446 Western Australia. 

Proxyrus, n. g., x. p. 437. 

-abstersus,2.c.p.438.PLXVII.fig.8. Western Australia (Champion 

Bay). 



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MB. F. P. PASOOX OK THX CUECULIOHm*. 81 

Proxyrus lecideosus, I c. p. 438 Western Australia (Champion 

Bay). 
Cyrtozemia, n. g., xi. p. 443. 

dispar, I c. p. 443. PL X. fig. 9 . . India (Bombay). 

Telenica, n. g., xi. p. 444. 

sublimbata, /. c. p. 445 West Australia. 

nebulosa, /. c. p. 445 „ „ 

Timsreta, n. g., xi. p. 445. 

figurata, /. c. p. 446. PI. XII. &g. 8. Swan River (Fremantle> 

satellina, /. c. p. 446 Fremantle. 

Onychopoma, n. g., xi. p. 445. 

. parda, /. c. p. 445. PI. X. fig. 8 . . Coebin-China; Pegu. 

Erbmninjk. 

Aeantbotraehelus albus, xi. p. 447 Malabar. 

Platytrachelus chloris, x. p. 458 Western Australia. 

Lbptopinji. 

Onesorus, n. g., x. p. 483. 

maculosus, /. c. p. 483. PL XIX. 

fig. 13 Cape York. 

obesus, /. c. p. 483 Western Australia. 

ttgrinus, /. c. p. 483 ••.... Australia. 

candidus, /. c. p. 484 „ 

Lysizone, n. g., x. p. 485. 

alternata, /. c. p. 486 Western Australia. 

Cherrus silaceus, xi. p. 157 King George's Sound. 

punctipennis, /. c. p. 158 Swan River. 

Mastersii, /. e. p. 158. PI. VI. 

fig. 9 Ring George's Sound. 

Leptops colossus, x. p. 451 W. Australia (Champion Bay). 

Duboulayi, I. c. p. 452 Western Australia (Champion 

Bay). 

retusus, I. e. p. 452 Queensland. 

superciliaris, I. e. p. 452 „ 

dorsatus, L e. p. 453 West Australia. 

— acerbus, /. c. p. 453 Western Australia. 

poryacanthus, /. c. p. 453 Australia. 

ebeninus, /. c. p. 454 Queensland. 

Dystirus, n. g., xi. p. 447. 

strumosus, /. c. p. 447. PI. XIII. 

fig. 10 Mexico. 

Essolithna, n. g., x. p. 457. 

pluviata, /. c. p. 457. PI. XVIII. 

fig. 7 Western Australia (Nicol Bay). 

UKK. JOUEN. — ZOOLOGY, VOL. XII. 6 



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82 MB. F. P. PA8001 OK THE CTJBCFLIOlOD.aB. 

Essolithna rhombus, I o. p. 457 W. Australia (Champion Bay). 

Gyponychus, n. g., z. p. 485. 

porosus, L c. p. 485. PL XIX. 

fig. 10 Mozambique. 

Polyteles decussatus, x. p. 441. PI. XVII. 

fig. 1 Peru (Nauta). 

Entimui arrogans, li. p. 448 Panama. 

Deroimsea, n. g., x. p. 440. 

luctuoaa, /. c. p. 441. PI. XVII. fig. 3. Burmah. 

Esmelina, n. g., x. p. 484. 

flavovittata, I c. p. 484. PI. XIX. 

fig. 8 Queensland. 

Bracbycbrina. 

Brachycerus tursio, xii. p. 6. PL I. 

fig. 10 Damara Land. 

ByrsopinjB. 

Ixodicus, n. g., xi. p. 448. 

oeclusus, /. c. p. 448. PL XIII. fig. 8. Cape of Good Hope. 

sordidus, /. c. p. 448 „ „ 

Synthocus nigropictus, x. p. 463. PL XIX. 

fig. 1 1 Damara Land. 

adustus, /. o. p. 464 N'Gami. 

AMYCTBRINiB. 

Acantholophus nasicornis, xii. p. 6 West Australia. 

gladiator, J. c. p. 6. PL II. fig. 3 . . „ „ 

simplex, /. c. p. 7 „ „ 

Anascoptes, n. g., xii. p. 7. 

muricatus, I. c. p. 7* PL II. fig. 6. . Swan River. 

Polycreta, n. g., xii. p. 8. 

— metrics, /. c. p. 8. PL II. fig. 1 ... . Champion Bay. 

Sclerorhinus tssniatus, xii. p. 8 South Australia. 

molestus, I. c. p. 9 „ „ 

— marginatus, I.e. p. 9 „ „ 

echinops, /. c. p. 10 West Australia. 

meliceps, /. c. p. 10 Queensland. 

Talaurinus victor, xii. p. 10 South Australia. 

— funereus, /. c. p. 1 1 West Australia. 

pustulatus, /. e. p. 11 „ „ 

— carbonarius, I. e. p. 12 „ „ 

phrynos, /. c. p. 12 Queensland. 

molossus, /. c. p. 13 West Australia. 



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MB. F. P. PASCOE ON THE CVBOTTLIOHTDA 88 

Ttlaurinus melanopsis, /. c. p. 13 West Australia. 

simulator, /. c. p. 13 „ „ 

Macleayi, /. c. p. 14 King George's Sound. 

encaustus, /. c. p. 14 „ „ „ 

tenuipes,*. c. p. 15. PI. II. fig. 2. . Swan River. 

tessellatus, /. <?. p. 15 West Australia. 

geniculates, /. c. p. 16 „ „ 

lemmas, /. c. p. 16 „ „ 

pupa, J. c. p. 16 

cariosus, /. <?. p. 16 „ „ 

eapito, /. c. p. 17. PI. II. fig. 7 Champion Bay. 

lsYicollis, I. c. p. 17. PI. II. ^g. 8. Victoria. 

Molochtus, n. g., xii. p. 18. 

gagates, L c. p. 18. PI. II. fig. 9 . . West Australia. 

Cubicorhynchus cichlodes, xii. p. 18 . . . . „ „ 

sterilis, L c. p. 19 Victoria. 

Chriotyphus, n. g., xii. p. 19. 

acromialis, I. c. p. 19. PI. II. 

fig. 10 Western Australia (Champion 

Bay). 
Alexirhea, n. g., xii. p. 19. 

notata, I. c. p. 20. PI. II. fig. 4 . . West Australia. 

aurita, I. c. p. 20 „ „ 

falsifies* /. c. p. 21 Western Australia (Champion 

Bay). 
Myotrotus, n. g., xii. p. 22. 

obtnsus, /. c. p. 22. PI. II. fig. 5 . . Queensland (Rockhampton). 

Euomus retusus, xi. p. 449. PI. XII. 

fig. 12 Western Australia. 

Dialeptopus serricollis, xi. p. 449 „ „ 

granulatus, I c. p. 449 „ „ 

plantaris, /. c. p. 449. PI. XII. 

6g. H 

RHYPAR080MIN.*. 

Geobyrsa, n. g., xi. p. 450. 

nodifera, I. c. p. 450. PI. XIII. 

fig. 1 Nicaragua (Chontales). 

Ophryota, n. g., xi. p. 451. 

squamibunda, /. c. p. 451 South Australia (Port Au- 
gusta). 
Zephryne, n. g., x. p. 471. 
sordida, /. c. p. 472. PI. XIX. 

fig. 12 Australia. 

Dysostines, n. g. t x. p. 472. 

6* 



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84 MB. P. P. PA8C0E OK THE CUECUUONIDJE. 

Dysostines valgus, I. e. p. 473. PI. XIX. 

fig. 1 Queensland. 

MolytinjB. 

Tipbaura, n. g., xi. p. 164. 

funerea, /. c. p. 164. PI. VI. fig. 10. Para. 

SCYTHROPINiB. 

Cataehaenus scintillans, xii. p. 22 Philippine Islands. 

Eugnathus brac'eatus, xii. p. 23 Tsusima. 

chloroticus, /. c. p. 23 Formosa ; North China. 

GoNIPTERlNiB. 

Oxyops aulicus, x. p. 479 Queensland. 

concretus, /. c. p. 479 New South Wales. 

crassirostris, /. c. p. 480 Champion Bay. 

iurasus, /. c. p. 480 Queensland. 

bilunaris, I. c. p. 480 Gawler. 

■ vitiosus, I. c. p. 481 Queensland. 

gemellus, /. c. p. 481 Western Australia. 

marginalia, /. c. p. 481 Queensland. 

arciferua, /. c. p. 481 „ 

arctatus, /. c. p. 482 South Australia (Adelaide). 

Bryachus, n. g., x. p. 478. 

— iquamicoliis, /. c. p. 479 Queensland ; Western Aus- 
tralia; South Australia. 

Gonipterus ferrugatus, x. p. 477 Queensland. 

cinnamomeus, /. c. p. 477 „ 

balteatus, /. c. p. 477 South Australia. 

aepulchralis, /. c. p. 478 „ „ 

cionoides, /. c. p. 478 South Australia ; New South 

Wales. 
Styanax, n. g., xi. p. 164. 
carbonarius, /. c. p. 165. PI. IX. 

fig. 4 Sumatra. 

Pantoreites, n. g., x. p. 462. 

virgatus, /. c. p. 463. PI. XVIII. 

fig. 4 South Australia. 

scenicus, /. c. p. 463 New South Wales. 

vittatus, xi. p. 451 Australia. 

Hyperixa. 

Saginesis, n. g., xi. p. 452. 

latif ennis, /. <?. p. 452. PI. X. fig. 4. Am. 



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MB. F. P. FA8C01 OK TH1 CUBOULIOHIDJi. 86 

ATBBPINA. 

Aparete, n. g., xi. p. 165. 

palpebrosa, I. e. p. 166 South Australia. 

Dexagia,n. g., xi. p. 166. 

superciliaris, L c. p. 166. PI. 711. 

fig. 2 Batchian. 

Hypermetra, n. g., xi. p. 167. 

analis, /. c. p. 167. PI. IX. fig. 5 . . Mysol. 

Medicasta, n. g., x. p. 441. 

leucura, /. c. p. 442. PI. XVII. 

fig. 1 1 W. Australia (Champion Bay). 

Rhinoplethes, n. g., x. p. 469. 

foveatut, /. o. p. 469 West Australia. 

Iphisaxus, n. g., x. p. 469. 

asper, /. c. p. 470. PL XIX. fig. 7- . „ 

Hylobiinji. 

Paepalosomus zonatus*, xi. p. 168 Batchian ; Morty ; Gilolo ; 

Ceram ; Kaioa ; Key ; Aru ; 

Dorey ; Saylee. 
Hylobius fasciatus, xi. p. 168. PI. VII. 

fig. 9 Morty ; Batchian ; Ceram. 

notatus, I. c. p. 169 Java ; Sarawak. 

scrofa, I. c. p. 169 Sarawak. 

rubidus, I. c. p. 169 „ 

papulosus, /. c. p. 170 Java. 

aphya, I. c. p. 170 India. 

Ectinura, n. g., xi. p. 170. 

brenthoides, /. c. p. 171. PI. VII. 

fig. 10 „ ? 

Scolithui, n. g., xi. p. 171. 

acuminatus, /. c. p. 172. PI. VII. 

fig. 8 Sarawak. 

Aclees porotus, xi. p. 172 Sarawak ; Batchian ; Kaioa; 

Ceram; Morty; Bourn; 

Amboyna; Matabello; Ter- 

nate ; Aru ; Dorey ; Saylee. 
Gyllenhallii, /. c. p. 172 Waigiou ; Amboyna. 



• M. Jekel oonsiders this species to be a variety of P. dealbatus, Boisd.,- 
inseot known to Schonherr, Lacordaire, and others as P. dealbatusy Boisd., being 
specifically and generically distinct ; and the genus he has named Pmpalophoru* 
(Ann. Soc Bnt de Fr. 1873, p. 433 et teq.). My numerous specimens of both 
species scarcely vary, except from abrasion. 



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86 ICE. *. P. PABOOE ON THE CUBCULIOHIDA. 

Seleuca, n. g., xi. p. 173. 

amicta, /. c. p. 173. PI. IX. fig. 7- • Singapore. 

leucospila, /. c. p. 173 Singapore ; Penang ; Sarawak. 

Niphades, n. g., xi. p. 174. 

pardalotus, l. c. p. 174. PL IX. 

fig. 8 Sarawak. 

costatus, Z. c. p. 174 Aru ; Batchian; Macassar. 

Ozoctenes, n. g., xi. p. 174. 

jubatus, /. c. p. 175. PL IX. fig. 3. Amazons (Ega). 

Cechides, n. g., xi. p. 453. 

amoenus, /. e. p. 453. PL XII. fig. 7. West Australia (Champion 

Bay). 
Cycotida, n. g., xi. p. 453. 

lineata, I c. p. 454. PL XII. fig. 6. West Australia. 

Orthorhinuspalmaris,xii. p. 23. PL I. fig. 7. Ceram. 

arrogans, I. c. p. 23 Ceram ; Amboyna ; Bouru. 

£RlRBININi£. 

Nemestra, n. g., xi. p. 454. 

ineerta, /. c. p. 455. PL XII. fig. 5. West Australia (Fremantle). 

Nedyleda, n. g., xi. p. 455 and xii. p. 76. 
semiusta, I. c. p. 455. PL XII. 

fig. 9 West Australia. 

Orichora, n. g., x. p. 486. 

trivirgata, /. c. p. 486. PL XIX. 

fig. 3 Ring George's Sound. 

Cenchrena, n. g., xii. p. 24. 

fasciata, I c. p. 24. PL III. fig. 9 . . Aru ; Waigiou. 

poecila, /. c. p. 24 Batchian. 

suturalis, /. c. p. 25 . Sula. 

Thechia, n. g., xii. p. 25. 

pygmsea, I. c. p. 25 Champion Bay. 

Peliobia, n. g., xi. p. 4fiS. 

geniculata, /. c. p. 457. PL XIII. 

fig. 3 Ecuador (Macas). 

Tithene, n. g., xii. p. 25. 

microcephala, /. c. p. 26. PL III. 

fig. 13 Sarawak. 

OXYCORYNINJB. 

Metrioxena, n. g., x. p. 442. 

serricoUis, /. c. p. 443. PL XVII. 

fig. 10 Macassar. 

subvittata, lii. p. 26 „ 



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11K. P. P. PAJBCOX OH THK CVBCUUONIDJL 87 

BlUNiB. 

Dicordylus pupillatus*, xL p. 1 75. PL VI. 

fig. 1 Chili. 

luctuosus, Z. c. p. 176 „ 

amoenus, /. c. p. 176 »> 

Belus anguineus, xi. p. 457 West Australia (Nicol Bay). 

aphthosus, /. c. p. 457 South Australia. 

farinarius, /. c. p. 458 West Australia. 

acicularis, L c. p. 458 West Australia (Albany). 

parallelus, /. c. p. 458. PL XII. 

fig. 10 W. Australia (Champion Buy) 

plagiatus, x. p. 475 Queensland. 

linearis, /. c. p. 475 „ 

serpens, L c. p. 475 West Australia. 

— Wallacei, xii. p. 26 Aru. 

inornatus, xii. /. c. p. 27 Mysol ; Morty. 

EuRHYNCHIN.fi. 

Ctenaphides, n. g., x. p. 476. 

porceUus, L c. p. 477. PL XVIII. 

fig. 10 Western Australia. 

Cyrotyphus, n. g., x. p. 445. 

(ascicularis, L c. p. 445. PL XVIL 

fig. 5 South Australia (Gawler). 

Agnesiotis, n. g., x. p. 474. 

pilosula, /. c. p. 474. PL XVIII. 

fig. 6 Queensland. 

ATTKLABINJt. 

Euops coelestina, xii. p. 27 New Guinea (Dorey). 

Tiolacea, Z. c. p. 27 Ceram. 

plicata, /. c. p. 28 Macassar. 

* Some species of Dicordylus were first published by Philippi in 1859, in the 
* Anales de la Unirersidad de Chile ' (a work apparently unnoticed by recent 
writers), and referred by him to Bhinotia. From this it follows that Dicordylus 
itkyceroides, Lac, must yield to D. binotatus, Phil., and D, keilipoides, Lao., to 
D. marmoratus, Phil., also my D. pupillatus to D. annulifer, Phil There is 
also, I understand, a little pamphlet of half-a-dozen pages or so, published by 
Fairmaire and Germain, which I hare not seen, but which is quoted in the Munich 
Catalogue as " Col. Chil. 1860." They describe four species of Homalocerus, 
referrible probably to Dicordylus ; and that their albidovarius is marmoratus, 
their argus=>annulifer, their baU*atus=binotatus is probable ; and tkeir arewt- 
situs may be my amanus. If this be so, D. luctuosus is the only one of the 
shore three species which will stand. 



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88 MB. T. P. PASCO! OK TH1 0UB0ULIOK1D.S. 

Euops trigeramata, Z. c. p. 28 Batchian; Dorey. 

serosa, /. c. p. 28 Batchian ; Sarawak ; Sula. 

clavigera, Z. c. p. 28 Queensland. 

eucalypti, /. c. p. 28 Queensland (Gayndah). 

amethystina, /. c. p. 29 Singapore. 

divisa, /. c. p. 29 Dorey ; Saylee ; Batchian ; 

Mysol. 
Jekelii, /. c. p. 29 Aru; Dorey; Salwatty; Wai- 

giou; Amboyna. 

BfilNOMACSRlRS. 

Agilaus, n. g., xi. p. 176. 

pedestris, /. c. p. 177- PI. VII. 

fig. 11 Sarawak. 

ScoloptbrikjB. 

Nyxetes, n. g., for Curculio bidens, Fab. 9 
x. p. 456. 

ErODISCINjR. 

Atenistes*sToxeutes,/$cA0ii. necAfaem. 

— longirostris, x. p. 464 Brazil. 

denticollis, /. c. p. 465, PI. XIX. fig. 6. „ 

Erodiscus analis, x. p. 465 „ 

ANTUONOMINiB. 

lmachra, n. g., xii. p. 30. 

ruficollis, Z. c. p. 30 Sarawak. 

CRRATOPODINjR. 

Polydus, n. g., xi. p. 459. 

dumosus, /. c. p. 459. PI. XIII. 

fig. 4 Brazil (Bahia). 

Prionomkrinjr. 

Ectyrsus, n. g., xi. p. 177. 

villosus, /. c. p. 178. PI. VII. 

fig. 5 Brazil (Rio). 

Themeropis, n. g., xii. p. 30. 

fimbriata, /. c. p. 31. PL III. fig. 7* Amazons. 

Ochyromera, n. g., xii. p. 31. 

dissimilis, I o. p. 31. PI. III. fig. 3. Sarawak. 

rufescens, /. c. p. 32 Singapore. 

* Ludovir, Oast, has priority. 



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MB. T. P. PASCOS OK THE CUECUUOKIDJi. 89 

Zekma, n. g., xL p. 179. 

pnkheUa, /. c. p. 1/9. PL VII. 

fig. 6 Sarawak. 

Synnada, n. g., xiL p. 32. 

currucula, L c. p. 32 Macassar. 

Nyduonuna*, n. g., xi. p. 456. 

testacca, 2. c p. 456 Sarawak. 

Omphasus, n. g., xi p. 178. 

s2ratoa,J.c.p.l78. PLVn.fig.12. 

Tychiina. 

Zephiantha, n. g., xiL p. 33. 

pubipennis, I. c. p. 33 Sumatra. 

LKMOSACCIN.S. 

Lsemoaaceus notatus, xi. p. 180. PL VI. 

fig. 4 Queensland ; King George's 

Sound. 

electiKs, /. c. p. 180 Australia. 

catenatus, L c. p. 180 Queensland. 

peccuarius, I c. p. 180 South Australia. 

ustulus, /. c. p. 181 Victoria (Melbourne). 

brevipennis, x. p. 439 Queensland. 

tantalus, L c. p. 439 W. Australia (Champion Bay). 

synopticus, /. c. p. 440 Queensland. 

Alcidik*. 

Alcides Saundersii, x. p. 459. PL XIX. 

fig. 4 Siam. 

msgicus, 1. c. p. 460 Cambogia. 

delta, I. c. p. 460 Ceylon ; Ceram ; Amboyoa. 

- — trifidus, I. c. p. 460 North China; Japan ; Mant- 

churia. 

ligatus, L c. p. 461 Java. 

discedens, /. c. p. 461 Singapore ; Sarawak. 

asphaltinus, L c. p. 461 Batchian ; Gilolo. 

Semperi, I c. p. 462 Philippine Islands. 

magister, xi. p. 181. PL IX. fig. 9. Am. 

fastuosus, /. c. p. 182 Sarawak. 

auritus, /. c. p. 182. PL IX. fig. 11. Cochinchina. 

erro, /. c. p. 182 China. 

micronychus, /. c. p. 183 Cochinchina. 

frontalis, /. c. p. 183 Morty ; Batchian. 

* Erroneously placed in Erirhininie. 



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90 ME. F. P. PA8COE OK TUB OUBCULIOKIDJi. 

Haplonychinm. 

Haplonyx myrrhatus, x. p. 488 South Australia. 

— ustipennis, /. c. p. 488 Sydney. 

dotatus, /. c. p. 488 West Australia. 

lucius, I. c. p. 489 Champion Bay. 

vestigialis, /. c. p. 489 Queensland. 

fallaciosus, L c. p. 489 „ 

maialis, I. c. p. 490 „ 

scolopax, /. c. p. 490 „ 

ericeus, /. c. p. 490 South Australia. 

venosus, /. c. p. 491 Oawler. 

centralis, /. c. p. 491 „ 

cionoides, /. c. p. 491 „ 

turtur, /. c. p. 492 „ 

Syarbis sciurus, x. p. 444 Western Australia. 

gonipteroides, /. c. p. 444 „ 

Aolles, n. g., x. p. 450. 

rubiginosus, p. 451 „ 

nuceus, /. c. p. 451 „ 

Zeopus, n. g., xi. p. 460. 

storeoides, /. c. p. 460 South Australia. 

Metatyges cupreus, x. p. 443 Gold Coast. 

MbNBMACHINjB. 

Acicnemis pardalis, xi. p. 460 Java ; Batchian. 

subsignata, /. c. p. 461 Madras. 

peduncularis, /. c. p. 461 Singapore ; Sarawak ; Java. 

frenata, /. c. p. 461 Sarawak. 

meriones, /. c. p. 462. PI. X. fig. 5. . Batchian. 

palliata, /. c. p. 462 Japan. 

pachymera, /. c. p. 462 Laos. 

brevipeniiis, /. c. p. 463 Batchian ; Amboyna. 

Berethia, n. g., xi. p. 463. 

medinotata, /. c. p. 463. PI. X. fig. 3. Ceram. 

sannio> /. c. p. 463. PI. X. fig. 2 „ 

Semelima, n. g., xi. p. 464. 

triangulum, /. c. p. 464. PL X.fig. 1. Sarawak. 

Cholinjs. 

Cholus pulchellus, xi. p. 464 Cayenne. 

— ■ — aemulua, /. c. p. 465 Amazons. 

brominus, /. c. p. 466 Peru (Quito). 

uniformis, I. e. p. 466 Para. 

nivosus, /. c. p. 466 New Granada. 



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MS. F. P. PA8CO£ OK THE CUKCULIOKIDJL 91 

Cholus atomarius, /. c. p. 466 Venezuela. 

delumbia, /. c. p. 467 Ecuador (Macas). 

bufonius, /. c. p. 467 Amazons. 

calamita, /. c. p. 467 Brazil. 

sycophanta, I c. p. 468 New Granada. 

mimetea, I. c. p. 468 Nicaragua (Chontalet). 

curiaha, L c. p. 468 „ „ 

fidnatua, /. c. p. 469 „ „ 

— — nitidicollia, L c. p. 469 Bogota. 

Buckleyi, /. c. p. 469. PI. XI. fig. 3. Ecuador (Canales). 

- hasmatostictus, /. c. p. 469 Bogota. 

lecideosut, /. c. p. 470 Nicaragua (Chontalet). 

notabilis, /. c. p. 470. PI. XI. fig. 1 . . Amazoni. 

pnetorins, L c. p. 470. PI. XI. fig. 2. Panama. 

Erethiates, n. g., xu p. 471. 

lencotpilus, I. c. p. 471 Cayenne. 

licheneua, /. c. p. 471. PI. XI. fig. 6. Ecuador (Sarayacu). 

ochrhrentris, /. c. p. 472 Veneiuela (Santa Marta). 

coDgestus, /. c. p. 472 „ „ 

Ansnomus, n. g., xi. p. 472. 

rubigmeus, /. c. p. 472. PI. XI. fig. 5. Brazil 

Aatyage, n. g., xi. p. 473. 

lineigera, /. c. p. 473. PI. XI. 

fig.8 „ 

Ozopherus, n. g., xi. p. 473. 

muricatus, /. c. p. 474. PI. XI. fig. 9. Amazoni (Para) ; Cayenne. 

Ne«dut, n. g., xi. p. 474. 

bifittatua, /. c. p. 474. PI. XI. fig. 7. Amazons. 

Callinotus microtpilotut, /. c. p. 474 Brazil. 

Solenopus bilineatus, I. c. p. 475 Cayenne ; Mexico. 

transversalis,/.cp475. PL XI. fig. 4. Brazil. 

Cryptaspis, n. g., xi. p. 476. 

amplicollit, L c. p. 476. PL XI. 

fig. 10 New Granada. 

Cryptobhynchinjs. 
(Itbyporidei vraia, Lac.). 

Ectatorhinus Adamsii, xi. p. 478 Tsusima (Japan). 

femoratus, I c. p. 478. PL X. 

fig. 10 Sarawak. 

Colobodes nodulosus, xi. p. 485 Batchian. 

faaciculatus, /. c. p. 485. PL X. 

fig. 7 Amboyna. 

Perrhasbiua, n. g., xii. p. 34. 



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92 MB. F. P. PA8C0E OK THE CUBOULIOITIDJt. 

Perrbaebius epbippiger, /. c. p. 34. PL I. 

fig. 6 Dorey ; Aru ; Macassar ; 

Morty. 

Mitrepborus capucinus, xi. p. 185 Brazil. 

albifrons, /. c. p. 186 „ 

(Psepbolacidei, Lac). 
Glecbinus, n. g., xi. p. 184. 
talpa, /. c p. 184 New Caledonia. 

(Strongylopterides, Lac). 
Inozetes, n. g., xi. p. 479. 

petecbialis, /. c. p. 479. PI. X. fig. 11 . Batchian. 

Osaeteria, n. g., xi. p. 479. 

Scutellaria, /. c. p. 480 New Guinea. 

Therebus, n. g., xi. p. 480. 

cepuroidea, /. c. p. 480 Western Australia. 

(Guioperides, Lac). 
Guioperus variolosus, x. p. 456. PI. XVIII. 

fig. 2 Columbia. 

- subpalliatua, /. c. p. 456 Cayenne. 

eques, xi. p. 476 Nicaragua (Cbontales). 

(Ocladiides, Lac). 
Ocladius Barani, xii. p. 35 Syria. 

(Sopbrorhinidea, Lac). 
Metrania, n. g., xi. p. 481. 

palliata, /. c. p. 482. PI. XIII. 

fig. 1 1 Cayenne. 

(Camptorhinides, Lac). 
Pachyonyx araneosua, xii. p. 34 Cocbinchina. 

Gen. incertae sedis. 
Diaphna, n. g., x. p. 445. 

signata, /. c p. 446. PI. XVII. 

fig. 4 Natal. 

acutipennis, /. c p. 446 „ 

iosus, n. g., xi. p. 184. 

aridus, /. c. p. 185. PL VIII. fig. 10. Dorey; Saylee; Ceram. 

(Tylodidea, Lac). 
biua, n. g., xi. p. 186. 
verrucosus, /. c p. 186. PL VIII. 
fig. 9 Waigiou. 



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MB. F. P. PA.SCOE ON THE CUBCULIONID.B. »o 

Erebaces, n. g., xi. p. 187. 

angulatus, /. c. p. 18?. PI. VIII. 

fig. 8 Batchian. 

pleuricausta, I. c. p. 187 Morty. 

Poropterus exitiosus, xi. p. 189 Queensland. 

— — ellipticus, /. c. p. 189 » New South Wales (Illawarra). 

Waterhousei, I. c. p. 189 Queensland. 

morbillosus, /. c. p. 190 Tasmania. 

flexuosus, /. c. p. 190 South Australia. 

mastoideus, /. c. p. 190 Batchian. 

approximates, /. c. p. 191 Kaioa. 

hariolus, J. c. p. 191. PL VIL fig. /. Queensland. 

sphacelates, /. c. p. 191 „ 

verres, J. c. p. 192 » 

porrigineus, /. c. p. 483 Victoria. 

musculus, /. c. p. 483 Tasmania. 

bisignatus, /, c. p. 484 Moreton Bay. 

foveipennis, I c. p. 484 New South Wales (Illawarra). 

Hexymus, n. g., xi. p. 188. 

tuberosus, /. c. p. 188. PL VII. fig. 3. Queensland. 

monachus, I c. p. 485 Queensland (Rockhampton). 

Petosiris cordipennis, xi. p. 486. PL XII. 

fig. 3 „ 

Salcus, n. g., x. p. 447. 

globosus, /. e. p. 448. PL XVII. 

fig. 2 Cape York. 

Imalithus, n. g., x. p. 465. 

patella, I c. p. 466. PL XIX. fig. 2. Queensland. 

(Cryptorhynchides vrais, Lac). 

Zeneudes, n. g., xu. p. 35. 

sterculia?, /. c. p. 36. PL 1. fig. 8. Queensland (Gayndah). 

Cyamobolus bicinctus, xii. p. 36 Malacca. 

— subsellatus, /. c. p. 36. PL I. fig. 12. Saylee. 

duplicates, /. c. p. 37 » • » 

Cydostethus, n. g., xii. p. 37. 

solutes, /. c. p. 38. PL I. fig. 11 . . Ceram. 

lineolatus, /. c. p. 38 Amboyna; Tondano. 

Syrotelus, n. g., for Cyamobolus Falleni, 
Boh., xii. p. 38. 

Eutbyrhinus navicularis, x. p. 455 Western Australia. 

iconicus, xi. p. 477 Mysol. 

pictes, /. c. p. 477. PL X. fig. 12 . . Singapore. 

Cechania, n. g., xii. p. 38. 



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94 ME. P. P. PASCOB OK THE CUBCULIOiaDJS. 

Cechania eremita, Z, c. p. 39 Japan (Nagasaki). 

JSchtnura, n. g., xii. p. 39. 

emys, I. c. p. 39 . . Singapore, 

Orochlesis, n. g., xi. p. 194. 

annularis, /. c. p. 195. PI. VIII. 

fig. 2 , . Dorey ; Batchian ; Penang. 

solea, /. c. p. 195 Batchian. 

flesina, /. c. p. 195 # Aru. 

maculosa, xii. p. 40 Salwatty. 

Odosyllis, n. g., xii. p. 40. 

congesta, /. c. p. 40. PL I. fig. 5 . . Tondano. 

atoroaria, Z. c. p. 41 Singapore. 

granulicollis, /. c. p. 41 Tondano. 

vitiosa, /. c. p. 41 Wagiou ; Saylee. 

terrena, I. c. p. 41 Menado. 

irrorata, I. c. p. 42 Saylee. 

Pelephicus, n. g., xii. p. 42. 

stigmaticus, /. c. p. 42 „ 

Axionicus, n. g., x. p. 455. 

insignis, /. c. p. 455. PI. XVIII. 

fig. 8 Queensland. 

Orphanistes, n. g., x. p. 454. 

eustictus, L c. p. 454. PI. XVIII. 

H-9 

Perissops, n. g., xi. p. 193. 

mundus, /. c. p. 194 „ 

iliacus, I. e. p. 194 Gilolo ; Dorey ; Aru ; My sol. 

Platytenes, n. g., x. p. 466. 

varius, /. c. p. 467. PL XVIII. fig. 1. Aru ; Macassar; Key ; Gi- 
lolo; Batchian; Waigiou; 
Ternate. 
Apries, n. g., xi. p. 196. 

eremita, /. c. p. 196. PL IX. fig. 6. Batchian. 

palliatus, /. c. p. 196 Saylee. 

Aonychus lineatus, x. p. 443 West Australia. 

luctuosus, xi. p. 477. PL XII. fig. I. „ „ 

Zeugenia, n. g., xi. p. 197. 

histrio, /. c. p. 198. PL VIII. fig. 11 . Sarawak. 

histrionica, /. c. p. 198 Penang. 

figurata, /. c. p. 197 Sarawak. 

Omydaus, n. g., xi. p. 198. 

plinthoides, /. c. p. 199 New South Wales (Illawarra). 

Metyrus, n. g., xi. p. 482. 

collaris, I. c. p. 482. PL XII. fig. 4 . . West Australia. 

Endymia»n. g., xi. p. 199. 



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MB. F. P. PA8C0K ON THE CUBCULIONID^. 95 

Endymia vipio, /. c. p. 200. PI. VIII. fig. 5 Batchian; Dorey. 

geminata, xii. p. 43 Batchian. 

Panopides, n. g., zi. p. 200. 

anticua, I. c. p. 201. PI. VIII. fig. 4. Tondano. 

Glyphagia, n. g., xi. p. 201. 

insculpta, /. c. p. 201 Batchian. 

Sybulus, n. g., xi. p. 202. 

peccuarius, Z. c. p. 202 „ 

incensua, /. c. p. 202 Singapore. 

Rebius, n. g., xi. p. 203. 

latifasciatus, /. c. p. 203. PI. VIII. 

fig. 3 Tondano. 

Diatasaa,n. g., xi. p. 192. 

phalerata, I c. p. 193. PI. IX. fig. 2. Mysol. 

Necbyrus, n. g., xi. p. 203. 

lemur, Z. c. p. 204. PL VIII. ^. 7. Amboyna ; Goram ; Batchian. 

puncticollis, /. c. p. 204 Am ; Saylee. 

ruidus, /. c. p. 205 Batchian. 

geniculatus, I. c. p. 205 Mysol. 

paniscus, /. c. 205 Amboyna. 

notatui, /. c. p. 206 Saylee. 

funebris, I. c. p. 206 Batchian. 

porcatua, /. c. p. 206 Ceram. 

satyrus, /. c. p. 207 Gilolo. 

Beroairis, n. g., xii. p. 43. 

picticollw, I c. p. 43. PI. I. fig. 9 . . Sarawak. 

violatus, I. c. p. 44 Java. 

cribratus, I. c. p. 44 Sarawak. 

hepaticus, /. c. p. 44 Tondano. 

devotui, /. c. p. 44 Goram. 

iEsychora, n. g., xi. p. 209. 

notaticollis, /. c. p. 210 Sarawak. 

Syrichiua, n. g., xi. p. 207. 

roridui, /. c. p. 207 Kaioa. 

dissipatus, /. c. p. 208 Morty. 

frontalis, /. c. p. 208 Bouru ; Ceram. 

proletarius, /. c. p. 208 Matabello ; Gilolo. 

semilus, /. c. p. 208 Dorey. 

Nedymora, n. g., xi. p. 209. 

Tentricosa, /. e. p. 209. PI. VIII. 

fig. I Am. 

(Mecistostylides, Lac.). 

Protopalus cristatus, x. p. 448 Queensland. 

Blepiarda voluta, xi. p. 210 Dorey : Salwatty. 



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96 MR. F. P. PASCOS ON THJC CUBCULIONTD*. 

Blepiarda vitiata, /. c. p. 210 Am. 

neophyta, Z. c. p. 211 Dorey. 

Amalthus, n. g., xi. p. 211. 

insignia, /. c. p. 212. PI. VII. &%. 4. Morty. 

Doetes, n. g., xi. p. 212. 

albo-pictus, /. c. p. 212. PI. VIII. - 

fig. 6 Goram. 

(Sympiezoscelides, Lac,). 

Amydala, n. g., xi. p. 213. 

abdominalis, /. c. p. 213. PI. VI. 

fig. 11 Queensland. 

Zygopinjg. 

Latychus, n. g., xi. p. 486. 

rivulosus, /. c. p. 486. PI. XIII. 

fig. 9 Brazil. 

Hedycera, n. g., x. p. 457. 

megamera, /. c. p. 457. PI. XVIII. 

fig. 11 Cayenne. 

Chirozetes, n. g., x. p. 447. 

pectorosus, /. c. p. 447. PI. XVII. 

fig. 9 Cambodia. 

Agametis, n. g., x. p. 473. 

festiva, /. c. p. 474. PI. XIX. fig. 6. Sarawak ; Ceram ; Batchian; 

Ainboyna. 

Tachygoninjs. 

Ixalina, n. g., xi. p. 214. 

rufescens, /. c. p. 214. PI. IX. fig. 1. Singapore. 

I80RHYNCHIKJB. 

Lobotrachelus stigma, xii. p. 44 Australia (Gayndah). 

plagiatus, /. c. p. 45 Flores. 

linteus, /. c. p. 45 Macassar. 

— albirostris, I. c. p. 45 „ 

Brephiope, n. g., xii. p. 46. 

castanea, /. c. p. 46 Sula; Ceram. 

Metetra, n. g., xii. p. 46. 

suturalis, I. c. p. 47 Waigiou. 

Telephae, n. g., x. p. 487. 

laticollis, l c. p. 487. PI. XIX. fig. 9. Macassar. 

strigilata, xii. p. 47 Batchian; Sarawak. 

concrete, /. c. p. 48 Batchian. 



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MB- 7. P. PJACOS OK THE CXTBCULIOVTDJr. 07 

Telephae luctuosa, /. c. p. 48 Batchian ; Gilolo; Sarawak. 

denticollia, I. c . p. 48 Dorey ; Sarawak. 

metata, L c. p. 48 Batchian. 

repetita, I. c. p. 49 Sarawak. 

— aelligera, /. c. p. 49 „ 

Othippia, n. g., zii. p. 49. 

distigma, /. c. p. 60 Sarawak. 

juhata, /. c. p. 50 „ 

— proletaria, Z. c. p. 50 „ 

fonebria, I. c. p. 50 Ceram. 

podagrica, L c. p. 51 Mytol. 

Egiona, n. g. 9 zii. p. 51. 

beta, I.e. p. 51. PI. III. fig. 2 Macassar. 

Pseniclea, n. g., xii. p. 51. 

puellaris, Z. c. p. 52 Dorey. 

Panigena, n. g., zii. p. 52. 

chalybea, /. c. p. 53 Batchian, 

— yiolacea, Z. c. p. 53 . . . . , „ 

— eyanoptera, I, c. p. 53 Saylec. 

pedestris, I. c. p. 53 Mysol. 

(Ebrius, n. g. 9 zii. p. 54. 

Inteicornis, I c, p. 54. PI. III. 

fig. 3 Mytol ; Waigion. 

Lissoglena, n. g. t zii. p. 54. 

— picipennis, /. c. p. 55 Sumatra. 

Cbuthorhynchinjb. 
Mecyimoderes consularis, z. p. 482 Formosa. 

Babidinjs. 
Methyorrhina, n. g., zi. p. 487. 

bUpida, I c. p. 487 Brazil. 

Pithecomus, n. g., zi. p. 487. 

ursulus, I c. p. 488. PI. XIII. 

fig. 5 Bogota. 

Bebelatus, n. g., zi. p. 488. 

aranea, /. c. p. 489. PL XIII. fig. 7. . Amazons. 

Enrypages, n. g. f zi p. 489. 

pennatus, I. c. p. 489. PI. XIII. 

fig. 6 Brazil (Monro Velho). 

Paeodocholui laticollis, zii. p. 56 Ceram. 

baaalis, L e. p. 56 Gilolo; Morty. 

— orichalceus, I. c. p. 56 Boom. 

— cinctas, /. c. p. 56 ,\ Saylec. 

LOTT. JOUBH\ — BOOLOGT, TOL. XII. 7 



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98 MB. F. F. PASCOE OH THE CT7BCT7LIONIM. 

Metanthia, n. g., xii. p. 57. 

pyritosa, I c. p. 57. PL III. fig- 4 . . Dorey ; Saylee. 

ebenina, /. c. p. 57 Batchian. 

— — cyanea, /. c. p. 58 Waigiou. 

nitidula, I. c. p. 58 Batchian. 

Ipsichora, n. g., xii. p. 58. 

cupido, /. c. p. 58 Ceram. 

coelestis, /. c. p. 59 Dorey ; Saylee. 

— pulchella, /. c. p. 59 Salwatty. 

femorata, Z. c. p. 59 Aru. 

Myctides, n. g., xii. p. 59. 

barbatus, /. c. p. 60 Batchian. 

Cynethia, n. g., xii. p. 60. 

interrupta, I. c. p. 61. PL III. &%. 12. Sumatra. 

Acythopeus, n. g., xii. p. 61. 

tristis, /. c. p. 62. PL III. fig. 11 . . Saylee. 

tenuirostris, I. c. p. 62 Tondano. 

palmaris, /. c. p. 62 Amboyna. 

currirostris, /. e. p. 62 Gilolo ; Batchian 

bigeminatus, /. c. p. 63 Batchian ; Aru. 

Laodia, n. g., xiL p. 63. 

niveopicta, /. c. p. 63. PL III. fig. 8. Macassar. 

niveospana, /. c. p. 64 Amboyna. 

Lystrus, n. g., xii. p. 64. 

sculptipennis, /. c. p. 64. PI. III. fig. 1. Singapore ; 

Simocopis, n. g., xii. p. 65. 

umbrinus, I c. p. 65. PL III. fig. 10. Brazil? 

Calandrinjc. 

Protocerius ferridus, xi. p. 216 Kumaon. 

Prodioctes, n. g., xii. p. 66. 

quinarius, /. c. p. 67. PL IV. ^g. 2. Borneo (Muruk). 

pavoninus, /. c. p. 67 Sarawak. 

Tyndides, n. g., xii. p. 68. 

pustulosus, I c. p. 68. PI. IV. fig. 4. Sumatra ; Malacca. 

lineatus, /. c. p. 68 Sarawak. 

Megaproctus pugionatus, xii. p. 68. PL IV. 

fig. 8 Tondano. 

Zetbeus, n. g., xii. p. 69. 

electilis, I c. p. 69. PL IV. fig. 1 . . Penang. 

Periphemu8, n. g., xii. p. 69. 

retrorsus, I. c. p. 69. PL IV. fig. 3. . Sarawak. 

— superciliaris, /. c. p. 70 Sumatra. 

— deletus, /. c. p. 70 CocMnchina ; Laos. 



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MB. 7. P. PABCOE OK THE CUBOULIOKIDJC. 99 

Poteriophorat congeatus, xii. p. 70. PI. IV. 

fig. 9 Malacca. 

Barystethua ater, xii. p. 71 Dorey. 

Diathetea, n. g., xii. p. 71* 

rufieollia, I c. p. 72. PI. IV. fig. 7 . . Waigiou. 

iannio, /. c. p. 72 Aru. 

nitidicollia, Z. c. p. 72 Amboyna ; Goram. 

atrenuua, /. c. p. 72 Am. 

mono, /. c. p. 73 Australia (Cape York). 

Cercidocerus indicator, xii. p. 73 Singapore. 

hispidulus, /. c. p. 73. PI. IV. fig. 5. Penang. 

effetua, /. c. p. 74 Singapore. 

aatnratus, /. c. p. 74 Penang. 

nerrosua, 1. c. p. 74. PI. IV. fig. 6 . . Java. 

Autonopit, n. g., xii. p. 75. 

lineata, /. c. p. 75. PI. IV. fig. 10 . . Malacca; Sumatra. 

Laogenia, n. g., xii. p. 75. 

aorex, I c. p. 76. PL IV. fig. 11 Gilolo; Sarawak. 

intruaa, /. c. p. 76 Tondano ; Sarawak. 

Aphyoda, n. g., xi. p. 214. 

diura, /. c. p. 215. PI. VII. fig. 1 . . Dorey ; Batchian ; Ceram ; 

9 Saylee. 

brenthoidea, l. e. p. 215 Waigiou. 

Ithaura, n. g., xi. p. 215. 

strangulata, /. c. p. 216. PI. VI. 

fig. 2 Columbia. 

C088ONIN*. 

Phcnomerua notatua, xi. p. 490. PI. XIII. 

fig. 2 New Guinea. 

exilia, I c. p. 490 Queensland (Gayndah). 



ERRATA. 

Vol x. p. 440, line 16, for confluent read nearly confluent 
451, „ 12,/br latitudinereo^longitudine. 
„ „ 12, for longiore read latiore. 
xi.p. 180, „ 11, for 3 read 2. 
„ „ 25, for 3J read 2*. 
» h 98, for 31 read 2i. 
181, „ 24, for Adelaide read Victoria. 

445, last line, after basalibuii add elongatis, longitudine aqualibut 

446, line ll> for tarsi fW tibia. 

456, „ 8 from bottom, /br Piubbia rwirf Peliobu, 
LtWH. JOURN. — ZOOLOGY, TOL. XII. & 



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100 DR. OWYN JEFFREYS ON 

On some species of Japanese Marine Shells and Fishes, which 
inhabit also the North Atlantic. By J. Gwyn Jeffreys, 
LL.D., F.B.S., F.L.S. 

[Bead January 15, 1874.] 

During the survey made by Capt. St. John in H.M.S. ' Sylvia* 
of the coasts of Japan between 43° 34' and 33° 23' N. lat., and 
145° 20* and 131° 40' B. long., in the years 1871 and 1872, the 
dredge was occasionally used ; and the results have been kindly 
placed at my disposal by Capt. St. John and the Hydrographer 
Boyal. All the specimens of natural history, except those shells 
which I now propose to notice, have been placed in the British 
Museum. 

Our present knowledge of the geographical distribution of the 
marine Mollusca is so imperfect that any contribution to the 
subject cannot but have its value. The accuracy of Capt. St. 
John's hydrographic surveys is universally recognized; and I 
will endeavour to be equally careful in determining and naming 
the Japanese shells, which, on comparison with those from Euro- 
pean seas, I regard as belonging to the same species. I am quite 
aware of the difference of opinion entertained by many experi- 
enced conchologists as to the identity of species which inhabit 
widely separated tracts of the ocean, and that such species are 
called by some conchologists " representative " instead of identi- 
cal ; but certain species (e. g. Saxicava rugo$a or arctica) unques- 
tionably have a world-wide distribution. Moreover the love or 
ambition of species-making is perhaps inherent in the nature of 
many naturalists, however conscientious they may be. For my- 
self 1 would renew my expression of unqualified approval of the 
opinion entertained by the learned authors of the ' Flora Indica,' 
that the discovery of a form uniting two others previously thought 
to be distinct, is much more important than that of a totally new 
species, inasmuch as the correction of an error is a greater boon 
to science than is a step in advance. The variation of species 
among the Mollusca cannot be less than among plants. 

The marine shells of Japan have been noticed and described by 
several writers, from Carl Peter Thunberg in 1788 to Dr. C. B. 
Lischke in 1872* This last excellent conchologist gave, in the 
first volume of his ' Mollusca Japonica,* a valuable synoptical 
table of those species which inhabit other parts of the world. 
He showed that the following species are common to Japan and 



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JAP ANISE 8HSLLS AND F 18 HE 8. 101 

the Mediterranean — IWfcm oUarium (properly olearius), Linne*, 
Saxicava arctica, L. (& rugosa, var.), and Lima squamosa, La- 
marck ; and common to Japan and the Atlantic coast of Europe, 
Triton olearium, Saxicava arctica, My a arenaria, L., and Modiola 
(Mytilus) modiolus, L. In his second volume he noticed Lasaa 
rubra, Montagu, which inhabits also the Mediterranean and the 
Atlantic coast of Europe. We have thus five species in the same 
category. Three of these species (viz. Mgtilus modiolus, Lasaa 
rubra and Mga armaria) are inhabitants of the shore and shallow 
water ; Saxicava rugosa has a wide range of depth from low- water 
mark to 1280 fathoms ; and Lima squamosa occurs in the coralline 
zone. All the five species are Atlantic. I now propose to re- 
cord from Capt. St. John's dredgings thirty-nine species as 
common to Japan and the North Atlantic. These are exclusive 
of Lima squamosa and Triton olearius, which have been already 
noticed by Dr. Lischke ; and the number may be increased by 
adding three species of Brachiopods (Terebratula vitrea, Gmelin, 
var. minor, T. caput-serpmtis, L., and TerebrateUa Spitzbergensis, 
Davidson) mentioned by Mr. Davidson in the Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society of London for 1871 ; three species of other 
Mollusca (Gemma gemma, Totten, Coralliophya lithophagella, Lam., 
and Piliscus eommodus, Midden dorff) mentioned by Mr. Arthur 
Adams in the Proceedings of the same Society for 1863 ; Limop- 
sis abgssicola, A. Adams, P. Z. S, 1869, JEossarus J'aponicus, A. 
Adams«= J! cosiatus, Brocchi. ; besides Limopsis aurita, two species 
of Pecchiolia (P. acute-costata, Philippi, and P. granulata, Se- 
guenza), Pgramidella niHdula, A. Adams, and other species which 
were dredged by me in the Bay of Biscay during the * Porcupine ' 
expedition of 1870, as well as by Mr. A. Adams in the Japanese 
seas. 

In giving the geographical distribution for the species now 
about to be enumerated, I have added the range of depth for 
■uch of them as I procured in the ' Porcupine * Explorations of 
1869 and 1870. This information will, I believe, be found useful. 

It will be observed that some of the species are littoral or in- 
habit shallow water, while others inhabit the coralline and deep- 
water zones. The modes of migration or transport from the 
North Pacific to the North Atlantic, or vice versd, must conse- 
quently be of different kinds. Some marine currents and tides 
are superficial ; others are deep and sweep the bottom of the sea. 
Now the latter kind of currents seem to be almost unknown. 

8* 



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102 DR. GWTH JEFFB1T8 OK 

The stream and drift currents of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, 
with the surface temperature, are, indeed, most carefully laid down 
in the * Pilot Charts ' which have been lately published by our 
Admiralty under the superintendence of its eminent Hydrogra- 
pher ; but the direction and force of the abyssal currents ought to 
be fully investigated before we can explain the distribution of deep- 
water Molluscs, especially of the bivalves and such of the uni- 
valves as cannot swim, and whose fry do not rise to the surface 
and become for a short time oceanic. Voluntary migration seems 
to have little, if any, share in the work of diffusion. It is to be 
hoped that the present expedition of H.M.S. ' Challenger ' will 
contribute much information on this very important and interest* 
ing subject, in the same way that to a limited extent was done in 
the ' Porcupine ' expeditions. It is difficult to account for the 
occurrence of so many of the same species in the seas of Japan 
and the North Atlantic Ocean. Probably those species which 
inhabit deep water may have had a common origin or birthplace 
in high northern latitudes, and have found their way to Japan on 
the one side and Europe on the other by means of a bifurcation 
of the great Arctic current. Their entry into the Mediterranean 
from the Atlantic may have taken place through a wide channel 
which formerly existed between the lower part of the Bay of 
Biscay and the Gulf of Lyons, and which has been satisfactorily 
shown on geological grounds to have been made since the Ter- 
tiary epoch. The present communication through the Straits of 
Gibraltar seems to be also of a comparatively modern date. 
„ With respect to the fishes which are common to Japan and 
the Mediterranean or the North Atlantic, I have been favoured 
by Dr. Albert Gunther, F.R.S., with a list and note, which, with 
the permission of the Society, I will append to this paper. His 
authority as an ichthyologist is so great that his communication 
will be valuable on its own account, as well as in showing the 
distribution of the species not only among the invertebrates but 
also in the vertebrate fauna in the northern divisions of the 
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

Subkingdom MOLLUSCA. 

Bbachiopoda. 

Rhykchonblla psittacea, Gmelm j young. 

35 fathoms. Lat. 41° 41' N. ; long. 141° 0' E. Cireumpolar. 



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JAPANESE SHELLS AHD FISHES. 103 

COKCHIFKBA. 

Lima elliptica, Jtjfreft. 

6 fathoms. Lat. 34° 23' N. ; long. 136° 55' £. 

The specimens (three in number) are much smaller than those 
from Skye ; bat the characters peculiar to this species, and which 
flintin giiifth it from Z. amriartata, are the same, via. shape, sculp- 
ture, and obliquity of the central furrow. In the Japanese 
specimens the upper part of the anterior and posterior margins is 
sinuous, while in European specimens this part is fiexuous. I 
do not regard this slight difference as a specific character. 

North-east Atlantic and Mediterranean ( Porcupine ' expedi- 
tions, 46-690 fathoms. ' 

MtTILOS EDULI8, Ltftftl, TIT. UNO € LATA. 

Endermo. The largest specimen measures 5 inches bj 2{. 
Var. Galloprovinciali8. 

Yokooka Dock, Gulf of Yedo ; North Atlantic and Mediterra- 
nean* 

Mo dio labia marmorata, Forbes. 
Three specimens. 
Yokooka Dock. 

Smaller than European specimens and darker-coloured. 
North-east Atlantic and Mediterranean ; Arabian and Persian 
Gulfs ( McAndrew) ! ' Pore' exp. 165 fathoms. 

MODIOLARIA D1SCORS, L. ; VAT. 8UB8TRIATA, Gray. 

One specimen, 1 j inch long bj 1 inch wide. 

11 fathoms. E. Yeso. 

North-east Atlantic and Mediterranean. 

Crenella faba, Fabricius. 

48 fathoms. Three specimens, one of which is | of an inch 
long. 
More finely striated than usual, but evidently this species. 
Circumpolar. 

Nucula tenuis, Montagu. 
Numerous specimens. 
8 to 48 fathoms. 

North Atlantic and Mediterranean. 'Pore.' exp. 20-1630 
fathoms. 

Led a lanceolata, James Sowerby. 

ss Nucula arctics, Broderip A* G. B. Sowerby (not of Gray or Sari, the 



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104 DR. GWYN JKFFRXYS OH 

latter being Nucula lanceolata of I*marck=N. limatula, Say*** 
Yoldia hyperborea, Loven). 

= N. oblonga, G. B. Sowerby. 

ss Yoldia arctica, Moller. 

Several specimens of different ages. 

From 3 to 48 fathoms. 

The sculpture is very variable. In some specimens the stri© are 
at first transverse and close-set, and afterwards become oblique and 
distant ; in others the stria are confined to the anterior side of 
the shell, as in L. semietriata of Mr. S. Wood, while in others the 
etri© are almost entirely absent. In the description of Nucula 
lanceolata by James Sowerby the shell is described as u smooth.*' 
Perhaps he intended the Crag shell referred by Mr. Wood to Leda 
myalis of Couthouy, but which does not appear to be that 
species. 

Circumpolar. 

Leda prigida, Torcll. 

= L. nana, Sars. 

Several specimens. 

3 to 48 fathoms. 

Also Spitzbergen, Norway, and southwards to the coast of 
Portugal, 50-1380 fathoms. Fossil at Messina, in the Zanclean 
division of the Pliocene formation (Seauenza) ! 

Leda minuta, Mutter. 

Two specimens. Ooshima, and 48 fathoms. Agreeing in the 
most minute particulars with specimens dredged by me in St. 
Magnus Bay, Shetland. 

North Atlantic. * Pore/ exp. : W. coast of Ireland, 164-420 
fathoms ; Bay of Biscay, 305-717 fathoms. 

Cardium Grcbnlandicum, Chemnitz. 
Several young specimens from 48 fathoms. 
Spitzbergen (Torell); United States (Gould and other*); 
Behring's Strait (Stimpson). Circumpolar. 

Cardium Islandicum, Ch. 
Several young specimens from 8-48 fathoms. 
United States (Gould and others) ; Wellington Channel (Bel- 
cher). Circumpolar. 

Cardita borealis, Conrad. 

Endermo Harbour, 4-7 fathoms. 

Undistinguishable from Crag specimens of C. orbiculato, S. 



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JAPANESE 8HELL8 AHD FISHES. 105 

Wood ; while certain specimens of C. borealie from Canada and 
the United States equally approach C. aualis from Bridlington 
and C. sealarie from the Crag. Our Crag species are deplorably 
multiplied. 

Venus pluctuosa, Gould. 

Bather common in from 3 to 48 fathoms. 

Spitsbergen (TorelT). Circumpolar. 

Varies in colour from olive-green to yellowish-white. 

TAPK8 DECC88ATU8, L. 

Common in 4-85 fathoms. A trapeziform variety occurs from 
Hakodadi Japanese as well as European specimens differ among 
themselves in shape and sculpture ; and it is impossible to separate 
the so-called T. indieue from T. decuesatue by any other than a 
geographical character. 

North-east Atlantic and Mediterranean. 

Tellina inflata, Stimpsom, 
Pour specimens from 5-48 fathoms. 

United States (SHmpson) ; Gulf of St. Lawrence ( Whiteaves) ; 
Spitzbergen (ToreU) ; Wellington Channel (Belcher). 

Ltonsia hyalina, Conrad, 
Two specimens from 5 fathoms. 
United States (Conrad and others). 

Allied to L. Norvegiea. Both species are very distinct from 
L. arenoea, which is circumpolar. 

Saxicava rugosa, L. ; var. arctica. 

7 fathoms; var. prwcisa, Yokooka Harbour. Ubiquitous. 
Pore.' exp. 20-1230 fathoms. 

MY A AREHARIA, L. 

5-48 fathoms. 
North Atlantic. 

Oastbopoda. 

TeCTURA TE8TUD1NALI8, Mull. 

Everywhere from the shore to 7 fathoms. 

Circumpolar, and North-east America. 

I cannot detect any difference between this species and T. 
patina of Eschscholtz, notwithstanding MiddendorfFs ingenious 
distinction as to the sculpture. 

Lb PET A CMC a, Mull. 

From 4 to 48 fathoms. 



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106 DB. GWYN JEFFREYS ON 

Circumpolar, and North-east America. 

PUNCTURELLA NOACHINA, L. 

Yamada Harbour, 7 fathoms. 

Circumpolar, and North-east America. * Pore.' exp. 66-1096 
fathoms. 

Trochus varicosus, Mighels # Adams. 

= Margarita elegantissima, Bean. 

= M. plicate, Sars. 

as M. polarisi Danielssen. 

A single specimen from 48 fathoms. 

Spitzbergen (Torell); Gaspe Bay, Gulf of St. Lawrence 
( Whiteaves) ; New Brunswick, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia 
(Mighels Sf Adams, Willis, and Stimpson) ; Norway (Sars, Karen, 
and Danielssen). Fossil in the Bridlington Glacial bed (Peon). 

Lacuna divaricata, Fabr. ; Tar. ecaniculata. 
A single specimen from 7 fathoms. 

Northern Europe, Asia, and America. The absence of a canal 
is also noticeable in erery other British species of Lacuna. 

LlTTORINA RUDI8, Mttton. 

A single dead specimen from 7 fathoms, probably carried out 
by the tide or voided by a fish. 

North Atlantic, Mediterranean, and North Pacific. 

MBNE8THO ALBULA, Fabr. 

Several specimens. 
Spitzbergen and Greenland. 

NATICA AFFINI8, OttU 

a N. clausa, Broderip 8f Sower by. 
Three specimens. 

North of Europe, Asia, and America. ' Pore.' exp. 208-664 
fathoms. 

N. Grcenlandica, Ck. 

Endermo ; Yeso, 8 fathoms. 

Same range as last species. ' Pore.' exp. 178-725 fathoms. 

Admete viridula, Fabr. 
A single specimen from 48 fathoms. 

Spitzbergen (Torell) ; Norway, Greenland, and N.E. America. 
1 Pore.' exp. 114-420 fathoms. 

Purpura lapillus, L. 
Shore to 4 fathoms. 



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JAPJL9ZSX 8HKLLS AMD FISHES. 107 

North Atlantic, Mediterranean, and North Pacific 

Mubbx aaiNAcaus, L. ; rmr. paccb pckpcwa. 
A single specimen from 7 fathoms. 

North-east Atlantic and Mediterranean. The same yariety is 
found in Jersey. 

TrOPBON CLATHRATU8, I/. ; TV. GUNNERJ- 

Sereral specimens from 3 to 48 fathoms. 
Circumpolar and North-east America. ( Pore' exp. 155-345 
fathoms. 

Nassa reticulata, L. 

A single specimen from 6 fathoms. 

North Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Black Sea. 

Ringiccla auriculata, Menard. 
A single specimen from 5 fathoms. 

North Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Gulf of Sues. ' Pore.* 
exp. 1&-128 fathoms. 

Plburotoma tvumcvul, Mont*?*. 
Two young specimens from 48 fathoms. 
North Atlantic ' Pore' exp. 10-994 fathoms. 

P. XITRULA, Lovtk. 

A single specimen from 7 fathoms. 
Norwegian. 

P. Rrnirri, Scaccki. 

One specimen from Matosa Harbour, in N. lat. 84° 23', £. long. 
136° 55'. It differs only in the apex being more elongated. 
Bay of Biscay and Mediterranean, in 45-539 fathoms. 

Cylichna alba, Brown. 
= C. corticaU, MolL 
Two specimens. 

Circumpolar, North Atlantic and North Pacific. * Pore* exp. 
114-1366 fathoms. 

British Museum, 7/5/73. 

Mr dear Sib, — I enclose the list of fishes found in the Mediter- 
ranean (including Madeira) and in Japan. I have also made a 
column for such of the species as occur in the West Indies. The 
list might have been much increased by looking carefully through 
more recent records. The species included in it are either 
pelagic or deep-sea species (that is, species having naturally a 



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108 



ON JAPANESE MAMOTS SHELLS AHD FL9HK8. 



very wide range) ; and most of those enumerated occur also in 
other parts of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. Some of 
them, like Serranus octocinctus, Centrums gracilis, Lophotes, have 
hitherto not been found in intermediate regions. 

It is a fact known for a long time that a great number of the 
pelagic species spawn in the open sea, which will go far to ac- 
count for their wide geographical range. 

Can I be of further assistance to you P 

Tours very truly, 

A. GUNTHEB. 

J. Owyn Jeffreys, Esq., F.BJ3. 



AnUrias ooulatus 

Serranus octocinotus 

Scomber pneumatophorus 

Bcheneis remora 

brachyptera 

naucrates 

Caranx hippos 

Seriola dumerilii , 

lalandii , 

Centrisous gracilis 

Lophotee 

Macrurus 

Saurus myope 

Albula conorhynchas 

£lops saurus , 

Conger vulgaris 

Myrus 

Hippocampus antiquorum 

— guttulatus , 

Monacanthus setifer 

■ monooeros , 

Orthagorisous mola 

Galeooerdo tigrinus 

Zygsena malleus 

Lamna oornubioa 

Bhina squatina 

Rhinobatus oolumnsB 

Trygon pastinaca , 

Pteroplatea hirundo 



Mediterranean 
or Madeiran. 



22 



West Indies. 



Japan. 



18 



29 



Zoological Department^ British Museum, 
December 17, 1873. 
Mr deab Sib, — I return the list of species of marine fishes 
common to the North Atlantic and Japan. In Ichthyology the 



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MB. THOMAS DAVID80N 09 JAPA3TC8E BRACHIOPODA. 109 

affinity of these two districts has been ascertained for a long 
time; and it would become still more apparent if regard had 
been had not only to species (some of which have a very wide 
range) but also to genera — and, secondly, if the marine fauna of 
Western North America had been drawn within your present 
researches. 

Of course you are aware that a large proportion of the ter- 
restrial animals of Northern Japan are European types. 

I remain, yours very truly 

A. GtTNTHJBB. 

J. Owyn Jeffreys, Esq., F.R.S. 



Note on a New Species of Japanese Brachiopoda. By Thomas 
Davidson. Communicated by J. Gwra Jbffbits, Esq., 
LL.D., F.B.S., F.L.S. 

[Bead January 15, 1874.] 

In the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for 
April 1871, 1 described and illustrated all the species of Brachio- 
poda (twenty in number) that had been procured from the 
Japanese waters. 

Since then Br. C. E. Lischke obtained from the Bay of Jedo 
several examples of a coppery-coloured and green Lingula, 
approaching in size and character to Lingula smaragdina, Adams, 
a species common to the China sea, and which will before long 
be described in that naturalist's work ' Japoniacks Musei Con- 
chilica.' 

In 1872 Captain St. John, of Her Majesty's Ship ' Sylvia,' 
dredged five or six species of Brachiopoda in North Japan, 
namely : — Terebrattlla Coreaniea, Adams & Beeves, 48 fathoms ; 
T. frontalis, Middendorff, 35 fathoms ; Laqueus rubella. Sow., 85 
fathoms ; Waldheimia Qrayii, Dav., and its var. transversa, 85 
fathoms ; Bhynchonella psittacea, Gmelin, 85 fathoms. 

We are therefore indebted to Captain St. John for the know- 
ledge of one additional species in the Japanese waters, viz. Tere- 
bratella frontalis, Middendorff; and it is interesting to add that 
during the year 1878 Mr. Dall has dredged several living speci- 
mens and many dead ones of his rare species at Atka Island, of 
the Aleutian Chain, but originally described from the Ochotsk 
Sea. He informs me also by letter that its range in the island 



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110 SIB JOHN LUBBOCK ON BKES AND WASPS. 

is from Attu, at the western side of the chain, to Atka, and that, 
so far as he has been able to discover, it does not extend farther 
east. 



Observations on Bees and Wasps. By Sir John Lubbock, 
Bart, F.B.8., M.P., F.L.8., Vice-Chancellor of the University 
of London. 

[Bead March 19, 1874.] 

The Social Hymenoptera, according to Messrs. Kirby and Spence # , 
" have the means of communicating to each other information of 
various occurrences, and use a kind of language which is mutu- 
ally understood and is not confined merely to giving 

intelligence of the approach or absence of danger ; it is also co- 
extensive with all their other occasions for communicating their 
ideas to each other." 

Huber assures us as regards Ants t that he has " frequently seen 
the antennae used on the field of battle to intimate approaching 
danger, and to ascertain their own party when mingled with the 
enemy ; they are also employed in the interior of the ant-hill to 
warn their companions of the presence of the sun, so favourable 
to the development of the larva, in their excursions and emigra- 
ting to indicate their route, in their recruitings to determine the 
time of departure," Ac. Elsewhere also he says J " that should 
an Ant fall in with any of her associates from the nest they put 
her in the right way by the contact of their antennae." 

These statements are most interesting ; and it is much to be 
regretted that he has not given us in detail the evidence on which 
they rest. In another passage, indeed, he himself says § •* if they 
have a language, I cannot give too many proofs of it." Unfortu- 
nately, however, the chapter which he devotes to this important 
subject is very short, and occupied with general statements 
rather than with the accounts of the particular experiments and 
observations on which those statements rest. Nor is there any 
serious attempt to ascertain the nature, character, and capabili- 
ties of this antennal language. Even if by motions of these 
organs Bees can caress, can express love, fear, anger, Ac., it does 
not follow that they can narrate facts or describe localities. 

* Introduction to Entomology, ii. p. 50. f L. c. p. 206. 

t L. c. p. 157. S L. c. p. 205. 



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SIR JOHN LUBBOCK OK BEftS AND WASPS. Ill 

Nor are the facts recorded by Kirby and Spence more explicit. 
It is therefore disappointing to read in the chapter especially 
devoted to this subject *, that, as regards the power possessed by 
Ants and Bees to communicate and receive information, " it is 
only necessary to refer you to the endless facts in proof, furnished 
by almost every page of my letters on the history of Ants and of 
the Hive Bee. I shall therefore but detain you for a moment 
with an additional anecdote or two, especially with one respecting 
the former tribe, which is valuable from the celebrity of the 
narrator." 

The first of these anecdotes refers to a Beetle (Ateuchu* pilu- 
lariu*\ which having made for the reception of its eggs a pellet 
of dung too heavy for it to move " repaired to an adjoining heap 
and soon returned with three of his companions. All four 
now applied their united strength to the pellet and at length 
succeeded in pushing it out, which being done, the three assist- 
ant Beetles left the spot and returned to their own quarters." 
This observation rests on the authority of an anonymous German 
artist ; and though we are assured that he was a " man of strict 
veracity," I am not aware that any similar fact has been recorded 
by any other observer. 

The second case is related by Kalm, on the authority of 
Dr. Franklin ; but it does not seem to me to justify the conclu- 
sions drawn from it by Messrs. Kirby and Spence. Dr. 
Franklin having found a number of Ants in a jar of treacle, 
shook them out and suspended the jar " by a string from the 
ceiling. By chance one Ant remained, which, after eating its 
fill, with some difficulty found its way up the string, and, thence 
reaching the ceiling, escaped by the wall to its nest. In less than 
half an hour a great company of Ants sallied out of their hole, 
climbed the ceiling, crept along the string into the pot and began 
to eat again ; this they continued until the treacle was all con- 
sumed, one swarm running up the string while another passed 
down. It seems indisputable that the one Ant had in this instance 
conveyed news of the booty to his comrades, who would not 
otherwise have at once directed their steps in a body to the only 
accessible route " t« 

As regards Wasps, Huber states that they are also acquainted 
with the mode of imparting information to their companions. 
When a single Wasp discovers a strong-hold of sugar, honey, 
* L. c. p. 422. f L. c. p. 422. 



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112 SIR JOHK LUBBOCK ON BEES AND WA8P8. 

or other article of food, it returns to its nest and brings off in a 
short time a hundred other Wasps ; but we are yet ignorant if 
it be by visible or palpable signs they are mutually informed of 
this discovery " *. 

A short but very interesting paper by Dujardin on this subject 
is contained in the ' Annales des Sciences ' for 1852. He satis- 
fied himself that some Bees which came to honey put out by him 
for the purpose " avaient du recevoir dans la ruche un avertisse- 
ment porte* par quelques-unes de celles qui e*taient venues isol£- 
ment, soit a dessein, soit par hasard " f. That no doubt might re- 
main, he tried the following experiment, which, he says, " me parait 
tout-a-fait concluante ". 

u Dans l'epaisseur d'un mur lateral, k 18 metres de distance 
des ruches A et B, se trouve une niche pratique^ suivant 1' usage 
du pays, pour constater la mitoyennet£, et recouverte par un 
treiilage et par une treille, et cachee par diverses plantes grim- 
pantes. J'y introduisis, le 16 novembre, une soucoupe avec du 
sucre legerement humectej puis j'allai presenter une petite baguette 
enduite de sirop k une abeille sortant de la ruche A. Cette 
abeille s'e*tant cramponnee k la baguette pour sucer le sirop, je 
la transportai dans la niche sur le sucre, ou elle resta cinq ou 
six minutes jusqu'a ce qu'elle se fut bien gorgee ; elle commenca 
alors k voler dans la niche, puis deqk et delA devant le treiilage, la 
t£te toujours tournee vers la niche, et enfin elle prit son vol vers 
la ruche, ou elle rentra. 

" Un quart d'heure se passa sans qu'il revint une seule abeille 
k la niche ; mais, k partir de cet instant, elles vinrent successive- 
ment au nombre de trente, explorant la locality cherchant Tentree 
de la niche qui avait du ieur Stre indiquee, et ou l'odorat ne pou- 
vait nullement lea guider, et, k leur tour, verifiant, avant de re- 
tourner k la ruche, les signes qui leur feraient retrouver cette 
pre*cieuse locality ou qui leur permettraient de l'indiquer k d'autres. 
Tous les jours suivants les abeilles de la ruche A vinrent plus 
nombreuses k la niche ou j'avais soin de renouveler le sucre hu- 
mecte*, et pas une seule de la ruche B n'eut le moindre soupcpn 
de Texistence de ce tresor et ne vint voler de ce cote. II 6tait 
facile, en effet, de constater que les premieres se dirigeaient ex- 
clusivement de la ruche k la niche, et reciproqueraent." 

# Huber's Natural History of Ante, p. 374. 
t Ann. des Sci. Nat. 1862, p. 233. 



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BIB JOHN LUBBOCK OK BBBS AKD WASPS. 113 

Considering the immense number of bees in a hive and the 
number of very young ones, it seems almost incredible that the 
bees of a hive should all be known to one another. Yet we are 
assured by some writers that it is so. Gelien, for instance, says, 
" Qu'une abeille tombe par accident, ou soit pousse* par le vent 
dans une ruche qui n'est pas la sienne, elle est saisie et inise a 
mort & r instant, comme suspecte de mauvais desseins "*. 

Burmeister also, in his excellent ' Manual of Entomology,' says 
that " The power of communicating to their comrades what they 
purpose is peculiar to insects. Much has been talked of the so- 
called signs of recognition in bees, which is said to consist in re- 
cognizing their comrades of the same hive by means of peculiar 
signs. This sign serves to prevent any strange bee from intru- 
ding into the same hive without being immediately detected and 
killed. It, however, sometimes happens that several hives have 
the same signs, when their several members rob each other with 
impunity. In these cases the bees whose hive suffers most alter 
their signs, and then can immediately detect their enemy." f. 

Huber mentions that some ants which he had kept in captivity 
having accidentally escaped, " met and recognized their former 
companions, fell to mutual caresses with their antennae, took them 
up by their mandibles, and led them to their own nests ; they 
came presently in a crowd to seek the fugitives under and about 
the artificial ant-hill, and even vestured to reach the bell-glass, 
where they effected a complete desertion by carrying away suc- 
cessively all the ants they found there. In a few days the ruche 
was depopulated. These ants had remained four months without 
any communication" t- This statement has been very naturally 
copied by succeeding writers, and adopted without hesitation. 
See, for instance, Kirby and Spence's 'Introduction to Ento- 
mology,' vol. ii. p. 66, and Newport, ' Trans, of the Entomo- 
logical 8ociety of London,' vol. ii. p. 239. 

Latreille also mentions that he once cut off the antennae of an ant, 
and that one of its companions, " evidently pitying its sufferings, 
anointed the wounded part with a drop of transparent fluid from 
its mouth ;" but the constant repetition of this statement in works 
on entomology indicates that other similar cases have not been 
met with. Messrs. Kirby and Spence, indeed, say that " whoever 
* * Le Conserrateur des Abeilles,' p. 140. 
f Burraeister's * Entomology,' p. 502. 
t Huber, p. 172. 



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114 sib jomr lubbock ok bees and wasps. 

attends to what is going forward in the neighbourhood of one of 
their nests, will be pleased to observe the readiness with which 
they seem disposed to assist each other in difficulties. When a 
burthen is too heavy for one, another will soon come to ease it of 
part of the weight ; and if one is threatened with an attack, all 
hasten to the spot to join in repelling it " *. 

These statements imply, on the part of bees, wasps, and ants, 
a great amount of intelligence. As I have already observed, how- 
ever, the observations recorded do not seem to me in all cases to 
bear out the inferences that have been drawn from them. More- 
over, when the conclusions are so important, we cannot be too 
sure of the facts ; and however eminent, therefore, the authority 
may be, it is most desirable that the observations should be 
repeated. 

Another question connected with these insects on which I was 
anxious to make some experiments was the use of the antenna?. 
That they are the means of communication there can be no doubt; 
but it is also the general opinion that they are, in addition, organs 
of sense. Whether, however, their functions are olfactory, or 
whether they serve as ears, is still a point on which entomolo- 
gists are divided. 

Our great entomologist Newport, in a paper specially devoted 
to the subject, says : — 

" These facts, connected with the previous experiments, have 
convinced me that the antennae in all insects are the auditory 
organs, whatever may be their peculiar structure — and that, how- 
ever this is varied, it is appropriated to the perception and trans- 
mission of sound." 

Dr. Ormerod also, who was so careful an observer of our 
British wasps, was of opinion that " the proper function of the 
antennae seems to be that of an instrument of communication in 
the social tribes, and of an organ of hearing in insects gene- 
rally "J. 

" The majority of modern physiologists and entomologists agree 
in explaining the antenna as organs of hearing, as we have already 
remarked. Kirby and Spence's representation (whose names 
were inadvertently omitted to be mentioned there as the authori- 
ties for our opinions) conveys so much conviction that we may 

* Vol. ii. p. 56. 

t Newport, " On the Antenna of Insects/ Trans. Rnt. 8oc ?ol. ii p. 24ft. 

J Natural History of Wasps, p. 73. 



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SIB JOHV LUBBOCK OH BIBS AKD WASPS. 110 

almost consider it settled, although we must at the same time 
admit that all the difficulties aie not solYed"*. 

Br. Braxton Hicks, also, and M. Lespes, who hare specially 
studied the anatomical structure of antenna, are of opinion that 
they are organs of hearing f. 

The weight of authority, then, in favour of this view (comprising, 
as it does, Sober, Scarpa, Schneider, Borkhansen, Bonsdorf, Cams, 
Straus-Durckheim, Oken, Burmeister, Kirby and Spence, Lespes, 
and Hicks) is very great. Nevertheless other eminent entomo- 
logists, as, for instance, Lyonet, Kiister, Bobineau-Desvoidy, Yogt, 
and Erichson, regard these organs as the seat of the sense of 
smelL 

These are but afew of the many interesting questions which yet 
remain unsolved with reference to the social Hymenoptera. I 
present, therefore, the following observations to the Society with 
much diffidence ; for I am well aware that they are but frag- 
mentary. It will, however, be some months before I shall be able 
to prosecute them any further ; and I trust that in some points 
they may be found not devoid of interest. I hope also that 
in consequence of bringing them before the Society I may re- 
ceive some suggestions with reference to future inquiries. 

Bee*. 

It will be observed that the current statements with reference 
to the language of social insects depend much on the fact that 
when one of them, either by accident or in the course of its 
rambles, has discovered a stock of food, in a very short time many 
others arrive to profit by the discovery. This, however, does not 
necessarily imply any power of describing localities. If the 
Bees or Ants merely follow their more fortunate comrade, the 
matter is simple enough ; if, on the contrary, others are sent, 
the case becomes very different. 

In order to test this, I proposed to keep honey in a given place 
for some time, in order to satisfy myself that it would not readily 
be found by the Bees, and then, after bringing a Bee to the honey, 
to watch whether it brought others, or sent them — the latter of 
course implying a much higher order of intelligence and power of 
communication. 

I therefore placed some honey in a glass, close to an open 

• Burmeiflter'B * Entomology/ p. 415. 
f Tnnaaotions of the Iinnemn Society, vol. xxii. p. 395. 
LTK1T. JOUBK.— ZOOLOGY, VOL. in. 9 



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116 SIB JOHN LUBBOCK ON BIBS AND WASPS. 

window in my sitting-room and watched it for sixty hours of 
sunshine, during which no bees came to it. 

I then, at 10 o'clock in the month of June, went to my hires, 
and took a bee which was just starting ont, brought it in my hand 
up to my room (a distance of somewhat less than 200 yards), 
and gave it some honey, which it sucked with evident enjoyment. 
After a few minutes it flew quietly away, but did not return ; nor 
did any other bee make its appearance. 

The following morning I repeated the same experiment. At 
7*15 I brought up a bee, which sipped the honey with readiness, 
and after doing so for about five minutes flew away with no 
appearance of alarm or annoyance. It did not, however, return ; 
nor did any other bee come to my honey. 

On several other occasions I repeated the same experiments 
with a like result. Altogether I tried it more than twenty 
times ; and I am satisfied that these bees cannot all have lost 
themselves or met with accidents. Indeed I never found bees to 
return if brought any considerable distance at once. By taking 
them, however, some twenty yards each time they came to the 
honey, I at length trained them to come to my room. On the 
whole, however, I found it more convenient to procure one of 
Marriott's observatory hives, both on account of its construction 
and also because I could have it in my room, and thus keep 
the bees more immediately under own eye. My room is square, 
with two windows on the south-west side, where the hive was 
placed, and one on the south-east. Besides the ordinary entrance 
from outside, the hive had a small postern door opening into the 
room ; this door was provided with an alighting-board and closed 
by a plug ; as a general rule the bees did not notice it much 
unless the passage was very full of them. 

I then placed some honey on a table close to the hive, and from 
time to time fed certain bees on it. Those which had been fed 
soon got accustomed to come for the honey ; but partly on account 
of my frequent absence from home, and partly from their difficulty 
in finding their way about, and their tendency to lose themselves, 
I never could keep any marked bee under observation for more 
than a few days. 

Out of a number of similar observations I give the following 
in detail, as throwing some light on the power of communicating 
facts possessed by the bees ; they will also illustrate the daily 
occupations of a working bee. 



Digitized by 



Googk 



81ft JOHir LUBBOCK OK BBE8 AND WASPS. 1 17 

August 24. I opened the postern door at 6.45 and watched 
some marked bees till the middle of the day. 

Bee no. L 

6.50. One came to the honey. She then flew to the window, but 

after buzzing about for some time returned to the hive, 

7.21. Back to honey. 7.23. Back to hive. 

7.26. „ 7.30. Flew to window and then 

fell on the floor. I was afraid she would be trodden on, 

so at 7.45 I showed her the way to the hive. 

8.40. Back to honey. 8.45. Back to hive. I now 

closed the postern door till 10.15. 
10.35. Back to honey. 10.39. To hive. 

10.45. „ and then to hive. 

12.35. „ 12.37. To hive again. 

Bee no. 2, 

7. 0. She came to the honey. 7. 5. She went back to the hive. 

7.12. Back to the honey. 7.22. „ 

7.24. „ 7.30. 

7.42. „ 7.46. 

7.52. „ 7.57* 

O. O. „ O. ". „ 

8.15. „ 8.20. 

8.26. „ 8.30. „ 

8.40. „ 8.44. „ 

8.55. „ 9. 0. „ 

I then closed the door till 10.15 ; at 9.5, however, she came 
round to the honey through an open window, but could not 
find her way back, so I had to put her into the hive. 
10.15. Back to the honey. 10.17. She went back to the hive. 

10.20. „ 10.23. 

10.30. „ 10.33. „ 

10.50. „ 10.55. 

11. 1. „ 11. 6. 
11.17. „ 11.23. 

11.83. „ ? 

11.45. „ 11.50. 

12. 0. „ 12. 3. „ 
12.10. „ 12.15. 

12.24. „ 12.30. 



9 # 



Digitized by 



Googk 



118 SIB JOHN LUBBOCK OK BEES AKD WASPS* 



12.37. 


Back to the 


honey. 


12.43. She went back to the hive. 


12.52. 


» 




12.56. 
Bee no. 3. 


99 


Also 


on August 


24. 






10.16. 


Came to honey. 


10.19. 


Betnraed to hive* 


10.30. 


» 




10.34. 


» 


10.55. 


>» 




10.57. 


» 


11. 2. 


M 




11. 5. 


M 


11.11. 


If 




11.15. 


91 


11.24. 


99 




11.27. 


99 


11.35. 


n 




11.37. 


99 


11.45. 


» 




11.47. 


II 


11.57. 


« 




P 


II 


12.13. 


» 




12.16. 


»> 


12.26. 


n 




12.30. 


If 


12.36. 


» 




12.42. 


It 


12.56. 


n 




12.59. 


n 


The next day I timed this bee as follows : — 


7.23. 


Came to honey. 


7.25. 


Beturned to hive. 


7.35. 


» 




7.37. 


» 


7.44. 


>i 




7.45. 


»> 


8.10. 


m 




8.12. 


» 


8.53. 


«> 




8.55. 


» 




(The 


> door was then elosed till 9.80.) 


9.35. 


n 




9.40. 


To window, and at 9.49 
to hive. 


10. 


n 




10. 5. 


Beturned to hive. 


10.13. 


>i 




10.15. 


i» 


10.22. 


w 




10.26. 


91 


10.85. 


n 




10.40. 


99 


10.45. 


If 




10.48. 


If 


10.56. 


n 




P 


99 


11. 7. 


» 




11.12. 


99 


11.18. 


» 




11.20. 


99 


11.35. 


19 




11.87. 


99 


11.47. 


it 




11.51. 


19 


12. 2. 


>i 




12. 6. 


19 


12.25. 


19 




12.29. 


If 


12.51. 


>i 




12.54. 


>• 



Digitized by 



Googk 



SIB JOHJT LUBBOCK OK BEES AJSD WA8P8. 

August 26. Opened the postern at 6.30. 



119 



6.46. 


The same bee 


as before 








came 


to the 


honey. 


6.47. 


Back to hive. 


6.58. 


She returned to the honey 


. 7. 0. 


w 


7.23. 


n 






7.25. 


91 


7.32. 


»> 






7.35. 


» 


7.46. 


» 






7.48. 


W 


7.55. 


» 






7.59. 


»> 


8. 4. 


>* 






8. 7. 


» 


8.19. 


i» 






8.22. 


»» 


8.39. 


» 






8.43. 


M 



During these observations scarcely any unmarked bees came 
to the honey. 

In these cases, the postern being small, and on one side, was not 
very easily found. If the honey had been in an open place, no 
doubt the sight of their companions feasting would have attracted 
other bees ; but in this case the honey was rather out of sight, 
being behind the hive-entrance, and was moreover only accessible 
by the narrow and winding exit through the little postern door. 

But however exposed the honey might be, I found similar 
results, unless the bees were visible to their fellows. Thus on the 
2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th October two or three marked bees were 
paying regular visits to some honey in my sitting-room ; but 
during the whole time very few unmarked bees came to the 
honey. 

I will now give a few more cases which tend to show that bees 
which have found a supply of sweets do not tell their fellows of the 
discovery. 



9.19. 


I brought* 


bee to some 


honey. 


9.24. 


She returned to the hive. 


9.55. 


She came book to the honey. 


10.0. 


tt 


tt 


10. 8. 


»» 


»» ' 




10.10. 


tt 


tt 


10.16. 


t» ' 


it 




10.19. 


tt 


„ 


10.28. 


tt • 


t» 




10.80. 


tt 


tt 


10.37. 


>» 


tt " 




10.40. 


tt 


tt 


10.60. 


»» 


tt 




10.63. 


tt 


tt 


11. a 


„ 


tt 




11. 4. 


tt 


tt 


11.11. 


ft 


tt 




11.16. 


n 


if 


11.22. 


tt 


tt 




11.27. 


w 


tt 


11.34. 


t» 


„ • 




11.37. 


tt 


• „ 


11.46. 


„ 


t» 




11.60. 


ft 


It 


11.55. 


tt 


!♦ 




12. 0. 


It 


tt 


12. 6. 


„ 


tt 




12. 7. 


tt 


tt 



Digitized by 



Googk 



120 BIB JOHK LUBBOCK OK BEES AWD WASPS. 



12.40. i 


She 


came back to the honey. 1246. 


She returned to the hive. 


12^4. 




it 


„ 12.57. 


n ft 


1. 2. 




M 


1.4. 
Flew about. 


it it 


1.15. 




»f 


1.18. 


ii ♦• 


1.23. 




l» 


1.27. 


II 19 


1.34. 




t» 


1.41. 


II II 


1.64. 




II 


2. 0. 


II II 



After which she did not return. During this time no other bee 
came to the honey. 

Again on another occasion I watched several bees, which on 
my list of marked bees stood as Nos. 3, 4, 7, 8, 10 and 11. 



9.45. 


Bee No. 10 came. 


9.50. ' 


Went back to hire. 


10. 0. 


i» 


10 


ii 


10. 3. 


ti 


10.18. 


ii 


10 


tt 


10.21. 


•i 


10.26. 


ii 


11 


»t 


10.30. 


ti 


10.30. 


ii 


4 


n 


10.30. 


tt 


10.36. 


ii 


7 


it 


10.45. 


t« 


10.46. 


ii 


4 


•i 


10.52. 


n 


10.49. 


i» 


7 


it 


10.52. 


it 


11. 0. 


it 


7 


it 


11. 9. 


tt 


11. 5. 


it 


4 


it 


11.9. 


tt 


11.11. 


ii 


7 


tt 


11.16. 


tt 


U.?l. 


ii 


7 


ii 


11.29. 


ii 


11.22. 


A strange bee came. 






11.26. 


BeeNc 


>. 4 came. 


11.31. 


t» 


11.30. 


ii 


7 


*t 


11.39. 


If 


»i 


ii 


10 


ii 


11.36. 


II 


11.40. 


ii 


4 


t» 


11.45. 


l» 


11.45. 


ii 


7 


ii 


11.5a 


l» 


11.47. 


ii 


10 


it 


11.09. 


II 


ii 


Another strange bee < 


came. 




12. 1. 


Bee No. 4 


it 


12. 6. 


II 


12.2. 


ii 


7 


it 


12.8. 


II 


12.3. 


ii 


3 


it 


12.7. 


M 


12. 4. 


»» 


10 


tt 


12. 7. 


It 


12.14. 


ii 


7 


w 


12.18. 


" » . 


12.17. 


it 


4 


ii 


12.21. 


II . 


12.24. 


ii 


7 


it 


12.31. 


»• 


12.30. 


ii 


10 


ii 


12.33. 


II 


12.36. 


it 


7 


it 


12.46. 


tl 


12.37. 


ti 


4 


it 


12.44. 


It 


12^7. 


it 


10 


ii 


12.40. 


It 


12.45. 


tt 


10 


it 


12.49. 


tt 


12.50. 


ii 


7 


it 


1254. 


„ 


12.50. 


it 


4 


tt 


l&M. 


It 


12.53. 


i» 


10 


„ 


12.56. 


It 



Digitized by 



Googk 



SIB JOH9 LUBBOCK OK BKK8 AXD WASPS. 



12 L 



12.57. 


Bee No. 


7 came. 


1. 0. Went beck to hire. 


12.57. 


t» 


4 


n 


1. 2. 


»t 


1. 0. 


„ 


10 


»t 


? 


„ 


1. 2. 


»» 


7 


„ 


1. 6. 


n 


1.9. 


»» 


4 


•» 


1.12. 


»t 


1.10. 


»» 


8 


»» 


1.16. 


»* 


1.10. 


„ 


7 


?» 


1.16. 


„ 


1.16. 


w 


4 


♦» 


1.19. 


>» 


1.17. 


•i 


5 


„ 


1.21. 


„ 


1.2a 


it 


7 


»» 


1.24. 


n 


1.20. 


M 


8 


»» 


1.25. 


„ 


1.21. 




4 


ti 


1.24. 


„ 


1.23. 


„ 


5 


H 


1.27. 


„ 


1.29. 


i» 


4 


n 






1.29. 


it 


7 


„ 







After this I ceased recording in detail ; but the above shows that 
while the marked bees came regularly, only in two cases did any 
unmarked bees come to the honey. 

In the above cases the honey was poured into saucers, but not 
weighed. In the following I used a wide-mouthed jar containing 
rather more than 1 lb. of honey. 



1.44. Bee No. 5 came. 


1.45. Went away. 


1.54. 


ii 


5 „ 


1.58. 


i» 


2. 2. 


it 


5 „ 


2. 5. 


♦i 


2.9. 


ii 


6 „ 


2.13. 


ii 


2. 9. 


it 


1 ,, 


2.15. 


„ 


2.18. 


it 


5 „ 


2.20. 


»» 


2.19. 


ii 


1 „ 


2.21. 


„ 


2.28. 


H 


1 „ 


231. 


„ 


237. 


II 


1 ., 


2.41. 


*• 


2.32. 


II 


5 „ 


2,40. 


ii 


3.49. 


II 


5 „ 


2.51. 


ii 


2.52. 


tl 


1 „ 


2.55. 


»• 


3.10. A stranger cane 


which I numbered at No. 14. 


an. 


Bee No. 1 cam?. 


3.13. Went away. 


3.19. 


•i 


5 . 


3.22. 


ii 


3.20. 


M 


1 ,, 


3.23. 


ii 


3.19. 


„ 


14 „ 


3.23. 


ii 


3.30. 


II 


5 „ 


&32. 


„ 


3.31. 


II 


14 „ 


3.33. 


ii 


3.37. 


II 


1 ., 


3.40. 


ii 


3.38. 


„ 


5 „ 


3.42. 


ii 


3.38. 


II 


14 „ 


3.41. 


ii 


3.47. 


„ 


5 „ 


3.49. 


ii 


3.46. 


M 


14 „ 


3.51. 


| She w 


3.54. 


»» 


14 „ 


3.66. 



Digitized by 



Googk 



122 BIB JOHN LUBBOCK OK BEE8 AKB WASPS. 



4. 


Bee No* 1 came. 


4. 3. Went away. 


4. 


»» 


5 „ 


4. 3. 


i» 


4. 5. 


V 


14 „ 


4.11. 


„ 


4.10. 


II 


5 „ 


4.12. 


»» 


4.15. 


It 


14 „ 


4.20. 


•i 


432. 


H 


1 ,> 


4.25. 


** 


4.24. 


»» 


14 „ 


4.29. 


i» 


4.26. 


ftt 


6 „ 


4.29 


i» 



Daring the whole of this time only one strange bee came, as 
recorded above. 

In the following ease I put out, besides 1,1b. of honey, also 
4 oz. of honey spread over two plates. 

12.15. One of my marked bees oame. 



12.26. She returned. 


12.36. 


»! 


12.51. 


t» 


1. 4. 


•» 


1.15. 


„ 


1.25. 


„ 


1.38. 


II 


1.49. 


II 


2. 


II 


2.14. 


If 


2.25. 


„ 


2.38. 


It 


2.50. 


II 


a 5. 


tr 


3.20. 


» 


3.39. 


ii 


3.62. 


i» 


4. 7. 


ii 


4.15. 


ii 


4.27. 


ti 


4.43. 


ii 


4.50. 


ii 


5.7. 


i> 


6.25. 


i» 


5.42. 


i» 


5.56. 


i» 


6.14. 





12.21. i 


9he went. 


12.31. 


ii 


12.44. 


ii 


12.57. 


»» 


1.12. 


tt 


1.19. 


„ 


1.32. 


„ 


1.44. 


i» 


1.55. 


»i 


2.7. 


it 


2.19. 


„ 


2.33. 


tt 


2.44. 


„ 


2.58. 


tt 


3.13. 


ti 


3.32. 


She wat die- 


8.45. 


[turbed. 


4. 


ii 


4.9. 


ti 


4.20. 


ii 


4.32. 


•i 


4.45. 


it 


4.59. 


it 


5.13. 


it 


Ml. 


ii 


5.48. 


i 


6. 1. 


it 



During this time no other bee came to the honey. 
Not satisfied with this, I procured a fine honeycomb weighing 
12} lbs, and brought to it one of my marked bees 



Digitized by 



Googk 



BIB TOOT LUBBOCK OS BZBS ABB WASPS. 



128 



»t2.40. 




2.47. 


She went beck to the him 


a. 4. She returned. 


3.13. 


•* 


II 


3.27. 


» 


337. 


ii 


»• 


3.46. 


»» 


&56. 


l» 


II 


4. 6. 


M 


4.18. 


II 


„ 


436. 


»» 


4.44. 


II 


II 


4.54. 


»> 


5.1a 


II 


n 


5.1a 


II 


6.26. 


•1 


ra 


5.36. 


• 
»» 


5.46. 


II 


»i 


5.54. 


>f 


6.7. 


II 


„ 


6.16. 


II 


6.27. 


II 


ii 


6.34. 


»f 


6.46. 


II 


ii 


6£1. 


ft 


7. 4. 


II 


„ 


7.14. 


IS 









During the whole of which time only one strange bee came. In 
this case it will be observed that she remained longer at the 
honey than in the previous instances. The intervals during 
which she was away were as follows : — 

1st visit 9 minutes, 



2nd 


„ 10 


3rd 


„ 8 


4th 


„ io 


5th 


„ 8 


6th 


„io 


7th 


„ 8 


8th 


„ » 


9th 


„ 7 


10th 


„ 5 


11th 


„io 



It seems obvious, then, that the bees which had found the honey 
did not communicate their discovery to the others. 

Though the bees came readily out through the little postern door 
of my observatory hive, they had much difficulty in finding their 
way back until they had done so several times. For instance, the 
following may be taken as a typical case : — 

August 8th. 

At 6.50 a bee came out through the little postern door. After she 
had fed, she evidently did not know her way home ; so I 
put her back. 

At 7.10 she came out again. I again fed her and put her back. 



Digitized by 



Googk 



124 BIB JOHN LUBBOCK 09 BEES AJTD WASPS. 

At 10. 15 she came out a third time ; and again I had to put her back. 
At 10.55 she came out again, and still did not remember the door. 

Though I was satisfied that she really wished to return, 

and was not voluntarily remaining outside, still, to make 

the matter clear, I turned her out of a side window into 

the garden, when she at once returned to the hive. 
At 11.15 she came out again ; and again I had to show her the way 

back. 
At 11.20 she came out again ; and again I had to show her the way 

back (this makes five times) ; when, however, 
at 11.80 she came out again after feeding, she returned straight 

to the hive. 
At 11.40 she came out, fed, and returned straight to the hive. 
At 11.50 she came out, fed, and returned straight to the hive ; she 

then stayed in for some time. 
At 12.80 she came out again, but seemed to have forgotten the 

way back ; after some time, however, she found the door 

and went in. 

Again : — August 24 at 7.20 a bee came through the postern ; 
I fed her ; and though she was not frightened or disturbed, when 
she had finished her meal she flew to the window and had evidently 
lost her way ; so at 8 o'clock I in pity put her back myself. 

August 29. A bee came out to the honey at 10.10 ; at 10.12 she 
flew to the window and remained buzzing about till 11.12, when, 
being satisfied that she could not find her way, I put her in. 

Nay, even those who seemed to know the postern, if taken near 
the other window, flew to it, and seemed to have lost themselves* 

This cost me a great many bees. Those which got into my 
room by accident continually died on the floor near the window. 

This is also well shown by the following experiments : — At 10.15 
I put a bee into a bell-glass 18 inches long and with a mouth 6| 
inches wide, turning the closed end to the window ; she busted 
about till 11.15, when, as there seemed no chance of her getting, 
out, I put her back into the hive. Two flies, on the contrary, which 
I put in with her, got out at once. At 1 1 .80 1 put another bee and 
a fly into the same glass ; the latter flew out at once. For half 
an hour the bee tried to get out at the closed end ; I then turned 
the glass with its open end to the light, when she flew out at 
once. To make sure, I repeated the experiment once more, with 
the same result. 



Digitized by 



Googk 



ant Jomr lubbock on bbbs ajtd wasps. 125 

dome bees, however, have seemed to me more intelligent in 
this respect than others. A bee which I hid fed several times 
and which had flown about in the room, found its way out of the 
glass in a quarter of an hour, and when put in a second time 
came out at once. Another bee, when I closed the postern door, 
used to come round to the honey through an open window. 

Bees seem to me much less clever in finding things than I had 
expected. One day (April 14, 1872) when a number of them 
were Tory busy on some berberries, I put a saucer with some 
honey between two bunches of flowers ; these were repeatedly 
visited, and were so close that there was hardly room for the 
saucer between them, yet from 9.30 to 8.30 not a single bee* took 
any notice of the honey. At 8.30 1 put some honey on one of the 
bunches of flowers, and it was eagerly sucked by the bees ; two 
kept continually returning till past fire in the evening. 

One day when I came home in the afternoon I found that at 
least a hundred bees had got into my room through the postern and 
were on the window, yet not one was attracted by an open jar of 
honey which stood in a shady corner about 3 feet 6 inches from 
the window. 

One day (29th April, 1872) I placed a saucer of honey close to 
some Forget-me-nots, on which bees were numerous and busy ; 
yet from 10 a.v. till 6 only one bee went to the honey. 

1 put some honey in a hollow in the garden wail opposite the 
hives at 10.30 (this wall is about five feet high and four feet from 
the hives); yet the bees did not find it during the whole day. 

On the 30th March, 1873, a fine sunshiny day, when the bees 
were rery active, I placed a glass containing honey at 9 in the 
morning on the wall in front of the hives ; but not a single bee 
went to the honey the whole day. On April 20 1 tried the same 
experiment, with the same result. 

September 19. At 9.30 1 placed some honey in a glass about 
four feet from and just in front of the hive ; but during the whole 
day not a bee observed it. 

As it then occurred to me that it might be suggested that 
there was something about this honey which rendered it unat- 
tractive to the bees, on a following day 1 placed it again on the 
top of the wall for three hours, during which not a single bee 
came, and then moved it close to the alighting-board of the hive. 
It remained unnoticed for a quarter of an hour, when two bees 
observed it ; and others soon followed in considerable numbers. 



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126 BIB JOHN LUBBOCK OK BEES AND WASPS. 

Some days, indeed, the bees did not seem to care about honey. 
Thus, September 19, 1 placed eleven bees one by one on some 
honey not fer from the hive ; they all fed well and returned 
quietly to the hive, but not one came back to the honey. 

Indeed, under such circumstances, though the bees almost 
invariably fed with every appearance of enjoyment, comparatively 
few returned to the honey, even when it was not above 20 or 
30 yards from the hive. 

As regards time, the examples given above may be taken as fair 
illustrations ; and on the whole it seems that, if honey is easily 
procurable and near the hive, a bee will on an average make about 
five excursions in the hour. 

Sometimes, however, a bee will stay for hours inside the nest, 
even when the day is suitable and other bees are out ; for instance, 
on the 24th August a marked bee remained in the hive all the 
morning. 

Burmeister, in the passage already quoted (ante p. 115), says 
that bees have a sign which serves to prevent any strange bee 
from intruding into the hive without being immediately detected 
and killed, This seems to rest on a statement of Gdien, who 
believed that in each hive the bees had some common sign or 
pass-word. As evidence of this, he mentions • that one of his 
hives bad been for some days robbed by the bees from another ; 
" et je d£sesp6rai8 de conserver cet essaim, lorsqu'un jour, sur 
le soir, je le vis fort inquiet, fort agit£, comme s'il ett perdu sa 
reine. Les abeilles couraient en tout sens sur le devant et le 
tablier de la ruche, se flairant, se t&tant mutuellement, comme si 
elles eussent voulu se dire quelque chose. C'6tait pour changer 
leur signe de reconnaissance, qu'elles chang&rent en effet pendant 
la nuit. Toutes les pillardes qui revinrent le lendemain, furent 
arr£t6es et tu£es. Flusieurs 6chappferent aux gardes vigilantes 
qui d6fendaient PentrSe, avertirent sans doute les autres du 
danger qu'elles avaient couru, et que Ton ne pouvait plus pQler 
impun&nent. Aucune de celles qui voulurent recommencer 
leur depredation, ne p6n6tra dans la ruche dont elles avaient fait 
leur proye, et qui prospers merveilleusement." 

Dujardin, however, has suggested another explanation of this 
case. He thinks that the behaviour of the bees indicated not a 
change of sign or password, but an alteration in the state of the 

* Le Conaerrateur det AbeiUtt, p. 143. 



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BIB JOHN LVBBOOK ON BSB8 AND WASPS. 127 

queen in relation to the colony, which thus resumed its ordinary 
condition, and found itself in a position to repel the invaders. 
Howerer this may be, the observation of G61ien, though curious 
and interesting, scarcely seems to bear out the conclusion he has 
drawn from it. 

80 far as my own observations go, though bees habitually know 
and return to their own hive, still, if placed on the alighting- 
board of another, they enter it without molestation. Thus : — 

On May 4 I put a strange bee into a hive at 2 o'clock. 
She remained in till 2.20, when she came out, but entered again 
directly. I was away most of the afternoon, but returned at 
5.30 ; at six she came out of the hive, but soon returned ; and 
after that I saw no more of her. 

May 12. A beautiful day, and the bees very active. I placed 
twelve marked bees on the alighting-board of a neighbouring 
hive. They all went in ; but before evening ten had returned 
home. 

May 18. Again put twelve marked bees on the alighting-board 
of another nest ; eleven went in. The following day I found that 
seven had returned home ; the other five I could not see. 

May 17. Took a bee and, after feeding her and marking her 
white, put her to a hive next but one to her own at 4.18. She 
went in. 

4.22. Came out and went in again. 

4.29. Came out. I fed her and sent her back. 

4.85. Came out. Took a little flight and came back. 4.45 

went in, but returned. 4.52. Went in. 

4.58. Came out. 4.56. „ 

4.57. „ 4.58. „ 
5. 1. „ , took another little flight, and returned. I 

fed her again. 5.25. Went in again. 

5.28. Came out again. 5.29. „ 

5.81. „ 5.83. „ 

5.86. „ 5.40. 

5.46. Shut her and the others in with a piece of note-paper. 

6.86. One of the bees had eaten its way through. I opened 
the door ; and several, including the white one, came out 
directly. Till 6.50 she kept on going in and out every 
minute or two. Hardly any bees were flying, only a 
few standing at the doors of most of the hives. At 7.20 
she was still at the hive-door. 



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128 8TE JOHN LUBBUCK OX BEES UTD WA8P8. 

May 20. Between 6 and 7 1 marked a bee and transferred her to 
another hive. 

May 21. Watched from 7.30 to 8.9 in the morning without 
seeing her. At half past six went down again, directly saw 
and fed her. She was then in her new hive ; but a few minutes 
after I observed her on the lighting-stage of her old hive ; so I again 
fed her, and when she left my hand she returned to the new hive. 

May 22. 8 o'clock. She was back in her old hive. 

May 23. About 12.30 she was again in the new hive. 

As far as my experience goes, bees which have stung and lost 
their sting always die ; not, however, immediately. On August 
25 a bee which had come several times to my honey was startled, 
flew to one of the windows, and had evidently lost her way. 
While I was putting her back, she stung me, and lost her sting in 
doing so. I put her in through the postern, and for twenty minutes 
she remained on the landing-stage ; she then went into the hive, 
and after an hour returned to the honey. After this, however, I 
did not see her any more. 

As regards the affection of bees for one another, it is no doubt 
true that when they have got any honey on them, they are always 
licked clean by the others ; but I am satisfied that this is for 
the sake of the honey rather than of the bee. On the 27th of 
September, for instance, I tried with two bees: one had been 
drowned, the other was smeared with honey. The latter was 
soon licked clean ; of the former they took no notice whatever. 
I have, moreover, repeatedly placed dead bees by honey on which 
live ones were feeding, but the latter never took the slightest 
notice of the corpses. 

Dead bees are indeed usually carried out of the hive j but if 
one is placed on the alighting-stage, the others seem to take no 
notice of it, though it is soon pushed off by the movements 
of the others. I have even seen the bees Bucking the juioes of 
a dead pupa. 

Light. — Though bees do not come out at night, they seem to 
be much affected by light. One evening I lit a small covered 
lamp to go down to the cellar. A bee which was out came to it, 
and, flying round and round like a moth, followed me the whole 
of the way there. 

Colour. — I have also made a number of experiments with refer- 
ence to colours, on which, however, I will not now dwell. I will 
only say that it seems clear that bees can distinguish colours. For 



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SIB JOHN LUBBOCK OK BEE8 AND WASPS. 129 

instance, on the 2nd of October I placed some honey on Blips of 
glass resting on black, white, yellow, orange, green, blue, and red 
paper. A bee which was placed on the orange returned twenty 
times to that slip of glass, only once or twice visiting the 
others, though I moved the position and also the honey. The 
next morning again two or three bees paid twenty-one visits to 
the orange and yellow, and only four to all the other slips of 
glass. I then moved the glass, after which, out of thirty-two 
visits, twenty-two were to the orange and yellow. These and 
other experiments seemed to me to show a real disposition, which 
was also well marked in the case of wasps, towards the orange 
and yellow. That they can see blue, however, is indicated by the 
following experiment : — Oct. 6. 1 had ranged my colours in a line, 
with the blue at one end. It was a cold morning, and only one 
bee came. She had been several times the preceding day, gene- 
rally to the honey which was on the blue paper. This day also 
she came to the blue ; I moved the blue gradually along the line 
one stage every half hour, during which time she paid fifteen 
visits to the honey, in every case going to that which was on the 
blue paper. 

Sound. — Aug. 29. The result of my experiments on the hearing 
of bees has surprised me very much. It is generally considered 
that to a certain extent the emotions of bees are expressed by 
the sounds they make *, which seems to imply that they possess 
the power of hearing. I do not by any means intend to deny 
that this is the case. Nevertheless I never found them take any 
notice of any noise which I made, even when it was close to them. 
I tried one of my bees with a violin. I made all the noise I could, 
but to my surprise she took no notice. I could not even see 
a twitch of the antenns. The next day I tried the same with an- 
other bee, but could not see the slightest sign that she was con- 
cious of the noise. On Aug. 31 1 repeated the same experiment 
with another bee, with the same result. On the 12th and 13th of 
September I tried several bees with a dog-whistle and a shrill 
pipe ; but they took no notice whatever, nor did a set of tuning- 
forks which I tried on a subsequent day have any more effect. 
These tuning-forks extended over three octaves, beginning with a 
below the ledger-line. I also tried with my voice, shouting Ac. 
close to the head of a bee ; but in spite of my utmost efforts, the 

* See for instance Landois, Zeite. f. wits. Zool. 1867, p. 184. 



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130 SIB JOHN LXTBBOCK ON BEES AND WASPS. 

bees took no notice. I repeated these experiments at night when 
the bees were quiet ; but no noise that I could make seemed to 
disturb them in the least. 

Temper. — I found the temper of the bees very variable. Gener- 
ally they allowed me to handle them without any sign of irritation ; 
while at other times, without any reason which I could discover, 
they stung me sometimes several times in a day ; they seemed the 
more prone to do so the hotter the weather. 

Wasps. 

Sept. 18. I had in my room a nest of Humble Bees, which I 
fed with honey. The honey was also visited by wasps. One 
evening I marked one of these wasps (No. 1) which visited this 
honey ; she was a large female of V. germanica ; her last visit to 
the honey that day was at 6.80. 

The next morning she came for the first time 
at 7.25, and fed till 7.28, when she began flying about the room 
and even into the next ; so I thought it well to put her 
out of the window, when she flew straight away to her 
nest. My room, as already mentioned, had windows on 
two sides ; and the nest was in the direction of a closed 
window, so that the wasp had to go out of her way in 
going out through the open one. 
At 7.45 she came back. I had moved the glass containing the 
honey about 2 yards ; and though it stood conspicuously, 
the wasp deemed to have much difficulty in finding it. 
Again she flew to the window in the direction of her 
nest, and I had to put her out, which I did at 8.2. 
At 8.15 she returned to the honey almost straight. 8.21, she 
flew again to the closed window, and apparently could 
not find her way; so at 8.35 I put her out again. 
It seems obvious from this that wasps have a sense of 
direction, and do not find their way merely by sight. 
At 8.50 back to honey, and 8.54 again to wrong window ; but 
finding it closed, she took two or three turns round 
the room, and then flew out through the open window. 
At 9.24 back to the honey; and 9.27 away, first, however, 
paying a visit to the wrong window, but without 
alighting. 



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8IB JOHN LUBBOCK OH BEES AND WASPS. 



131 



At 9.36. Back to the honey, and 9.39 away, but, as before, going first to wrong 

window. She was away therefore 9 minute*. 



9.50. 


if 


it 


9.53 away 


, this time straight. 


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10. 7 


ii 




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it 


ii 


10.22 


ii 




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ii 


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12. 3. 


ii 


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ii 




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ii 


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ii 


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ii 


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1.19 


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1.27. 


ii 


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it 




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Here for the first time another specimen 


came to the honey. 




XL37. 


Back to the honey, 


and 1.39 away 


(was rather disturbed, 


1.46. 


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ii 


1.49 


ii 


as I tried to Interval 7 


1.54. 


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ii 


mark her). 


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ii 




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3. 2. 


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6.20. 


II 


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,i 9 



She did not come any more that day ; but, as will be seen, 

* She rery often, however, throughout the day, in going away, flew to the 
other window first, and then, without alighting, returned to and went through 
the open one. 

LIKK. JOXTBN. — EOOLOGT, TOL. XII. 10 



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182 



BIB JOHN LUBBOCK OK BEES AHB WASPS. 



she had made forty-five visits to the honey in eleven hours. 
During the whole of this time no strange wasp, except the one 
above mentioned, came to this honey. 

The following day, September 20th, this wasp made her ap- 
pearance in my room at 6.55, when she flew straight to the honey. 



At 0.55 came to the honey. 6.50 went away. 



7. 8 


7.10 


7.18 


7.22 


7.30 


7.32 


7.41 


7.45 


7.53 


7.56 


8. 4 


a 7 


8.15 


8.18 


8.27 


8.30 


SJ3S 


8.41 


8.50 


8.53 


9. 1 


9. 4 


912 


9.15 


0.22 


9.25 


9.34 


9.36 


9.46 


9.51 


10. 1 


10. 3 


10.13 


10.18 


10.28 


10.30 


10.38 


10.42 


10.53 


10.56 


11. 7 


. 11.11 


11.21 


11.25 


11.32 


11.36 



The wasp which oame onoe yesterday returned and rather disturbed the first, 
At 1 1 .49 oame to the honey. 1 1 .50 went away. 
11.57 „ 12 

12. 8 „ 12.11 „ 

Here I was away for about two hours. 
2.42 oame to the honey. 2.46 went away. 

2.58 a 2 „ Interval 12 minutes. 

3.15 „ &17 

3.25 „ 3.28 „ 

Here I was called away. 
4.25 oame to the honey. 4.28 „ 



4.41 
£.15 
5.30 
5.45 
6. 2 
6.15 



4.45 
5.19 
5.35 
5.50 
6. 6 
6.17 



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12 




, 


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minutes. 



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SIB JOHN LUBBOCK 09 BBSS ATO WASPS. 188 

This was the last visit that day. She made therefore thirty- 
eight visits during the time she was watched, which was not quite 
eight hours. She was at work from 6.55 to 6.15 ; and assuming 
that she was occupied in the same manner during the three hours 
when she was not watched, as during the rest of the time, she 
would have made over fifty visits to the honey during the day. 

Wishing, however to have a complete record of a day's work, 
I watched her the following day without intermission. 

September 21. I began watching at ten minutes past six. 



6.16. She < 


Mme to the honey. 6.19. 


She went away. 








&29. 


t» 


6.32. 


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An interval of 10 minute*. 


6.41. 


ft 


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WSm disturbed and seemed rather troubled. 






ail.She« 


seme to the honey. 8.14. She went away. 


An interval of 8 minute*. 


8.20. 


ft 


8.24. 


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10* 



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134 BIB JOHN LUBBOCK OK BEES A2H> WASPS. 

2.10. She oame to the honey. 2.13. She went away. An interval of 8 minute*. 
235. „ 2.30. ,. ,. 12 „ 

2.45. „ 2.56. ^ „ „ 15 „ 

She bossed about at the other window for a few minutes, which made the 

interral longer than usual. 
3.13. She oame to the honey. 3.18. She went away. An interral of 17 minutes* 
3.29. „ 3.31. ,, ,,11 „ 

3.41. „ 3.45. „ „ 10 „ 

3.49. ., 3.52. „ „ 4 

4. 2. „ 4. 6. „ „ 7 
4.19. „ 452. „ „ 13 „ 
4.29. „ 4.33. „ „ 7 ,, 
4.40. „ 4.44. „ „ 7 „ 
4.51. „ 4.53. „ „ 7 

5. 4. „ 5. 6. „ „ 11 
5.16. „ 5.20. „ „ 10 
5.32. „ 5.35. „ „ 12 „ 
5.45. „ 5.50. „ „ 10 „ 

It will be seen that the intervals of her absence were remark- 
ably regular. On one occasion, indeed, she was only away four 
minutes ; but this time I think she had been disturbed and had 
not provided herself with a regular supply of food. 

The number of visits was fifty-one in eleven hours and a half. 
I tried whether she would be in any way affected by a dead wasp, 
so I put one on the honey; but she took no notice whatever. 

I observed with other wasps, that when the open window was 
not the shortest way to their nests, they had a great tendency to 
fly to that which was in the right direction, and to remain buzzing 
about there. 

During the whole of this day, only four or five strange wasps 
came to the honey. 

As regards the regularity of their visits, and the time occupied, 
other waspa which I observed agreed very closely with this one. 
For comparison, it may be worth while to give one or two other 
cases. I will commence with that of a worker, I believe F. wl- 
garis, observed on the 19th September. 

10 a.m. I put her to the honey, she fed and then flew about the 

room and at last got into my bee-hive. 
10.54. She came in again at the window. I again put her to the 

honey. She again flew all about the room. 
11.41. She returned and this time came to the honey ; but when 

she had fed again flew round and round the rooia, and 



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BIB J0H2T LUBBOCK OK BEIS AHD WASPS. 135 

did not seem able to find her way out. I therefore put 

her out. 
12*11. She returned, and the same thing happened again. 
1238. She came back to the honey. 12.31. Flew straight away. 
12.46. 



12^3. 


t» 


12.57. 


tt 






1.10. 


»t 










1.26. 


91 


1.29. 


>i 


Interral 




1.38. 


tt 


1.41. 


♦» 


9 minutes. 


1.50. 


tt 


1.53. 


tt 


9 


tt 


2.3. 


»» 


2. 6. 


„ 


10 


tt 


2.12. 


»t 


2.16. 
Was disturbed. 


tt 


6 


tt 


230. 


tt 


235. 


»» 


4 


tt 


2.40. 


It 


2.43. 


„ 


15 


tt 


2.51. 


tt 


2.54. 


n 


8 


tt 


a 1. 


tt 


3.4. 


tt 


7 


t? 


aia 


tt 


3.16. 


tt 


9 


tt 


3.25. 


tt 


338. 


tt 


9 


tt 


3.35. 


»» 


a38. 


tt 


7 


tt 


3.46. 


tt 


3.50. 


>t 


8 


tt 


a58. 


»» 


4. 1. 


tt 


8 


tt 


410. 


W 


4.14. 


it 


9 


tt 


423. 


M 


4.25. 


M 


9 


tt 


4.34. 


•• 


4.38. 


»t 


9 


tt 


4.46. 


tt 


4.50. 


tt 


8 


tt 


4.58. 


•t 


5. 4. 


it 


8 


tt 


5.14. 


»» 


Was disturbed and flew about. - 


8 


tt 



She did not return any more that evening, but made her 
appearance again at half-past six the next morning. 

From twelve o'clock, when she had learnt her way, till fire, she 
made twenty-five visits in five hours, or about five an hour, as in 
the previous cases. 

It struck me as curious that on the following day this wasp 
seemed by no means so sure of her way, but over and over again 
went to the closed window. 

I will give one other illustration : — 

September 21. At 1 1.50 1 fed a wasp. 



11.56. She returned to honey. 


11.57. Flew away. 


12. 6. 


12. 8. 


1.25. 


1.27. 


1.37. 


1.39. 


157. 


2. 0. 



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136 SIB JOHN LUBBOCK OK BIBS ASJ> W4AF8. 



2.16. I 


She returned to hooey. 


2.17. Flew away. 


232. 


»r 


n 


2.25. 


tt 


2.32. 


»» 


»t 


236. 


tt 


fc50. 


n 


ft 


2.55. 


ft 


3. 2. 


n 


ft 


3. 4. 


•t 


3.14. 


it 


ft 


3.18. 


tt 


3.2a 


« 


n 


3.30. 


f» 


3.40. 


ft 


rr 


3.44. 


ft 


3.51. 


tl 


tt 


3.55. 


tt 


4. 4. 


»» 


ft 


4.8. 


tt 


4.16. 


» 


ff 


4.20. 


ft 


? 


tt 


n 


431. 


tt 


4.37. 


ff 


ff 


4.41. 


it 


4.46. 


»f 


ff 


4.48. 


tt 


4.57. 


„ 


ff 


5. 


t» 


5. 9. 


M 


f» 


5.12. 


tt 


5.22L 


ft 


n 


5.26. 


tt 


5.31. 


ft 


ft 


5.36. 


tt 



After the above facte we may, I think, well say " How doth the 
little busy wMp." Even Mr. Ormerod teems hardly to hare 
done justice to his favourites. He is very severe on those 
wasps which " take up their quarters on the wrong rides of our 
window/ 9 " I have nothing " he continues * u to say on behalf 
of these wasps ; they are a nuisance and a terror to aO who have 
little children. They are mere stragglers, who have lost all feel- 
ing of good fellowship, have deserted their nest, and are leading 
a freebooter's life.' 9 Many of them, on the contrary, I am satis- 
fied, are perfectly respectable wasps which have unfortunately lost 
their way. 

My experiments, then, in opposition to the statements of Huber 
and Dujardin, seem to show that wasps and bees do not convey to 
one another information as to food which they may have discovered. 
No doubt, when one wasp has discovered and is visiting a supply 
of syrup, others are apt to come too ; but I believe that they merely 
follow one another. If they communicated the fact, considerable 
numbers would at once make their appearance ; but I have never 
found this to be the case. The frequent and regular visits which 
my wasps paid to the honey put out for them proves that it was very 
much to their taste; yet few others made their appearance. For 
instance, on the 19th September, as recorded above, only one wasp 
came of herself to the honey ; this wasp returned on the 20th, but 
not one other. The 21st was a hot day, and there were many wasps 
* Natural History of Wisp* p. 245. 



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ft!* JOHB LUBBOCK OB BBSS ABB WASB8. 137 

about the house ; my honey was regularly rotted by the two 
marked wasps ; but during the whole day only fire others came to 
it 

September 22. Again only only one strange wasp came up to 
one o'clock. 

September 27. Only one strange wasp came. 

October 2 and 8. These days were' cold ; a few marked bees 
and wasps came to my honey, but no strangers. 

October 4. Two strangers. 

October 6. Only one stranger. 

On these days the honey was watched almost without intermis- 
sion the whole day, and was more or less regularly visited by the 
marked bees and wasps. 

These and other observations of the same tendency seem to 
show that, even if wasps have the power of informing one another 
when they discover a store of good food, at any rate they do not 
habitually do so. 

On the whole, wasps seem to me more clever in finding 
their way than bees. I tried wasps with the glass mentioned on 
p. 124 ; but they had no difficulty in finding their way out. 

Sounds. — My wasps, though courageous, were always on the 
alert, and easily startled. It was, for instance, much more difficult 
to paint them than the bees ; nevertheless, though I tried them 
with a set of tuning-forks covering three octaves, with a shrill 
whistle, a pipe, a violin, and my own voice, making in each case 
the loudest and shrillest sounds in my power, I could see no 
symptoms in any oase that they were conscious of the noise. 

I made also a number of experiments with reference to colour, 
which have satisfied me that wasps, like bees, are capable of 
distinguishing colours. I am anxious, however, to repeat and 
extend these observations, and shall then hope to have the oppor- 
tunity of laying them before the Society. 

The following feet struck me as rather remarkable. The 
wasp already mentioned at the foot of p. 185 one day smeared 
her wings with syrup, so that she could not fly. When this 
happened to a bee, it was only necessary to carry her to the 
alighting-board, when she was soon cleaned by her comrades. 
But I did not know where this wasp's nest was, and therefore 
could not pursue a similar course with her. At first, then, 



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188 BIB JOHH LUBBOCK OK BEES ACT) WASPS. 

I was afraid that she was doomed. I thought, however, that 
I would wash her, fully expecting, indeed, to terrify her so 
much that she would not return again. I therefore caught 
her, put her in a bottle half full of water and shook her up well 
till the honey was washed off. I then transferred her to a dry 
bottle and put her in the sun. When she was dry I let her 
out, and she at once flew to her nest. To my surprise, in 18 
minutes she returned as if nothing had happened, and conti- 
nued her visits to the honey all the afternoon. 

This experiment interested me so much that I repeated it with 
another marked wasp, this time, however, keeping the wasp in the 
water till she was quite motionless and insensible. When taken 
out of the water she soon recovered ; I fed her ; she went quietly 
away to her nest as usual, and returned after the usual absence. 
The next morning this wasp was the first to visit the honey. 

I was not able to watch any of the above-mentioned wasps for 
more than a few days ; but I kept a specimen of PoUste$ gdllica 
for no less than tiape* months. rw^«-c 

I took her, with her nest, in the Pyrenees early in May, The 
nest consisted of about twenty cells, the majority of which con- 
tained an egg ; but as yet no grubs had been hatched out, and, of 
course, my wasp was as yet alone in the world. 

I had no difficulty in inducing her to feed on my hand ; but 
at first she was shy and nervous. She kept her sting in constant 
readiness ; and once or twice in the train, when the railway officials 
came for tickets, and I was compelled to hurry her back into her 
bottle, she stung me slightly — I think, however, entirely from 
fright. 

Gradually she became quite used to me, and when I took her 
on my hand apparently expected to be fed. She even allowed me 
to stroke her without any appearance of fear, and for some months 
I never saw her sting. 

When the cold weather came on she fell into a drowsy state, 
and I began to hope she would hibernate and survive the winter. 
I kept her in a dark place, but watched her carefully, and fed her 
if ever she seemed at all restless. 

She came out occasionally, and seemed as well as usual til] near 
the end of February, when one day I observed she had nearly 
lost the use of her antennae, though the rest of the body was as 
usual. She would take no food. Next day I tried again to feed 
her ; but the head seemed dead, though she oould still move her 



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KB. B. MCLAOHLAN ON 02TISCIGASTBB WAXBFIELDI. 189 

legs, wings, and abdomen. The following day I offered her food 
for the last time; but both head and thorax were dead or paralyzed ; 
she could but wag her tail, a last token, as I could almost fancy, 
of gratitude and affection. As far aa I could judge, her death 
was quite painless ; and she now occupies a place in the British 
Museum. 

Ants. 

My experiments with ants have not been very succcessful ; I 
may, however, just mention the following : — 

On the 29th of December I took some red ants and placed 
them in a glass in my room. On the 4th of March following 
I put four of them back into their nest, but could not see any 
sign of joy on their part, or any evidence that they were recog- 
nized by their former companions. As, however, they soon went 
down into their nest and were out of sight, this observation 
was not very satisfactory. I therefore took some of the ants 
which had been left in the nest, and placed them in the glass. 
They joined the others, and crossed antenna) in the usual way ; 
but I saw no special signs of satisfaction or recognition. For 
the sake of comparison, I put some other red ants with them, and 
I could observe no difference of behaviour. 



On Onitcigatter Wakqfieldi, the singular Insect from New Zea- 
land, belonging to the Family Ephemeridae ; with Notes on its 
Aquatic Conditions. By Eobeet McLachlan, F.L.S. 

[Batd March 10, 1874.] 

(Plat* V.) 

At the Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science held at Bradford in September of last year, I brought 
before the notice of Section D a very singular species of Ephe* 
merida* that I had just received from my friend C. M. Wakefield, 
Esq., of Christchurch, Canterbury Settlement, New Zealand, and 
which I proposed to name Onitdgatter Wakqfieldi, the generic 
term being suggested by the formation of the terminal abdominal 
segments, they being provided on each side with wing-like corne- 
ous acute expansions strongly resembling a portion of an Oniscu* 
or of some other Crustacean, and the true relationship of which, 



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140 MB. BOBBBT MOLi-CHLAlT OJT 

if examined only as a fragment, would scarcely be suspected. I 
had then received only female imagos ; and an account of them 
(with a wood-cut) was published almost simultaneously in the 
Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for October 1874, vol. x. 
pp. 108-110. I have nothing to add to the generic diagnosis of 
the $ imago there given, excepting to indicate that instead of the 
7th to the 9th abdominal segments only bearing the lateral cor- 
neous dilatations, the 6th to the 9th are really so furnished, a 
feet of which 1 was before doubtful, as indicated by a foot-note. 

Eecently I have received a further supply of the insect from 
Mr. "Wakefield, and this time including males and the female 
subimago, before unknown to me. The male has, as I suspected, 
its eyes simple (as in the female), and very much longer anterior 
legs (a usual character in the family) ; but the abdomen is not 
much less robust than that of the female, and the middle tail is 
scarcely more abbreviated. The penultimate ventral segment 
carries a pair of 5-jointed forcipate appendages *. 

I proceed to give an amended generic diagnosis of the female, 
and add thereto that of the male. 

OfflSCIGASTEB. 

( $ Imago.) Corpus elongatum, valde robustum. Al» quatuor ; 
postic® sat latsD, ovales ; omnes venulis transversalibus ubique 
(antic® apicem versus minus dense) regulariter reticulata. 
Pedes antici reliquis vix longiores; tarsi omnes 5-articulati, 
subsDqualiter biunguiculati, posticorum articulo 4° brevi sed 
valde distincto. Abdomen valde elongatum et robustum ; 
segmentis 6°-9° utrinque conspicue corneo-alatis, acute pro* 
ductis; ultimo parvo, elongato, obtuso-conicali : ovivalvula 
nulla : caudae tres elongat®, sed mediana ceteris gracilior et 
brevior. 

(<$ Imago.) Oculiutin ? integri. Pedes antici valde longiores. 
Cauda mediana paullo brevior. Abdomen infra segmentum 
nonum appendicibus forcipatis 5-articulatis instructum. 

In its specific characters the male agrees with the female per* 
fectly in coloration. The forcipate abdominal appendages are 

* Five joints are unusual, four being the normal number ; but it appears to 
me that the so-called second joint actually exists, and is defined by a suture. 



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0KI8CIOA8TEB WAJLEFIELDI. 141 

slender and white, excepting the more robust basal joint, which is 
brownish. 

The female subimago differs in the body being greyish rather 
than a decided brown ; and the wings are uniformly smoky-grey 
(the anterior pair paler at the base), which coloration is caused 
by the subimaginal pellicle. I give here an extended specific 
diagnosis. 

Oniscigastkr Wakkpikldi. 

( $ Imago.) O rapra nigro-fusca; thorace nitido ; abdomine indktincte 
pollido-vajio, infra flavido, nigro-punctato, segmentis aingulatim 
macula magna nigra utrinque ngnatU: caudas flavo-albidss. Pedes 
flavi, late nigro-annulati. Alas vitreas, anticarum dimidio basali et 
pogticia omnino bete fuliginous: vena: venulseque nigra*; hit ad 
anticarum marginem costalem valde incrassatis, nigro-marginatis et 
luffuiis : humeris nigrii vel nigro-fuscis. 

Long. corp. (sine caudis) 10"' (=21 mill.); exp. alar. 19'" (=40 
mill.). 

(5 Subimago.) Corpus griseum vel fusco-griseum. Ahe subopace, 
griseo-infumatas (antics ad basin pallidiores) ; venis ut in $ colo- 
ratis. 

( o* Imago.) Corpus paullo minus robustum ; appendicibns slbis, articulo 
prinio robusto, paullo fusco-tincto, 2° parvo, 3° valde elongate, gracili, 
curvato, 4° et 5° brevissimis, asqualibus; peni elongato triangular^ 
fusco, ad apicem exciao. Long. corp. (sine caudis) 9J'" (=19 mill.) ; 
long. caud. extern, circa 8'" (= 1/ mill.); medians 2$'" (a 5 mill.) ; 
exp. alar. 16*"' (= 35 mill.). 

The value of Mr. Wakefield's last consignment was greatly 
increased, inasmuch as accompanying it were two individuals of 
the aquatic conditions of the insects in spirits. These are so 
interesting that a somewhat detailed description is necessary. 
They are of different ages, and may be termed * larva' and 
* nymph * respectively, though, as is well known, these stages are 
defined in the Ephemerid® by no abrupt line of demarcation such 
as exists in the life-history of insects with more complete meta- 
morphosis. I use the terms as a matter of convenience, because 
the larger individual has strongly developed rudimentary wings, 
and is evidently nearly mature, whereas the smaller only pos- 
sesses the thoracic lobes which indicate the position of the 
wings. 

I proceed to consider the larger individual, or " nymph," first. 

It is 12 J" (- 26 mill.) in length including the tails, and 9'" 



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142 KB. BOBEET MCLACHLAJT OK 

( = 19 mill.) excluding those organs, which themselves are 9£'" 
(=7 mill.) long. Probably it has arrived at its last stage, 
immediately before assuming the aerial condition of subimago, 
the rudimentary wings extending slightly over the suture between 
the third and fourth abdominal segments. The general colour 
(as is usual with many aquatic larvae) is undecided, but may be 
termed greyish-olive. The head is small, with simple hemi- 
spherical eyes. The antenna in this individual are mutilated, but 
probably they resembled those of the smaller specimen noticed 
below. The frontal portion of the disk, above, forms a slightly 
concave triangular space bordered by raised keels on either side ; 
and these are continued as a single keel to the front margin, 
which is rounded ; and when viewed from beneath, attached to it 
is seen the transversely subquadrate clypetts, and the large labrum, 
the front edge of which is very slightly rounded and raised and 
with obsolete angles, the margins being slightly ciliated. The 
mandible* are very broad; viewed from above there are two 
strong blackish teeth on the outer angle, each divided into two 
or more smaller teeth ; and to these succeeds a concave edge ; and 
the inner angle and edge possess what seems to be a pectinated 
fringe. Viewed from beneath the external teeth are still more 
prominent, and they are succeeded by a long moveable testaceous 
spine, the inner angle and margin being provided with a kind of 
cup-shaped sucker formed by the dense pectinated fringe (if such 
it really be) noticed above : the dentition Ac., of the two man- 
dibles is not quite symmetrical, that which frequently occurs in 
insects. The maxilla are large and elongate, with strong teeth 
on the apical portion, and with a false suture, giving them the 
appearance of being divided into two longitudinal portions. The 
maxillary palpi are 3-jointed, stout, all the joints nearly equal in 
length, but each successively rather thinner. The labium is 
deeply divided into four palpiform lobes, the two on one side 
being curved in a direction opposed to those on the other, so that 
the two inner approach each other at base and apex. The labial 
palpi are 3-jointed, very stout, the apical joint obtuse and con- 
siderably shorter than the others. The pronotum is very narrowly 
transverse. The meeonotum and metanotum are consolidated into 
one large convex oval piece, with a median longitudinal suture 
and two semilunate fove® posteriorly ; the posterior margin pro* 
duced into a lobe. The rudimentary wings are elongate, ellipti- 
cal, and with strong indications of veins. The abdomen is some- 



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0KISCIQA8TEB WAXEFXELDI. 143 

what depressed, broadest at the third segment, and gradually 
decreasing to the apex ; each segment (excepting the tenth, and 
perhaps the first) is produced at the sides into an acute wing-like 
dilatation (similar to that on the terminal segments of the imago) ; 
and, in addition, there is a like-formed tooth, or dilatation, placed 
vertically on the middle of each segment, forming a serrated dorsal 
crest ; on the dorsum of each segment, from (I think) the second 
to the sixth, is, on each side, a large rounded external gill or 
branchial lamina, very densely reticulated by a network of 
tracheal ramifications, most densely on the margins, because on 
the disk they form somewhat large cellules ; each gill overlaps 
that on the succeeding segment, and is possibly double, for there 
appears to be an indication of a lower gill one half shorter than 
the upper ; but I have been unable to separate them : these gills 
are only well-defined when the animal is floating free in the spirit ; 
for they are so delicate that they disappear if it become at 
all dry: the tenth or terminal segment is somewhat conical: 
viewed from below the rudiments of the appendages are plainly 
discernible in the male nymph, proceeding from the margin of 
the penultimate segment and indistinctly 3-jointed, the middle 
joint being the longest ; between them are two tubercles indi- 
cating the rudiments of the penis. The three tail* are of nearly 
equal lengths, rather short, and each gradually attenuated to the 
end ; the two outer are curved inwardly at the apex ; each has a 
long dark space in the middle ; the joints are short and indistinct, 
excepting under a high power, when the sutures are plainly ' 
visible, and seen to be furnished with minute blackish teeth ; 
internally each of the outer tails has long ciliations ; and the 
median is ciliated on both sides, all the cilia interlacing and 
giving to the tails when in the spirit the appearance of a single 
broad lamina. The legs are short and rather stout, without 
teeth ; the trochanters small ; the femora are the longest and 
stoutest joints, the tibia being shorter and less stout, and with a 
false suture near the base causing an appearance of a small 
intermediate joint ; the monomerous tarsi are longer than the 
tibia, and articulated to them in a very oblique manner ; the end 
claw is short and curved, acute at the apex. 

The smaller individual or " larva " is 10"' (=21 mill.) long, 
including the tails, and 7£'" (= 16 mill) without the tails ; its 
greatest breadth is 2\'" (= 5 mill.). The antenna are short, 
composed of twelve more or less moniliform joints, whereof the 



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144 MB. ROBERT UCLkQBJLAX OK 

two at the base are much stouter than the others ; they gradually 
diminish in stoutness from base to apex, the apical joint being 
subacute. (As these organs are wanting in the more mature 
individual, it is impossible to say if the number of joints varies 
according to age.) The thoracic lobes (whence the wings eventu- 
ally proceed) only partially cover the sides of the second abdo- 
minal segment. In other respects this individual does not differ 
structurally from that above described, only that (supposing it 
to be also a male) there are no indications of the rudimentary 
appendages Ac. 

This remarkable insect would appear to be common at Christ- 
church ; for Mr. Wakefield says the cast subimaginal skins are no 
rarities there, sticking on walls, windows, Ac. ; and he modestly 
accords the credit of its original discovery to his fellow townsman 
Mr. Fereday, who some years since sent an individual intended 
for me to this country, but which, by an accident, never came 
under my notice. 

The Bev. A. E. Eaton (the author of the elaborate ' Monograph 
on the Ephemeridtt ' in the Transactions of the Entomological 
Society of London, 1871, Part i.) remarks that the structure of 
the aquatic conditions shows that the creatures are of active 
habits, swimming freely among water-plants, Ac. and not semi- 
fossorial, as is the case with some members of the family. 
He thinks the genus related to Siphluru* (which has an 
indication of lateral expansions of the abdominal segments), 
and through it distantly to Cloeon, but in the earlier states 
rather than in the imago; for CloSon has double eyes in the 
male. With regard to my idea of there being a second smaller 
branchial plate under the large upper one, he rather inclines to 
the belief that it is only an illusory appearance caused by infla- 
tion with the spirits ; but to my eyes the appearance became more 
marked in a plate I had detached, and which became dry from 
evaporation. I tender my warmest thanks to Mr. Eaton for 
information as to probable habits and affinities, which his critical 
knowledge of the group renders additionally valuable. 

The great lateral expansion of the margins of the abdominal 
segments is without a parallel in any known perfect insect of the 
group. In the aquatic conditions there are occasional i nd ications 
of it, especially in the extraordinary Bcetuoa obem of Bay, a 
North-American species, the nymph of which has been described 
by the late B. D. Walsh (from specimens found in Illinois). 



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oviscieAsm wakxteelto. 145 

But in this species there is an enormous development of the 
thoracic surface, this portion of the body forming a kind of 
carapace, covering all but the terminal segments of the abdomen, 
and concealing the rudiments of wings. And it must be noted 
that the formation of the abdominal segments in the aquatic con- 
ditions of Bmtisca disappear in the perfect and subimaginal con- 
ditions, which are only remarkable for the very obese thorax. 
The formation is again seen in the terminal segments of the 
extraordinary animals described by Latreille as a genus of 
branchiopod Crustacea under the name of Proeopistoma, but which, 
I think, are now sufficiently proved by the French entomologists 
N. and E. Joly (father and son) to be the aquatic conditions of 
some unknown species of Ephemeral®, although when they first 
expressed the idea of such a connexion I confess to having been 
sceptical. The typical examples of Prosopistoma may be re- 
garded as belonging to an insect inhabiting Madagascar, and are 
now in the Hopeian collection at Oxford, in charge of Professor 
Westwood. But the form also occurs in France, and was figured 
and described by Geoffrey in the ' Histoire abregee des Insectes 
de Paris ' under the name of ' Binocle & queue en plumet.' It 
was re-found many years afterwards by Dumeril in the Bois de 
Boulogne, but again disappeared until the Messieurs Joly found 
it in the Garonne, at Toulouse. It, like Batisea, has also an 
enormous carapace, but of a more rounded form. Latreille de- 
scribed it as Proeopittoma puncti/rons, placing it, as before stated, 
among the branchiopod Crustacea ; and though succeeding authors 
copied his description, its position among the Crustacea was 
never thoroughly admitted. I think we must accord to the Jolys 
the merit of having discovered its true position : but it is hard to 
imagine what the perfect insect can be like ; for no European 
species yet known shows any approach towards the characters so 
prominent in these aquatic creatures*. That these are not 
Crustaceous is sufficiently proved by the fact that the Messieurs 
Joly have at length discovered five pairs of gills on the first five 

* One if tempted to ask the questions:— Can there be minute apterous 
Upkummdm ? and can the imago of Prosopistoma be in that condition ? Such 
a thing is by no means impossible; for apterous exceptions exist in almost all 
groups of winged insects. If so, it would account for the absence of wing- 
rudiments in all the individuals dissected by the Jolys. The solution of the 
mystery surrounding Protoputomo is waited for impatiently by all entomolo- 
logists who take an interest in the more philosophical branch of the science. 



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146 REV. T. B. B. 8TEBBIKO OK ▲ 

abdominal segments, hidden under the thoracic carapace, as de^ 
tailed in their account given in the ' Annales des Sciences Natu- 
relles ' for 1872, article 7, sufficient to bear them out in their 
" preuves p6remptoires " that the creatures are insects, and quite 
analogous to the branchial plates of Ephemeridte. Having inci- 
dentally mentioned Protopistoma, I thought it right to enter into 
the question of its relations according to the researches of the 
French entomologists, especially as, at one time, I had expressed 
myself uncertain as to the correctness of their deductions. 

EXPLANATION OP PLATE V. 

Fig. 1. Male imago ; 1 a, underside of apex of abdomen ; 1 6, appendages and 
penis, from beneath. 

2. Female imago. 

3. Female subimago. 

4. Portion of " larva ;" 4 a, antenna of the same. 

5. " Nymph " nearly mature ; 5 a, leg; 56, branohial plate ; 6 c, labium ; 

5 d, maxilla, with palpus and mandible, seen from above ; 5«,tbesame, 
seen from beneath ; 5/, labium and palpi ; 5y, apex of abdomen, from 
beneath. 



A new Australian Sph&romid, Oyelura vmosa; and notes on Dy- 
namene rubra and viridis. By the Bev. T. B. B. Stsbbotq, 
M. A, of Tor-Crest Hall, Torquay. (Communicated by W. W. 
Satodebs, Esq., F.B.S., V.P.L.S.) 

[Bead May 7, 1874.] 

(Plates VL & VII.) 

The Sphaeromid figured in the accompanying Plate appears to 
belong to a new genus of that family. It was " found under 
stones in Sidney harbour, in society, at the lowest ebb tides," by 
Mr. Stevenson, when collecting in Australia some years ago for 
W. Wilson Saunders, Esq., F.B.S., from whom I received the 
specimen. 

The generic character consists in the attachment of the inner 
plate of the uropoda to a tooth which projects both forwards and 
upwards from the extremity of the tail, and in the extension of 
both plates of the uropoda beyond this projecting tooth, the outer 
plate folding partially beneath the inner, but extending beyond it. 

It agrees with the Australian species Cymodocta armata in the 
prolongation of the seventh segment of the body over the tail. 
This process in the species now under description is not unlike 



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HKW AUSTRALIAN SPUiEROMID. 147 

that of the sixth segment of Campecopea hirsuta ; but it does not 
extend over more than half the tail, and is rather thinner in the 
middle than at the end, which has a slightly nasal or trilobed ap- 
pearance. On either side midway between this central trunk 
and the flanks, this seventh segment is armed with a small tooth 
on the hind border, both border and trunk being more or less 
scabrous. The pleon, or tail, is convex, with two curves — the first 
showing three lines of segmentation, the second, and larger, con- 
stituting the terminal tail-segment. This is granulated, and bears 
two small serrated elevations commencing at the base and scarcely 
extending beyond the process of the seventh body-segment above 
described, immediately under which they lie. Between these 
there is a shallow depression in the convexity of the tail, conti- 
nuing, indeed, beyond them, but becoming shallower and almost 
imperceptible. At the base of the terminal tail-segment a deep 
socket receives the apparently immovable articulation of the 
inner tail-appendages. These lie close along the nearly straight 
and somewhat flattened margins of the terminal segment, free 
from, but fitted to, a very fine seraicylindrical elevation upon the 
margin. The end of the tail presents a rather broad, but very 
shallow, excavation flanked by a small tooth on either side, while 
from its centre projects the tooth mentioned above in the generic 
description, to which the inner tail-appendages have every ap- 
pearance of being firmly soldered. The tail-appendages them- 
©elves are curiously marked round their edges, the markings being 
below the surface. The closely set lines of this border-venation 
give off two or three branchleta apiece, which run quite to the 
margin. The outer plate is rather deeply concave above ; and 
when the outer plates are folded as far as they will go oeneath 
the inner, an appearance is presented of semicircle within semi- 
circle, both the inner and the outer curve having a diameter greater 
than the width of the body, which tapers slightly towards the 
head. Having regard to this appearance, which makes the 
animal very unlike the other members of the Sphaeromid family, 
the genus may be called Cyclura, with venosa for its specific desig- 
nation, in allusion to the markings of the uropoda. 

It remains only to mention that the length is about half an 
inch, and that the body-segments are armed on each aide with a 
small projecting ridge which runs out into an angle or tooth 
towards the tail. 

While introducing what appears to be a species of a new 

1JKH. JOURX. — ZOOLOOT, VOL. XII. 11 



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148 BEV. T. B. B. STEBBINQ OK A NEW ACTSTBALIAK 

genus, I shall endeavour to keep down the number of divisions in 
this family by pointing out that what have been hitherto received 
as two species ofDynamene (or Cgmodocca, Milne-Edwards), namely 
rubra and viridis, are in reality identical. If the colour of these 
creatures is to be taken as a specific distinction, instead of two 
species, we shall have to make a considerable group. Specimens 
are exceedingly abundant at Torquay, and the coloration is very 
variable. All are speckled, though to the unassisted eye many 
appear to be plain green or red. The greens and reds vary from 
very light to dark. Many of the green specimens have all the seg- 
ments fringed with thin red lines. Some examples have a rich 
brown or deep purple aspect, which under the microscope is found 
to be produced by a close intermingling of small red and green 
patches with crowded black specks over the whole surface. Very 
frequently both on the red and green specimens there are two 
conspicuous patches of light green — one on the body near the head, 
the other on the tail These look almost white against darker 
shades of the same colour. Occasionally a thin line of lighter 
colouring runs down the centre of the body, looking like a small 
fragment of bleached coralline, such as the net often takes up in 
sweeping for these creatures. Another variety has splashes of 
dark brown or red on each side of the first body-segment and of 
the tail, with smaller splashes on their segments. 

What has been said of the colouring of D. rubra and 2>. viridii 
will apply equally well to that of D. Montagui. There are similar 
variations also in Idotea tricuspidata, of which Sir J. G. Dalyell, 
quoted by Spence Bate and Westwood, says, " their colour is 
dingy or brownish yellow, with three or four white specks down 
the centre of the back ; or it is altogether of variegated hues, and 
some are mottled." Messrs. Bate and Westwood themselves say, 
" this species varies greatly in its colour and markings ; generally 
it is of a dirty greenish grey, but often has a pale longitudinal 
line down the middle of the back or on each side of the body 
whilst other specimens are marked, often irregularly, with large 
pale yellow or orange-coloured patches on the body and tail. 
According to our own experience, the colour of the animal is de- 
pendent upon that of the weed on which it lives. Those that live 
on the black f ucus are generally very dark purple, while theme 
that we find on the green Algm are brightly verdant." The Tor- 
quay specimens of I. tricuspidata, which are to be had in great 
numbers, fully bear out these details of colour-variation ; and 



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SPHiEROUTD, A#D ON DYNAMENE BUBBA AND VIRID18. 149 

whatever the cause may be, it is very certain that many examples of 
Idotea and'Dynamene correspond most closely in hue to the sea- 
weeds among which they are found. I have two small specimens of 
Idotea which are symmetrically banded with dark brown on a light 
ground. The smaller of the two has the extremity of the tail, or 
pleon, not quite so round as that of I parallel*, but without any 
apical tooth or cusp, indications of which are generally present 
even in very minute specimens of tricuspidata. The other (fig. 
12) must be assigned to Idotea pelagica, unless that is itself only a 
variety of tricuspidata. 

Among the Asellid®, J&ra aUnfronshss many variations of hue. 
Messrs. Bate and Weetwood say of it, " the general colour is ashy, 
but very much varied in its shades in dried specimens, with the 
front of the head whitish." In fact, however, the differences belong 
to living examples, which may be had ashen-grey, light brown, 
dark purplish brown, purple and green-banded, and plain green* 
Among the Aerospirantia that which comes nearest in general 
resemblance to Dynamene is Armadillo vulgaris, a species " subject 
to great variation in the amount of its pale markings, which has 
led to the establishment of a great number of supposed species." 
To this remark it may be added that not only do the pale mark- 
ings vary, but also the ground-colour, which may be dark steel- 
grey, or bright brownish red, or black, or even, though rarely, 
creamy white. 

Colour, then, it will be seen, is an insufficient basis for specific 
distinction among crustaceans, at any rate in the groups to 
which allusion has here been made. 

Passing on to the other differences which have been noted be- 
tween D. rubra and 2>. viridis, we find the one said to be narrowly 
ovate and the other broadly ovate. This, however, is a character 
which seems to depend on the age and size of the individual. In 
Idotea tricuspidata the variations in the breadth of the body com- 
pared with that of the tail are very considerable ; but one would 
no more think of specifically separating the broad and the narrow 
examples than one would of making a fat man a distinct species 
from a thin one. There is, moreover, a peculiarity occasionally 
to be observed in Dynamene, whether red or green, and also in 
D. Montagui, which would seem decisive against the use of 
breadth as a specific character ; for examples may be found of 
which the head and first four segments of the body are narrow, 
while the remainder of the body and the pleon, or tail, are broad 



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150 OK DTWAMEHK BUBBA AHD YIJtIDIS. 

(figs. 9 and 11). The effect to the eye of the perfectly abrupt 
transition is very curious* The animals exhibiting this forma- 
tion appeared, when taken, if one may judge from their activity, 
to be perfectly healthy. It seems possible that these animals 
may now and then not shed the whole of their integumentary 
tissues at the same time, and that in consequence the hinder 
portion is able to expand while the front remains contracted. 
It is certainly the case that a Ligia oceaniea in confinement 
thus parted with only a portion of its integuments, those, 
namely, of the pleon and the three hinder body-segments. 

The only other point which seems to be depended on as dif- 
ferentiating D. rubra from D. viridie relates to the little longitu- 
dinal slit in the terminal tail-segment, which is said in rubra to 
be "of equal width throughout," or "nearly of equal width 
throughout its entire length," and in viridis to be " widest at its 
base," or " considerably widened at its base ; the extremities of 
the sides of the slit sometimes closely approximating or touching 
each other," with the additional remark that " in the young states 
the sides of the terminal slit of the tail gape to a considerable 
width at their extremities." The small slit in question much 
resembles the slit in the leaf of the sweet-scented Coltsfoot, 
and probably varies in its proportions in different individuals, 
much as that proper to the plant in different leaves. 

Neither separately nor together do the differences in colour, 
breadth of body, and width of the terminal slit seem to be of 
specific value. Idotea trieuepidata, so often referred to, would 
give a set of exactly parallel differences, in colour, breadth of 
body, and length of the apical termination ; and the rule which is 
perforce admitted in regard to these, cannot fairly be withheld 
from applying to the case of Dynamene. I propose, therefore, to 
unite the two so-called species D. rubra and D. viridis under the 
name of Dynamene varians. There is, however, a Crimean Dyna- 
mene (=Campecopea versicolor, Ratlike; Oymodocea versicolor, 
Milne-Edwards) which, for ail that we can tell from the description 
in the great French work, may be the same as our English D. ca- 
rton*. The description is as follows : — " Corps ovulaire, bomb£ et 
lisse. Tete arrondie ; fente du dernier article de 1'abdomen un pen 
elargie h sa base. Habite les cotes de la Crimee." All the cha- 
racters here given for the Russian apply equally to the English 
species ; and, as habitat is no guide whatever, our only reason for 
thinking varians and versicolor distinct is, as far as the distin* 



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ON FIVE NEW SPECIES OF GONTLEPTES. 151 

guished French author is concerned, that he gives them different 
names and separate notices in his valuable work. 



EXPLANATION OP THE PLATES. 

Plate VI. 
Fig. 1. Cyclura venosa, seen from above, natural size. 

2. The same, enlarged. 

3. The same, side view, natural size. 

4. The same, enlarged. 

5. Antennae and mouth. 

6. Hind leg. 

7. Front leg. 

Plate VII. 

8. Dynamene Montagui, normal form, enlarged. 

9. Dynamene Montagui, showing constriction of front segments. 

10. Dynamene variant, normal form, enlarged. 

11. Dynamene variant, constricted form. 

12. Idotea pelagica. 



Descriptions of five new Species of Gonyleptes. 
By Akthub a. Butleb, F.L.S., F.Z.S., <ftc. 

[Bead May 7, 1874.] 
(Plati vm.) 

Sikob the publication of my Monograph of the species of this in- 
teresting genus of Harvest-Spiders, the collection of the British 
Museum has been enriched by the presentation and purchase of 
several additional new species, which I now propose to describe. 

1. GONTLBPTBS TBRRIBILI8, O. ID. (fig. 1). 

In some respects similar to G. armillatus. 

Colours : piceout ; the sutures, prothoracic region, and sternal surface 
of cephalothorax dull testaceous ; palpi and chelae testaceous ; three 
front pairs of legs luteous ; coxae and femora of hind legs black ; tibia; 
and tarsi piceous. 

Male. Above, oculiferous tubercle slightly prominent, obtusely bispi- 
nose, with a minute granule in front of each little spine ; behind the 
oculiferous tubercle and in front of the transverse suture are two 
series of minute granules, the anterior row composed of four, the pos- 
terior of two; central area of cephalothorax separated into four divi- 
sions by the sutures, and covered with minute granules ; margined by 
a series of small irregular tubercles, gradually increasing in size to- 



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152 MB. JL. G. BUTLEB OK FITS 

wards hind margin, also an inner lateral series of minute irregular 
granules; hind margin bearing in the centre two slightly divergent, 
short, acute spines, and on either side a long, robust, slightly de- 
pressed, curved spine directed backwards over the eoxae of hind legs, 
and having a minute tubercle on its inferior surface near the base ; a 
second, robust, short, incurved spine on the postero-inferior edge of 
the coxal sheath; abdominal segments margined with tubercles; 
legs rather long, femora of first three pairs minutely denticulate along 
their antero-inferior margin ; third pair with three prominent denti- 
cles, tibial second joint also denticulate on its postero-inferior margin ; 
hind legs with coxae obtusely trispinose and denticulate; femora 
densely spinose; three curved spines on the interior surface of its 
proximal end prominent; tibiae densely spinose, the spines on inferior 
surface very prominent, increasing in length towards the proximal 
end, which terminates internally in four short radiating spines; tarsi 
densely denticulate ; palpi subcylindrical, with short slender spines ; 
cheliceres smooth, cylindrical; pincers serrated internally; ventral 
surface of legs and cephalothorax minutely granulose. 

Length of cephalothorax 3£ lines, of entire body (including closed che- 
liceres) 5 lines ; relative length of legs 1, 3, 2, 4, the fourth pair being 
the longest. 

Huasampilla, Peru (Whitely). One example. B.M. 

This species may at once be distinguished from all its allies by 
the densely spinose character of the hind pair of legs. 

2. Gonyleptes'defensus, n. sp. (fig. 4). 

Colours: pitchy; the oculiferous tubercle, the coxae of the first three 
pairs of legs, and the edges of abdominal segments yellow. 

Male. Above, oculiferous tubercle scarcely prominent, with two central 
granules; prothoracic area transversely oblongo-ovate; central area 
subrotundate, smooth, separated into four divisions by the sutures ; 
extreme edge of the margin minutely granulose ; hind margin termi- 
nating on each side in a robust, oblique, slightly depressed spine ; 
abdominal segments minutely granulose; three front pairs of legs 
nearly smooth, excepting the tibiae of the third pair, which are strongly 
dentate externally ; hind legs with coxae coarsely trispinose on their 
external lateral margins ; femora rugose, with four increasing denti- 
cles on their external inferior margin at the proximal end; tibiae 
densely tuberculate and dentate-pectinate on both lateral margins ; 
palpi subcylindrical, rather rugose, with short slender spines ; cheli- 
ceres subcylindrical, pilose ; ventral surface of cephalothorax coarsely 
rugose. 

Length of cephalothorax 21 hues, of entire body 3 lines ; relative length 
of legs 1, 3, 2, 4, the 'fourth pair being the longest. 

Female differs from the male in the obsolete character of the posterior 



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VEW 6PS0IX8 OF GONYLBPTES. 153 

lateral spinet of the cephalothorax and the much less robust and 
scarcely dentated hind legs. 
Falkland islands (T. Havers). Four specimens. B.M. 

This interesting little novelty is intermediate between the pre- 
ceding species and Q. muticus of Koch. 

We have a second new species from the same locality, but, 
unfortunately, only of the female sex, so that it is hardly satis- 
factory to describe it. 

3. Gonylbptbs FUNBSTis, n. sp. (figs. 5, 5 a, profile). 

Colours : piceous ; streaked below with reddish testaceous ; the tips of 
the tubercles and spines of cephalothorax orange ; the legs at the ter- 
minations of the joints, the basal joints of palpi, a longitudinal streak 
on the femoral joint, the tips of the spines and the greater part of the 
chelae of cheliceres testaceous ; the spines and tubercles on the hind 
legs entirely orange ; the tarsi clothed with silky pale testaceous pi- 
losity ; cheliceres and palpi olivaceous (excepting the basal joints). 

Male. Above, oculiferous tubercle moderately prominent, with two 
slightly divergent short central spines ; two series of minute granules 
in front of transverse suture, the anterior series composed of four, the 
posterior of three : central area of cephalothorax separated into five 
divisions by the sutures, and trisegmentate behind ; the two front di- 
visions bear an orange tubercle and three minute blackish granules, 
the third a series of four minute granules, the fourth two central 
orange tubercles and two minute granules, the fifth four minute gra- 
nules ; the margin is rugose, and its outer edge granulose ; the three 
segmentations are granulose, the two central granulations on the se- 
cond and third segmentations being lengthened into acute spines; 
hind margin bearing on each side a long, robust, curved, depressed 
spine directed backwards ; legs granulose and denticulated, the den- 
ticles very minute in the first two pairs and confined to the antero- 
inferior margin of the femora, longer in the third pair, and extend- 
ing along the tibise; coxss of hind legs obtusely trispinose externally, 
the two lateral spinous processes projecting outwardly, the supero- 
terminal one almost perpendicularly, also a minute acute terminal 
spine on the infero-internal margin ; femora and tibiae prominently 
tuberculate, the lateral tubercles on both sides elongated into obtuse 
spinous processes, most developed at the proximal extremity of the 
femora; palpi subcylindrical, with long slender spines; cheliceres 
cylindrical, pilose, pincers serrated internally ; ventral surface of ce- 
phalothorax smooth. 

Length of cephalothorax 4£ lines, of entire body (including closed che- 
liceres) 6 lines; relative length of legs 1, 3, 2, 4. 

Chili (Reed). One specimen. B.M. 



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154 ON FIVE KKW BPECTE8 OF OOHTLBPTKS. 

4. Gonylbptbs Rbbdii, ii. sp. (figs. 3, 3 a, bind leg). 

Colours : cephalothorax dull reddish clay-coloured, spotted irregularly 
with black, ks marginal ridge bright castaneous ; the projecting border 
piceous, including the lateral spines and posterior segmentation ; 
cheliceres pitchy; palpi dirty testaceous; three front pairs of legs 
testaceous, third pair varied with piceous ; coxae of fourth pair casta- 
neous ; femora piceous ; tibia* piceous, clouded with castaneous ; tarsi 
bright ochraceous. 

Male. Above, oculiferous tubercle tolerably prominent, with two short, 
acute, divergent, central spines ; posterior area of cephalothorax tri- 
segmentate, minutely and indistinctly granulated; ventral surface 
projecting laterally beyond margin, terminating in a long, robust, de- 
pressed spine ; three front pairs of legs smooth ; coxae of hiud legs 
externally obtusely bispinose ; femora rugose, trispinose, the first at 
distal extremity projecting obliquely inwards from inferior surface, 
the second projecting laterally from first third of supero-intemal 
margin, the third projecting obliquely downwards from supero-exter- 
nal margin close to proximal extremity ; at the proximal extremity is 
also a short, obtuse, incurved denticle ; tibia? slightly curved, bearing 
seven to eight acute curved spines on the internal surface ; palpi sub- 
cylindrical, nearly smooth, with short slender spines; cheliceres cylin- 
drical, slightly rugose, the pincers minutely serrated internally ; ven- 
tral surface of cephalothorax smooth, of last two or three segments of 
abdomen minutely granulated. 

Length of cephalothorax 4 lines, of entire body (including closed cheli- 
ceres) 5 lines ; relative length of legs 1, 3, 2, 4. 

Chili (Reed). Two specimens. B.M. 

Belongs to the O. curvipee group, and allied to G. bicarmt of 
Nicolet. 

5. Gonylbptbs docilis, n. sp. (figs. 2, 2a, hind leg). 

Same general form as preceding species. 

Colours : cephalothorax greenish testaceous, spotted at the sides and 
behind with black ; lateral spines and surrounding area black ; pos- 
terior third of ventral surface dull castaneous ; a central longitudinal 
orange band ; three front pairs of legs and palpi bright ochreous ; hind 
legs piceous at base above, dull castaneous below and at proximal ex- 
tremity ; tibia? and tarsi dull castaneous ; terminal joints of tarsi of 
third pair of legs green. 

Male* Above, oculiferous tubercle slightly prominent and bifurcate 
above but not spined ; central area of cephalothorax separated into 
four divisions by the sutures and trisegtnentate behind, the segmen- 
tations indistinctly granulated ; lateral ridge slightly rugose ; project- 
ing ventral area terminating on each side of the hind coxss in a long, 



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B09E8 OJ TTPICAL BKFTLLXS AJfD OTHER AJttMAXS. 155 

robust, depressed, bifid spine; three frost purs of legs smooth; 
coxjc of hind legs terminating externally above in an obtuse, nearly 
perpendicular spinose projection ; femora rugose, much curved, with 
a strong irregular spine pr ojec tin g obliquely upwards from the upper 
surface of the distal extremity, a second shorter spine projecting late- 
rally from the internal surface at end of first third; also a number of 
obtuse pectinate denticles projecting from each side, but radiating at the 
proximal extremity ; tibiss rugose, with three long curved spines and 
several minute denticles projecting downwards and inwards from in- 
ferior surface, a space being left between the first two spines and the 
third ; tarsi simple; palpi snbeyhndrieal, nearly smooth, with short 
slender spines ; eheficeres cylindrical, pilose, the pincers serrated in- 
ternally; ventral surface of cepbalothorax dull, but smooth; last two 
segments of abdomen minutely granulated. 

Length of cepbalothorax 3J fines, of entire body, including closed ehe- 
ficeres, 4 lines ; relative length of legs 1,3, 2, 4. 

Chili (Reed). One specimen. BJL 

Possibly the O. bicomis of Nicolet, but without the double 
spine on the ocufiferous tubercles, and with a different distribu- 
tion of spines on the hind legs, so thai I suspect it to be distinct ; 
it is evidently allied to O. modeehu of Nicolet. 



Resemblances between the Bones of Typical living Septiles and 
the Bones of other animals. By Habby Gotixr Sulky, 
F.L.S., F.G.S., Professor of Physical Geography in Bedford 
College, London. 

[Bead June 18, 1874.] 

PABT L 

THE SIMILITUDES OF CBOOODILE BONES. 

§ 1. The Mammalian Character* of the Crocodile. 

Ik the palate, Crocodiles are remarkable for the extent to which 
the posterior nares are carried backward by the closing over 
them of the palatine and pterygoid bones. This condition is 
paralleled in the great toothless ant-eater, Myrmecophaga, where 
the nares are carried back behind the pterygoid bones so as to 
make a flat uncleft palate. Nor is the resemblance less close in 
the fore part of the skull ; for the immense toothless maxillary 



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156 MB. fl. a. 8BBLOT ON OSSEOUS BESBMBLAH0E8 

and small malar of the Ant-eater, essentially reproduce what 
obtains in the Crocodile, though the arch is entire in Crocodiles 
and the malar is not styloid : the nasal bones also conform to the 
Crocodilian type, and the premaxillary bones are relatively as 
small. From the absence of a transverse bone in mammals, there 
are no palatal pterygoid fossae as in the Crocodile. But for the 
dicondyloid articulation, the back of the Ant-eater's skull is in 
many respects Avian. 

The next nearest resemblance among mammals to the palate 
of the Crocodile is seen in the Cetacea, where the teeth are in 
some respects similar ; yet the Crocodile is peculiar in having 
the posterior nares entirely embraced by the pterygoid bones. 
And the Porpoises diverge far from Crocodiles in the backward 
position of the anterior nares, by which the premaxillary bones, 
owing to their relation with the extremity of the snout and the 
nares, come to be developed to a great length. The scarcely 
divided occipital condyle is made by the exoccipital bones in 
Dolphins, and not chiefly by the basioccipital bone as in Croco- 
diles. 

Perhaps the nearest resemblance among mammals to the ex- 
ternal form of frontal bone of the Crocodile, is seen among 
Rodents like the Babbit, in which the orbits are relatively large 
and approximate closely. But in Crocodiles the bone does not 
close in the brain, and is undivided laterally, which is rarely the 
case with mammals. 

In the vertebral column Crocodiles have but little in common 
with mammals and are distinguished from them by many charac- 
ters. Their vertebra are proccelian; they have cervical ribs. Their 
dorsal ribs are attached by double heads to long transverse pro- 
cesses ; only one or two of the vertebra between the neck and 
back have the lower head of the rib attached to the centrum. 
This condition is characteristic of the dorsal vertebra in Myrme- 
cophago, while in the majority of mammals the rib articulates 
with two vertebras. And it is only among Cetacea, especially the 
true Whales, that the dorsal ribs are supported on long trans- 
verse processes as among Crocodiles. But the ribs of true 
Whales differ alike from those of mammals, birds, and Crocodiles 
in having but one head for the rib as among Lizards Ac. The 
caudal vertebra retain the neural arch to the end of the tail, 
which is not the case with mammals. 8ome of the chevron 
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BTOWSEK TTPICAX BJEPTILES AND OTHER ANIMALS. 157 

band, as figured by Wagler. This is also seen among certain of 
the Dinosauria, but not among mammals. 

The dorsal rib of a Crocodile is divided on each side into four 
pieces, of which only the large proximal part is fully ossified. 
In most mammals the rib consists of two pieceB, though a few 
(as some Dolphins) have one or more of the ribs consisting of 
three elements. 

In Crocodiles the anterior part of the sternum widens, gives 
attachment to the pectoral girdle of bones, and is prolonged in 
front of them. In mammals the general aspect of the sternum 
is very like that of Crocodiles. The widening and forward pro- 
longation of the anterior sternal part is quite equalled among 
true Whales (e. g. Eahtnoptera); and the Pig, Tapir, Bhino- 
ceroe, Lion, Seal, Thylacinvi, for example, present anterior 
sternal elements similar in form to that of the Crocodile, but 
which are often compressed like the keel of the bird's sternum, 
and give attachment usually to the first pair of ribs instead of to 
the pectoral girdle ; while the bones usually named coracoid and 
clavicle have but an uncertain existence in most ma m mal s . 

In the Crocodile the scapula unites with another bone usually 
named the coracoid, to form the glenoid cavity for the humerus 
to work in. In mammals the humerus usually articulates with 
the scapula only. In monotremes it articulates with scapula 
and coracoid ; but then the coracoids uuderlap the episternum, 
and do not abut against the sternum as in Crocodiles. In the 
the Mole, among placental mammals, the humerus articulates 
with a scapula and coracoid, and, as in the Crocodile, that short 
strong bone abuts against the sternum. 

In shape the coracoid bone in Crocodiles is very like the 
scapula, but differs from it in being perforated in front of the 
articulation. Its elongation precludes comparison with mammal s ; 
it is more like the bone in the Echidna than in the Mole. The 
scapula of the Crocodile, in its elongated flattened form, is not 
closely paralleled, the Mole and the Ox making the nearest 
approximations. It is wider from front to back at the humeral 
cod than at the free end, and possesses a prearticular part, which 
are differences from mammals. In the small development and 
lateral position of the spine it resembles Echidna. 

The humerus of the Crocodile differs from that of most 
mammals in not possessing a pit at the distal end for the olecra- 
non-process of the ulna, and in having a crest at the proximal 



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end on the radial side of the bone. These conditions are repro- 
duced in Bats, where the humerus is proportionally much longer. 
Many pachyderms, like the Horse, have a radial crest ; and the 
Walrus, Seal, Sloth, Ac. have no marked 6lecranon-pit. The 
head of the mammalian humerus is never so much compressed 
from side to side as in the Crocodile, and usually has a trochan- 
teroid process in front of the articular surface, though this is 
wanting in Whales and in Man. 

The radius of the Crocodile offers no striking modification of 
its own, and is chiefly distinguished from mammals by its straight 
and more cylindrical shaft, and freedom from ridges, which are 
but faintly developed even when present. In proportion and 
form the ulna of the Crocodile is best matched by the African 
Ostrich, and is sufficiently distinguished from most mammals by 
wanting the olecranon-process, which, however, is sometimes but 
little developed, as in the Sloth ; but the mammalian ulna has not 
often the stoutness found in the Crocodile. 

The carpus of the Crocodile is peculiar in consisting of a large 
and elongated scapho-lunar, a smaller elongated cuneiform, and a 
pisiform in the proximal row. Distally there is a small sub- 
quadrate bone under the cuneiform. If it represents the bone 
in the same position in Chelonians, then the bones usually deve- 
loped as a distal row of carpals have no existence # . In the 
Grampus (Delphinu* orca) the proximal row of carpals similarly 
consists of two bones ; but they are not elongated, and there is no 
pisiform bone ; similarly there is a very small distal carpal. But 
most mammals have two rows of many-sided carpal bones. 

The form and proportions of the metacarpal bones and pha- 
langes is very similar to that of clawed mammals. Mammals, 
however, usually have the proximal end of the bone flatter and 
the distal end more globular ; sometimes (e. g. the Lion) the 
metacarpals have a similar tendency to overlap each other at the 
proximal end. In number of phalanges in the long fingers Cro- 
codiles do not equal the Cetacea. 

The pelvis of the Crocodile is peculiar in the exclusion of the 
pubis from the acetabular articulation of the femur. In the 
Horse, Llama, and many mammals an approximation to such an 
arrangement may be detected ; and in Myrmeeophaga the pubis 

* See, however, Gegenbaur't ' Vergleiohenden Anatomic/ entee Heft, 1864, 
pi 3. 



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BETWEEN TYPICAL REPTILES AND OTHER AKIHALB. 159 

is almost, if not entirely, excluded, though not in the same way 
as in the Crocodile. In many mammals the articulation is chiefly 
formed by ilium and ischium, as in Echidna and the Orang. In 
the Crocodile the ilium and ischium almost meet again in front 
of the articulation so as to form an acetabular foramen. As a 
whole the Crocodilian pelvis most closely resembles that of the 
8eals, though it meets the sacrum more nearly at a right angle. 
The ilium of the Seal differs from that of the Crocodile in being 
anchylosed to the ischium and pubis, in the oblique way (mam- 
malian way) in which it meets the sacrum, and in not being 
prolonged so far either backward or forward. As among the 
mammals, the pubis is the slender bone, while the ischium is 
larger. But in mammals the ischium usually has an osseous 
union with the pubis along the median abdominal line, which 
condition does not obtain in Crocodiles. Speaking generally, 
there is considerable resemblance in form respectively between 
the pubis and ischium of mammals, such as the Orang, and the 
Crocodile, though the bones in the Crocodile are intermediate in 
length between those of the Orang and the Seal. 

The hind-limb bones of Crocodiles, like the bones of the fore 
limb, are distinguished from those of many mammals by wanting 
epiphyses. The femur, like the humerus, is distinguished by the 
proximal end wanting the external trochanter so characteristic 
of mammals, which latter usually have the proximal articular 
surface more convex. The external trochanter which marks the 
middle of the shaft in many mammals, such as Pachyderms like 
the Rhinoceros, is also moderately developed in the Crocodile ; but 
there is no representative of the inner trochanter feebly deve- 
loped in some mammals, such as Kangaroos, Tapir, Beaver, 
Enhydra, which is characteristic of the Dinosauria. The distal 
end is much more like the femur of mammals than is the proxi- 
mal end, and may be compared to that of the Brown Bear, 
though in most mammals an anteroposterior thickening of the 
distal end constitutes a character which is not repeated in Croco- 
diles. 

The Crocodile has no patella. The tibia is more cylindrical in 
its shaft than is the case with most mammals ; and the cnemial 
crest, which many mammals have in common with birds, is not 
developed. Among placental mammals the Porcupine has a tibia 
of similar form and proportion ; but its articular surfaces are 
better defined and somewhat different. A nearer resemblance is 



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WO MR. H. O. 8EBLBY OK OSSEOUS BESEMBLAJTOKS 

found in the marsupial Phot color cto$, where the form of the arti- 
culations, especially the distal articulation, and the form and 
.position of the muscular attachments offer a close parallel to the 
Crocodile ; but the epiphyses and side-to-side compression of the 
bone serve to distinguish it. The fibula of the Crocodile is also 
nearly paralleled by Phaeoolarctoe, which has the Crocodilian 
form of distal end, and comes much nearer to the Crocodile in 
form than does the fibula of the Porcupine. 

The tarsus of the Crocodile approximates closely to the mam- 
mal type. The os calcis is quite like that of a mammal, only 
shorter and stronger ; the astragalus is comparable with that' of 
some of the Marsupials, though it does not make a close resem- 
blance to any genus in form. The distal row of the tarsus is 
formed by two bones, a cuboid and a smaller naviculars ; this 
portion of the Crocodile's tarsus is, perhaps, best compared with 
that of a Kangaroo, in which, however, the three cuneiforms, 
which in some shape characterize the tarsus of mammals, are 
small and developed between the thread-like metatarsals and the 
astragalus : these cuneiform bones are wanting in the Crocodile. 
Some mammals, like Ox and Deer, have but one cuneiform bone ; 
and then the naviculare and cuboid are united. 

The metatarsal bones have a general resemblance to those in 
clawed mammals. As in man, the inner (great) toe is the stoutest. 
The metatarsal of the fifth digit is only represented in the Cro- 
codile by a claw-shaped stump. The claw-phalanges are more 
like those of marsupials than placental mammals ; but the marsu- 
pials do not appear to have the lateral furrows which mark the 
bones in the Crocodile. 

Crocodile bones frequently have at their terminal margins a 
striated or wrinkled aspect, which is not seen in mammals. 

§ 2. The Avian Character* of Crocodile*, 

The Alligator, in its divided nostril, comes nearer to birds than 
do Crocodiles; and struthious birds, like the Apteryx, in the 
forward extension of the nares approximate nearer to the Croco- 
dile type than do other birds. The palatal osseous perforation 
under the nares of Crocodiles is present in birds, but is often 
elongated, and extends far backward. The posterior nares in 
many birds are anterior to the pterygoid-malar foes®, and mar- 
gined by the vomer, malar, and palatine bones. In these features, 



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BITWIEN TYPICAL 2BPTHJE8 AKD OTHER ACTUALS. 161 

as in some other parts of the skull, the Crocodile comes less near 
to birds than to mammals. A ligament extends from the post- 
frontal process to the malar bone in birds, and represents the 
osseous connexion between those bones which characterize Cro- 
codiles and ruminant mammals. If a similar ligament united the 
distal end of the squamosal with the postfrontal in birds, it 
would enclose superior temporal fossae, which in Crocodiles have 
osseous boundaries. 

The lower jaw of the Crocodile is more like that of a bird than 
a mammal, being composite, perforated posteriorly, and having 
the articular element much developed on the inner side of the 
articulation, owing to the width of the articular end of the qua- 
drate bone. In the Crocodile the bones are placed differently 
from the arrangement in birds, and the dentary rami remain 
separate. In view of some structures in fossil animals, it may be 
mentioned that in some birds the squamosal bone has a ligamen- 
tous, almost osseous, union with the quadrato-jugal. 

The vertebral column in birds is in many respects unlike that 
of Crocodiles. Instead of the cup-shaped articular centrum, the 
bird has it merely concave from side to side, and never from above 
downward ; while a few birds — Penguins — present the mamma- 
lian and chelonian type of having some vertebra opisthocoslous. 
There are more vertebra? in the neck of birds than in that of 
Crocodiles, no bird being reported to have fewer than the 
Sparrow, in which Cuvier counted nine, and Prof. Owen twelve, 
while there may be twice that number ; no bird has unanchylosed 
cervical ribs comparable to those of Crocodiles. 

The dorsal vertebra? are fewer in number in birds than in th< 
Crocodile ; but the upper head of the rib is similarly support* 
on a transverse process, while the lower is uniformly attached t< 
the centrum — an arrangement which only obtains in the Crocodih 
in the vertebra? which I name pectoral. 

The sacral vertebra? of Crocodiles are unlike the sacrum o 
birds in never including more than two or three vertebra) whict 
remain unanchylosed. In many birds the sacral elements simi 
larly have transverse processes ; 'but in Crocodiles they are sepa- 
rate bones, while in birds they are anchylosed with the centrums 

The caudal vertebra? of Crocodiles are much more numeroui 
and much longer than in living birds. In birds the articular faa 
of the centrum is usually flat or slightly concave in front an< 
convex behind, while, where they exist, the anterior zygapophyaei 



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162 MB. H. G. 8EELEY ON OSSEOUS BE6E1TBLA.KCE* 

look downward and the posterior zygapophysea look upward, and 
in every respect the posterior end of the vertebra has the 
characters which usually occur at the anterior end. To the ma- 
jority of caudal vertebra in Crocodiles haemapophyses are deve- 
loped ; while scarcely an indication of such a structure is seen 
among birds. 

The sternum of the Crocodile is unlike that of birds in form : 
it never has the keel which characterizes the majority of birds ; 
and it never has the breadth and basin-form which characterize 
adult 8truthious birds. But similarly it gives attachment to 
several pairs of ribs and to the coracoid bones, which have a 
similar elongated compressed form, though they have not the 
synovial and close osseous connexion with the sternum which 
characterizes the Avian type, and are directed more out- 
ward. 

In some birds, as the Penguin, a precoracoid portion of the 
coracoid bone grows down and encloses a coracoid foramen com- 
parable to that of the Crocodile. 

The scapula meets the coracoid at a similar angle to form the 
shoulder-joint in struthious birds and Crocodiles ; and the bone 
has much the same general form in those birds that it has in 
Crocodiles, differing chiefly in being much narrower from side to 
side. The Crocodile scapula has not the tubercle which in birds 
and the lower mammals usually gives attachment to the clavicle. 
In birds with a carinate sternum the scapula meets the coracoid 
at about a right angle. 

The humerus in Crocodile has about the same proportional 
stoutness and form which characterize Parrots. The proximal 
articulation is more convex in birds, where the head has a process 
on its ulnar side not seen in Crocodiles; the radial crest is 
similar in the two. At the distal end, in carinate birds, the con- 
dyles, especially on the radial side, are more developed ; in this 
point the Crocodile is better paralleled by struthious birds like 
the Ostrich. 

The ulna of the Crocodile is most nearly paralleled among 
birds in stoutness and form by the African Ostrich ; but in the 
Ostrich the proximal end does not curve so much inwards towards 
the radius, nor is it so massive ; the distal end is directed further 
inward. 

The radius of the Crocodile is similarly comparable to that 
of the Ostrich, with a like difference at the distal end. The twq 



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BETWEEN TYPICAL BEPTILE8 AKD OTHER ANIMALS. 163 

bones have much the same relative proportion to each other in 
the two groups of animals. 

The long carpal bones of the Crocodile are not comparable to 
the short carpals of birds, which have the distal carpal row anchy- 
losed to the metacarpus. 

The five free metacarpal bones of the Crocodile are different 
from the three anchylosed metacarpals of birds ; and the phalanges 
are very different, though in the Crocodile the three fingers most 
developed are those on the inner or radial side, which represent 
the digits of the bird. 

The Crocodile's os innominatum is made up by elements com- 
parable to those of birds, but differently proportioned. They 
remain unanchylosed with regard to each other, and are not 
anchylosed to the sacral vertebrae, as they usually are in birds, 
though they remain separate from the sacrum in the Penguin. 
In birds the ilia are always much more prolonged both anteriorly 
and posteriorly, and have the long axis of the bone identical with 
that of the sacrum, which is not the case in the Crocodile; in the 
bird the ilia approximate dorsally, in the Crocodile they approxi- 
mate ventrally. The ischium and pubis are much more slender 
in birds than in Crocodiles, and less elongated ; they are directed 
backward and are close together, while in Crocodiles the bones are 
rather directed forward, and expand considerably at their distal 
ends ; and the pubis does not meet the ilium, but is supported on 
the anterior process of the ischium ; hence in Crocodiles there is 
no obturator foramen. The articulation in the Crocodile's pelvis 
would be perforated as in birds, if the forward process of the 
ischium met the ilium, which it does not quite do. The bird in 
which these bones are best comparable* to the Crocodile's is the 
Emu. 

The femur in the Crocodile differs chiefly from that of the bird 
in the proximal end not being in the same plane with the distal 
end, owing to which, the bone has a twisted aspect. The proximal 
articulation in birds is not so globular, nor the end so massive ; 
nor is the ridge, which looks outward and backward at the proxi- 
mal end, so much developed. The bird is wanting in the powerful 
muscular attachments which make a sort of trochanter on the 
inner side of the upper half of the femur of the Crocodile. At the 
distal end the femur of the Crocodile resembles the bird's in having 
the outer condyle the larger ; there is a similar small process on 

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164 KB. 0. G. 8XXLET 09 OSSEOUS RXBEKBLAVCE8 

the outer side ; but the distal articulation is not so pulley-like, nor 
so deeply cut, in Crocodiles. 

The tibia of the Crocodile is unlike that of the bird at both 
the proximal and distal ends. The proximal end in birds deve- 
lops a considerable forward cnemial process ; and at the distal 
end the Crocodile has no condyles like those of the bird. 

At its proximal end the bird's fibula if usually very similar to 
that of the Crocodile, while it very rarely happens that the bird's 
fibula is prolonged to the distal end of the tibia (as in certain fowl), 
and then it is so attenuated that the shaft and distal end are not 
comparable to those of the Crocodile. 

The tarsus of the Crocodile is in no way comparable with 
that of birds. 

Even in the Penguin, where the bones usually named meta- 
tarsals are applied to the ground, they are still anchylosed to- 
gether, and three in number, instead of four as in Crocodiles. 
The outside toe is the largest in birds and has most phalanges in 
the digit, while in Crocodiles the inside metacarpal is the stoutest, 
and has fewest phalanges. 

The claw-phalanges are very similar in form in birds and 
Crocodiles; and a similar groove runs along each side of the 
bone. 

Birds differ from Crocodiles in not having cervical ribs ; the 
dorsal ribs of birds consist of only two pieces, both ossified, 
between the sternum and vertebra, while in the Crocodile there 
are four elements, of which the proximal one only is fully ossified. 
The lateral ossifications of the bird's ribs are represented in 
Crocodiles by small cartilaginous processes. In birds the anterior 
head of the rib always articulates with the centrum, while in the 
true dorsal ribs of the Crocodile both heads articulate with the 
transverse process. 

§ 8. The Chameleon-characters of the Crocodile. 

The bones of the skull in the Chameleon are thin or represented 
by membranes, and thus are generally unlike the massive bones of 
the Crocodile ; moreover the difference in size probably obscures 
some similitudes as well as some differences. 

From the prolongation backward of the parietal and squamosals 
the skull has enormous perforations to represent the small tem- 
poral fossae of the Crocodile. On the muscular mechanism which 



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BXTWHH TYPICAL BEPTTLX8 AKD OTHER AVIMALS. 165 

produces this modification may be presumed to depend the high 
form of the head, the vertical quadrate bone, the absence of a 
quadrato-jugal (if it be absent), the lateral aspect and large size of 
the orbits and nares. The external nostril in Chawueleon is not 
enclosed by the premaxillary as in a Crocodile, but has that bone 
and the nasal dividing it, so that the nares look outward and 
are double. To bring the premaxillaries into harmony with the 
Crocodile's, it would be necessary to suppose that the Crocodilian 
bones had been turned round through nearly half a circle by 
hiring their anterior termination drawn backwards through the 
nares. This view would account for their narrowness in the 
dental border, the few premaxillary teeth (which do not exceed 
two, and those obliterated in old age), the divided nostril, Ac. 

The teeth, instead of being conical and in sockets, are flattened, 
serrated, and anehylosed with the jaw. Neither the maxillariea, 
palatines, nor pterygoids meet mesially on the palate, but are 
divided by a groove. The middle holes of the skull, covered by 
membrane, are large, between the orbits and nares, look upward, 
and are divided by the premaxillary and frontal bones ; in living 
Crocodiles these perforations have no representative. The occi- 
pital condyle is chiefly made by the exoccipital bones, which meet 
mesially, as in Chelonians ; in Crocodiles the condyle is chiefly 
made by the basioccipital. In the Chameleon the lower jaw does 
not extend backward behind the articulation with the quadrate 
bone. 

Throughout the vertebral column there runs a transverse plat- 
form, which is made by the zygapophyses extending outward, be- 
yond and above the small flat single meet on the lower part of 
the side of the centrum to which the rib is attached ; in Croco- 
diles the wide platform is made by the transverse process which 
carries the rib. 

The cervical vertebra are short from front to back, and have a 
hypapophysis. The last two of the five have long ribs, which are 
free at their distal ends. The dorsal vertebrae have the centrum 
somewhat elongated ; and the neural arch is long, especially in the 
early part of the back. All the vertebra, except the last two, 
appear to have ribs, which, relatively are enormously long, cylin- 
drical, and in the dry state only consist of a dorsal and sternal 
part, though in a fresh ppecimen the latter joints into four 
part** In the tail, though transverse processes are developed, 
they are directed downward and outward from the hinder corners 

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166 MB. H . a. SBELEY OK OSSEOUS RESEMBLANCES 

of the centrum. After the first three vertebra a hypapophysis 
is developed, and the neural spine becomes short, and stands be- 
tween the posterior zygapophyses. So that the vertebral column 
has little in common with the Crocodile's beyond a short neck, a 
long tail, a sacrum of two vertebrae, and a procoelous centrum. 
The transverse processes in the tail of the Crocodile are directed 
outward and not downward, and the zygapophysial facets in the 
tail of Crocodiles look upward and not inward. In the Chameleon 
the neural spines are relatively small, and the chevron bones are 
small and short. 

The principal part of the sternum has its lateral portions in- 
clined to each other like the sides of a boat. The anterior pair of 
the four sides (which make it diamond-shaped) give attachment to 
the coracoids ; and there is no episternal part prolonged between 
those bones and anterior to them, as in a Crocodile. Only one 
pair of sternal ribs are attached to the first part of the sternum, 
two pairs to the second part, and one pair to the third part. 
These characters, with the keel running down the sternum, are 
the chief differences of this region from that of the Crocodile. 

The scapular arch similarly consists of scapula and coracoid ; 
but the bones are not inclined to each other at the great angle 
observable in the Crocodile. 

The coracoid is a compressed subquadrate bone, with the ante- 
rior margin convex, and a posterior margin made by two conca- 
vities, of which the superior one is completed above by the sca- 
pula, and so forms the articulation for the humerus, which, instead 
of looking outward and backward as in the Crocodile, looks directly 
backward. The bone only resembles that of the Crocodile in 
being similarly perforate in front of the articulation. The scapula 
differs from that of the Crocodile more in proportion than in 
plan, being twice as long as the coracoid ; for the part of the 
bone which in a Crocodile is thin, flattened, and expanded, is here 
prolonged with the ribs as a flattened cylindrical bone, slightly 
widening as it becomes more compressed towards the free end. The 
Chameleon has no spine to the scapula like that in the Crocodile. 

The humerus in the Chameleon is relatively longer, straitcr, 
more slender in the shaft, and more massive at the proximal and 
distal ends ; the radial crest is more massive than in the Crocodile. 
The distal end has two well-marked condyles, of which the outer 
one is hemispherical ; immediately above the condyle is a depres- 
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BETWEEN TYPICAL REPTILES AND OTUEB ANIMALS. 167 

unlike those of the Crocodile, and approximate to those of clavi- 
culate Lizards. 

The ulna and radius are relatively longer than in the Crocodile. 
The ulna is a straight cylindrical bone enlarging at the proximal 
end on the anterior and outer sides ; the subquadrate articulation 
has two oblique facets, one looking upward and forward, the other 
upward and outward toward the radius. The distal end in the 
Crocodile is relatively smaller, and has not the same convex 
lizard-like articulation. The proximal end of the radius is sub- 
circular and cupped ; the distal articulation appears to be ob- 
liquely truncated and to look backward. 

The carpal bones have nothing in common. 

The metacarpals of Chameleon are short broad bones, not un- 
like in form to the proximal carpals of Crocodile. The phalanges 
of Chameleon are all of great length and strength, and so far un- 
like the short small phalanges of the Crocodile. The digits of the 
Crocodile are arranged in a group of three, in which their meta- 
carpal bones overlap each other proximally, and have no distal 
carpal ossified, and a group of two smaller outer digits articulated 
to one distal carpal bone. If we suppose the proximal ends of 
the metacarpals of the Crocodile to enlarge so as to thrust these 
groups away from each other, an arrangement might be pro- 
duced like the hand of the Chameleon. 

The pelvis of the Chameleon is unlike that of Crocodiles. The 
ilium is an elongated compressed narrow bone, shorter than the 
scapula, and more expanded at the free end ; it descends from 
the transverse processes of two vertebrae almost vertically, but 
slightly forward, in a straight line with the os pubis, than which 
it is slightly wider from back to front. The pubis is a short 
straight bone almost equally expanded at both ends, entering into 
the acetabulum for the femur and perforated in its upper third 
for the obturator nerve, like the pubic bone in Lizards. The pubes 
are inclined to each other, and meet along the whole ventral mar- 
gin of the bone, which is not the case in Crocodiles. The ischium 
is more like that of a Crocodile in outline, differing in wanting 
the process which gives attachment to the pubis, and in being 
longer from back to front, chiefly owing to the development for- 
ward of the anterior distal angles. 

The Chameleon femur is about as long as the humerus, and 
similarly has a straight cylindrical shaft more enlarged at the 
distal and proximal ends than is the case with Crocodiles. The 



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168 MB. H. G. SEALBT OK OSSEOUS RI8BMBLAH0X8 

proximal articulation is more nearly hemispherical, and has the 
inner side of the head more developed. In front is a transverse 
and vertical triradiate notch for the ligamentum teres ; behind, 
the proximal end of the shaft is compressed. The bone termi- 
nates distally in a well-rounded trochlear articulation, above 
which, on the posterior aspect, is a deep depression. 

The tibia and fibula are shorter than the femur— the tibia straight, 
but the fibula curved like an ulna upside down. The tibia is massive 
at the proximal end, with a transverse concave articulation adapted 
to the femur ; its distal end is subcy lindrical and obliquely trun- 
cated. The fibula is compressed behind ; and a sharp ridge runs 
posteriorly down its length. 

The tarsals are entirely different. 

The metatarsals are short, like the metacarpals, the elongation 
of the foot being made by the phalanges ; there is nothing ana- 
logous to the arrangement of the digits in the Crocodilian hind 
foot to be seen in the Chameleon. 

§ 4. The Laoertum Character* of Crocodile*. 

Iguana is like the Alligator in having the nostril double, but 
unlike that animal in having its outer margin made by the maxil- 
lary bone, and its inner division by a single premaxillary. The 
frontal and parietal are similarly single ; and the bones generally 
correspond in their connexions ; only a small quadrato-jugal ap- 
pears to be placed in front of the squamosal at the proximal end 
of the quadrate bone, so that the malar arch is not prolonged, as 
in the Crocodile, to the distal end of the os quadratum. And the 
temporal fossae, which are small in Crocodiles, are here so enor- 
mously enlarged that they prolong outward and backward, in a 
V-shape, diverging processes of the parietal bone. The high po- 
sition of the quadrato-jugal would seem attributable to the great 
development of the postfrontal in making the outer margin of 
the temporal fossa. 

There is nothing in common in the arrangement of the bones 
on the palate, owing seemingly to the elevated shape of the Lizard's 
head, by which the maxillaries are withdrawn from the palate 
and the palatine bones go forward to take their places. 

The lower jaw in the Lizard is not perforated behind like that 
of the Crocodile ; it has the articular bone developed inward to 
even a greater extent than in Crocodiles, and has the coronoid 



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BBTWSBK TYPICAL RKPTHJC8 AJCD OTHER Uf IMiXS. 169 

developed into a strong erect process, of which there is no trace in 
the Crocodile. 

It is probably due to the. vertical position of the maxillary bone 
that the teeth of Lizards are not in sockets, the inner alveolar 
border being drawn away from .them in the elevation of the 
bone from a horizontal to a vertical position. The teeth of 
Crocodiles differ but little from front to back ; but in the Draco 
volans there are kinds which might represent incisors, canines, 
and molars; and in many Lizards the premaxillary teeth are 
sharper, or of different form from the others, and the hinder 
maxillary teeth undergo a change in the form of the crown 
quite analogous to what is seen in mammals. 

The fewer neck- vertebrae of Lizards are not usually furnished 
with ribs ; and when, as in the Skink, ribs are attached to all 
the vertebrae except the first two, they have only one articular 
"head. The centrum never has the cylindrical form seen in the 
Crocodile ; and the dorsal vertebrae never have transverse pro- 
cesses, except in the first few vertebras of the Dragon, which 
give off the first ribs to the parachute, where in form they are very 
unlike those of the Crocodile. The dorsal vertebra rarely have 
the vertical, flat, oblong neural spines of the Crocodile ; the 
neural spines are suppressed in the Dragon, small in the Skink, 
eompressed in front, and oblique in Iguana* In the Monitor, 
however, the neural spine is very like the Crocodile's throughout 
the vertebral column. The cup-and-ball articular vertebral sur- 
faces are usually transversely depressed and oblique, which is not 
the case with the Crocodile's. 

Between the dorsal vertebrae which are united with the ster- 
num, and the neck, are the ribs (with massive ovate heads slightly 
concave at the articulation) which assist in supporting the shoulder- 
girdle. The dorsal ribs never include more than three ossified 
parte, though in Iguana a short unossified cartilage intervenes 
between the middle and sternal elements, assimilating the rib to 
that of a Crocodile. 

The caudal vertebra of Monitor, though far more numerous, 
are very similar in form to those of the Crocodile, differing chiefly 
in the centrum having a cup-and-ball articulation and in its obli- 
quity. In Skinks the neural spine is suppressed ; and in Dragons 
the vertebra is elongated, and its processes scarcely noticeable. 

The sacrum similarly consists of two vertebrae. 

The pectoral arch includes, besides the elements met with in 



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170 MB. H. G. 8KELEY 05 OSSEOUS BE8EMBLANCE8 

Crocodiles, a T-shaped or + -shaped episternum, and clavicle*. 
The coracoid is more like the Chameleon's than the Crocodile's 
in form, but differs from both in its anterior emargination and 
processes directed towards the episternum. The scapula is most 
like that of the Dragon. Stellio and Polychru* approximate in 
having the bone narrow ; but in most Lizards the bone has an 
expanded and emarginate form, or even unites along its anterior 
side with the coracoid. 

The humerus is broader at both ends than a Crocodile's. The 
radial process is thick and blunt, and does not make an angle with 
the upper surface of the bone, as it does in Chameleon and Cro- 
codile, though in the limbs the Chameleon is less closely ap- 
proached by the adult Alligator than by the young animal. 

The distal end of the humerus in Lizards has three condyles, of 
which the middle one is usually most developed. The humerus of 
the Dragon seems more like the Chameleon's than the Crocodile's, 
but has the radial crest smaller. 

The ulna resembles the Crocodile's in being compressed from 
side to side, though it is even more compressed ; but it differs in 
the development of an oblique olecranon ossicle, which gives to 
the bone a testudinate form. The distal end is expanded, with 
the articulation subhemisphericai and convex from side to 
side as in the Chameleon, and not convex from front to back as 
in the Crocodile. The ulna is not so long as the humerus ; but, 
owing to the development of the olecranon, the disproportion is 
not usually so marked as in the Crocodile. In the 8kink the pro- 
portion of the forearm is most Crocodilian. 

The radius is a not dissimilar bone to that of the Crocodile ; 
only in Crocodile the proximal end is concave, and the part of 
the distal articulation which is most prolonged becomes a promi- 
nent boss. 

The carpal bones are not conformable. 

The metacarpals and phalanges are not dissimilar, and differ 
chiefly in Lizards having the claw-phalanges compressed from 
side to side. 

The pelvis of Lizards is very uniform, and, both in its en- 
tirety and in the forms of the constituent bones, is very unlike 
that of the Crocodile. The pubis, like the coracoid, is usually 
perforated ; it enters into the acetabulum for the femur, and 
develops a prepubic process. The posterior end of the ilium 
is more prolonged backward, and the anterior ventral angle of 



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BETWEEN TYPICAL KBPTILE8 USD OTHER AITCMAL8. 171 

the ischium more prolonged forward, than is the case with Cro- 
codiles. 

In Monitor the femur is straighter than in Crocodiles ; and be- 
hind the proximal articulation the bone is compressed, and termi- 
nates in a strong inner trochanter, of which condition there is 
hardly a trace in Crocodiles. The distal ends are similar ; but the 
fibula articulates with the outer side of the distal end in 
Lizards. 

The tibia and fibula are not unlike those bones in Croco- 
diles, except that the Lizard fibula is somewhat compressed, so as 
to have a ridge down each side ; and the tibia, instead of being 
subquadrate at its distal end, is compressed from back to front, 
and more expanded from side to side. 

The proximal row of tarsal bones is usually anchylosed to- 
gether ; and the part corresponding to the heel of the os caicis 
is much less developed than in a Crocodile. The distal row seems 
to similarly consist of one or two small bones. 

Except that the phalanges of the fifth digit are suppressed, the 
arrangement of the other bones of the hind foot is similar in the two. 
In Lizards the proportions of the bones are different,' the fourth 
metacarpal being the longest and strongest ; the claw-phalanges 
are similarly compressed from side to side. The bones of Lizards 
and Chameleons are much thinner than those of Crocodiles ; and all 
the limb-bones differ from those of Crocodiles in haying epiphyses. 

The Blindworms have no special resemblance to Crocodiles. 
Their ribs throw off a tubercle just behind the articular head, 
which looks as though it might foreshadow double-headed ribs ; 
but the process has no attachment. Between the dorsal vertebra 
which bear ribs, and the caudal vertebrae with anchylosed chevron 
bones, are two or three sacral vertebrae, which have the transverse 
processes specially modified, sometimes double, as in Python, but 
in no respect like the Crocodile's. 

§ 5. On the Rhynchocephalian Characters qf Crocodile*. 

Hatteria resembles Crocodiles in having the quadrate bone 
firmly wedged in the skull, but differs in the relations of the bone ; 
for although a malar arch extends from the maxillary to the base 
of the quadrate, as in Crocodiles, the quadrato-jugal bone does 
not intervene between the quadrate and the malar. The quadrate, 
too, is nearly vertical, and sends a long straight wing inward 
overlapping the pterygoid in front, much after the manner of the 



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172 KB. H. Q. SKBUsYOV OS8IOUS 



Dinosaur Stmliitmmvu*. The palate, though flat and closed, as in 
Crocodile*, would seem rather to be constructed after the plan of 
Qhmmmleon and of those Emydian Chelonians from which that 
plan is modified ; for the pterygoids, according to Dr. Oimther, 
entirely divide the palatine bones extending between them to 
meet the vomers, with which they form the middle of the osseous 
palate ; in Crocodile they only advance a little way between the 
palatines, and the vomer does not come into the palate. 

The parietals diverge behind as in Lizards ; and the diverging 
processes are overlapped by the squamosal. Yet parietal, frontal, 
nasal, and premaxillary are all double ; and between the parietal 
and frontal is a foramen parietale. 

The vertebral column (since the vertebra are biconcave, devoid 
of transverse processes in the back, with oblique neural spines 
and, in the caudal region, with small chevron bones) has little in 
common with the Crocodile's. Still the articulation of the centrum 
is vertical ; the first three vertebra in the neck have no ribs ; the 
fourth has a double head, but rather after the plan of Plioeaurn* 
than otCrocodilu*. The dorsal ribs have epipleura which in the 
early vertebrae are cartilaginous as in Crocodiles, and the middle 
ones ossified as in birds, but remaining unanchylosed as Dr. 
Giinther found them to be in the mature egg of the Pheasant. 
The sternal and haemal ribs are very unlike the Crocodile's. The 
caudal vertebra divide into anterior and posterior parts, as in 
Lizards. 

The sternum, episternum, and clavicles are after the plan of 
Lizards'. The perforated coracoid more nearly resembles that of 
the Chameleon, while the flattened ossified portion of the scapula, 
which has a slight spine, is in the main Crocodilian. 

The pelvis is about intermediate between Chammleon and 2W- 
tudo x and in no respect Crocodilian. The limbs are essentially 
Lacertian. 

§ 6. The Ghebman Character* qf Crocodile*. 

In Chelonians the quadrate bone is wedged into the skull much 
as in Crocodiles, though it is usually vertical, with a tendency to 
incline forward rather than backward. It is similarly united to 
the malar by a squamous quadratc-jugal, though in the Testudine 
family, owing to enormous excavation of the quadrate and squa- 
mosal bones, the squamosal has a tendency to retreat up the side 
of the quadrate after the plan of Lizards. The malar bone in 



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BBTWBBH TYPICAL BXPTILEB JLSTD OTHBB AJUMALS. 178 

both types similarly forms the back of the orbit ; but in Che- 
lonians it does not similarly exclude the maxillary bone from 
entering into the orbital circle, seemingly owing to the large size 
and forward position of the eyes. And for this reason, though the 
nostril is single as in Crocodile, it is surrounded by the premaxillary, 
maxillary, and prefronto-nasal bones. The upper surface of the 
Chelonian skull is very unlike that of the Crocodile, owing to the 
serpent-like and Chameleonoid prolongation backward of the pe- 
rietal and supraoccipital bones, the enormous temporal fosse, the 
double parietal and frontal bones, the general absence of distinct 
prefrontal and lachrymal bones, and the vertical Lacertian posi- 
tion of the maxillary. The palate is similarly closed in the me- 
dian line; but the nostrils are not carried back in a tube, the Testu- 
dine arrangement in this respect reminding us as much of Chame- 
leon as of Crocodile. And the palatal resemblance is not so close 
as it seems at first sight to be, since, from the presence of a 
transverse bone and downward prolongation of the pterygoid 
bone to meet it, the lateral palatal vacuity of the Crocodile is of a 
different nature from that of the Tortoise, In the vertebral column 
there is scarcely any thing in common. In the tail only of Emy- 
saura (Okeh/dra serpentina) there is a superficial resemblance to 
Crocodiles, the centrum being elongated and compressed, having 
transverse processes, a vertical articulation, and chevron bones ; 
but the articulation is opisthocoelous, and the neural spine is sup- 
pressed. 

The scapula and coracoid in both groups are the only bones 
in the pectoral arch. But the Chelonian scapula is a cylindrical 
rod; and though in the Emydian and Testudine families the 
coracoids have a sub-Crocodilian expansion of their distal ends, 
they do not articulate with the sternum as in Crocodiles, or even 
with each other. 

The Chelonian humerus is the stronger. Its radial process is 
like that of the Crocodile, but is prolonged nearer to the hemi- 
spherical articular head ; while on the other side a strong ulnar 
process is prolonged beyond the articulation, and to this the Cro- 
codile has nothing analogous. 

The compressed ulna of clawed Chelonians is unlike the bone 
in. Crocodiles. The radius is better comparable; but in Che- 
lonians it never has so cylindrical a shaft, and the distal end 
has a more simple articular surface. 

The carpal bones are not comparable. The metacarpals and 



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174 MB. H. e. SEELRT OK OSSEOUS BESE MB LANCES 

phalanges in Emydians are not dissimilar ; only with them all the 
digits terminate in claws, and the metacarpal bone of the fifth 
finger is the stoutest. 

There is very little in common in the pelvis, which in Chelonians 
is more like Lizards' than Crocodiles'. 

The femur is a stronger bone in Chelonians, with a large hemi- 
spherical instead of a compressed subovate articular head. It 
might be considered to diverge from the Crocodile's more than 
Lizards', since the trochanteroid ridge which is developed behind 
the head of the bone in Lizards may here be regarded as greatly 
expanded from side to side, so as to produce an enormous tro- 
chanter ; and to this modification the Crocodile offers no analogy. 

The tibia and fibula have a general resemblance, except that in 
Chelonians they are stouter, and differ a little in their distal ar- 
ticulations. 

The os calcis and astragalus of Testudines are anchylosed to- 
gether, and show nothing like the Crocodilian form. The distal 
row of bones is more numerous than in Crocodiles. 

In reducing the digits of the hind foot to four, Tutudo becomes 
Crocodilian ; and, as in Crocodiles, the hind foot is more elongated 
than the fore foot, though not to the same extent. 

§ 7. The Ophidian Character* of Crocodile*. 

The resemblances of Serpents to Crocodiles are necessarily 
limited to the skull and vertebral column. Like Alligators, ser- 
pents have the nostril divided by the nasal and premaxillary 
bones; but the premaxillary is single and toothless. Almost 
every other character gives matter for distinction ; in the poison- 
ous group the divergence is least, from both frontal and parietal 
bones being single. 

In the vertebral column the resemblance is limited to the pro- 
coslous articulation of the centrum and the compressed subquadrate 
neural spine. 

§ 8. The Urodelan Character* of Crocodile*. 

No skull of a living Amphibian is likely to be mistaken for 
that of a Crocodile. The nasal sac is surrounded by premaxil- 
lary, maxillary, nasal, and vomerine bones. As in Monitor^ 
neither orbit nor orbital fossa is circumscribed by bone. As in 
fishes, an enormous parasphenoid covers much of the base of the 



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BETWEEN TYPICAL BEPTTLE8 AKD OTHER AXIMALS. 175 

skull, and it divides the pterygoid from the palatine bones. The 
nares do not open upon the palate. 

The dorsal and caudal vertebra of the Menopome resemble 
the Crocodile's in haying the ribs supported on transverse pro- 
cesses ; and in some types the articulation of the rib's head is di- 
vided. The ribs never encircle the viscera ; and there are never 
neural spines. In the tail the chevron bones are anchylosed to 
the centrum. The centrum appears to be biconcave. 

The scapula is very like that of the Crocodile, but widens at 
the acetabulum for the humerus, so as to become x~shaped. In 
the Menopome epiphyses to the limb-bones are not ossified. 

The humerus is twisted, and expands widely at the distal 
end. At the proximal end the radial crest is greatly developed, 
but, from the twist in the bone, does not make an angle with the 
shaft. 

The ulna and radius, though stouter in the Menopome, have 
sufficient resemblance to make a detailed comparison necessary 
with both Crocodilia and Testudinata. 

The carpus in the Menopome is unossified, and so far resem- 
bles the condition of the Crocodilian distal carpal series, though 
in other Urodelans all the elements are changed to bone* The 
metacarpals and phalanges are compressed from above downward, 
like those of some Dolphins. 

In the pelvis there is no near resemblance ; and the hind limbs 
are formed more on the Lacertian than on the Crocodilian 
plan. 



PABT TI. 

THE SIMILITUDES OF CHELONLAH BONES. 

§ 1. The Mammalian Characters of Chelonians. 

There is in Chelonians a nearer resemblance than in Croco- 
diles to the usual plan of the mammalian posterior nares, since 
they are divided by the vomer, and have their anterior lateral 
border made by the palatine. And in mammals the anterior 
naret are similarly single at their termination, except in the Por- 



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176 HA. H. G. 8BKLEY OK 088X0U8 BS8E1CBLAK0E8 

poises and Armadillo. Except, however, with the Porpoises and 
Man, a mammal rarely admits the maxillary bone into the border 
of the anterior nares, as do Chelonians. 

Except in certain Bodents, some Monkeys, and Man, those 
mammals which have the orbit for the eye surrounded with bones 
do not admit the maxillary bone into its border, as is usual with 
Chelonians. The lateral eyes and terminal nostril are mamma- 
lian ; but only in Man are the similarly placed premaxillaries so 
small. , • 

Certain Carnivora have the parietal and supraoccipital bones 
elevated into a median crest, but it is never prolonged so far 
backward as among Chelonia. 

The essential difference between the mode of union of the skull 
with the vertebral column is made by the forward recession among 
mammals of the basioccipital element. 

The forms of Chelonian ribless cervical vertebra may be par- 
alleled in mammals. The testudinate group has its analogues 
in such long-necked forms as the G-irafFe and Llama. The ma- 
rine group has more the proportion of the neck-vertebra in 
the Sheep ; but there is a stronger hypapophysis, and only an 
indication of the transverse process characteristic of short-necked 
mammals. The opiathocoelous feature of the earlier vertebra? 
is a character of ruminant mammals. 

The dorsal ribs have a mammalian character in articulating 
between the bodies of two vertebra, though they usually differ 
in appearing to have no union with the neural arch. When, 
as with the Armadillo, a mammal is covered with an osseous 
sheath, it is not homologous with that of Chelonians, being merely 
dermal, and having no osseous union with the skeleton. 

The tail in the marine and testudinate groups agrees with most 
mammals in wanting the chevron bones ; but all Chelonians differ 
from mammals in having the neural arch prolonged to the end of 
the tail. 

The pectoral arches are dissimilar. 

The curves in the mammalian humerus appear at first sight to 
be the reverse of those in the Testudinata, owing to the bone being 
directed forward instead of backward, so that the left humerus of 
one type resembles the right humerus of the other. The bone 
corresponds most closely in form with that of Seals, which in 
common with many Carnivora, have a similar hemispherical head 
and a similar foramen on the inner and lower border of the shaft, 



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BETWEEN TYPICAL BBSTTLES AHD OTHEB ANIMALS. 177 

though in Chelonians it is usually a groove. And some mammals, 
like the Walrus, have a trochanteroid ulnar process prolonged 
beyond the articulation, after the manner of Chelonians. The 
distal end of the bone is not more thickened than in those mam- 
mals which show least trace of an oiecranon-pit. 

The mammalian ulna — which is usually behind the radius, and 
when external to it, as in Carnivora, is external only at the distal 
end — reminds one of the testudinates in the way in which the 
bone is compressed from side to side. The young Elephant is 
comparable to the old Tortoise in the extent to which the ole- 
cranon process of the ulna is developed. But the best parallel 
to the bone as a whole is seen in the MematuM aurtrafo, if we 
neglect the combined distal epiphyses, on which both ulna 
and radius abut. After the plan of the Beaver, the radius is 
the smaller bone of the two. Perhaps its nearest general re- 
semblance in form is to the Manatee, where, however, the bone is 
relatively stouter, and is suturally united to the ulna at the 
proximal end: at the distal ends the bones similarly touch each 
other on the inner side. 

The carpus in its two rows reproduces all the elements usu- 
ally found in the mammal; and in the Testudines the scaphoid 
and lunar bones are usually ancbylosed as in some Carnivores. 

The metacarpal bones are shorter than in any mammal ; the 
phalanges are as short as those of the Bhinoceros ; and the ter- 
minal claws resemble those of marsupials in wanting the lateral 
groove, but differ in being depressed. 

The pelvis is entirly mammalian in the forms and grouping of 
the bones. The ilium is an elongated massive bone rather less 
expanded antero-posteriorly at the sacral end than in the Tiger: 
It contributes, with the pubis and ischium, to form an imperforate 
acetabulum for the femur, as in mammals ; and its articular surface 
similarly looks downward. The bone differs from the ilium of mam- 
mals in being directed according to the reptilian plan, upward and 
backward from the acetabulum, instead of forward ; in the Testu- 
dines its direction is more vertical than in the Chelonian type. 
And it differs from mammals' in not having the sacral end pro- 
duced beyond the bones with which it articulates. 

The pubes and ischia meet mesially in Tettudo as in mam- 
mals, so as to enclose two large obturator foramina. The 
ischia are massive behind, transversely truncated, and directed 
a little downward, with an angular process behind, after the 



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178 MB. H. G. BEELEY OK OSSEOUS RESEMBLANCES 

plan seen in the Elephant. The pubis is proportionally larger 
than in any mammal, the expanded flattened bones of Chelo- 
nians differing in haying a mesial angular prolongation forward, 
of which there is a faint indication in the Camel, but which, 
if transversely truncated and ossified separately, would have 
made prepubic bones after the pattern of those seen in the Mono- 
tremes. External to this is a strong digit-like process directed 
outward, of which only a faint trace is seen in Echidna. In the 
marine Chelonia the pubis is much larger than the ischium, which 
bone, as well as the ilium, is small, the ischium being a simple 
flattened dicebox-shaped bone. 

The femur has much the proportion seen in the Sea-otter (En- 
hydra), and is mammal-like in its hemispherical articular head. 
The great trochanter is rather less developed than in most mam- 
mals* The obturator pit is moderate ; but, the inner lesser tro- 
chanter being prolonged up the bone almost as far as the great 
trochanter, the proximal end has a character unlike that of any 
mammal's. The distal end, expanded from side to side, is not more 
thickened from before backward than in the Walrus and Seal ; in 
those animals, however, the shaft is not cylindrical, and the arti- 
culation is deeply divided into two parts. 

There is no patella. The tibia in old Testudines is a massive 
bone, with almost the heavy proportions of the tibia in a Rhino- 
ceros. It wants, however, the cnemial crest, of which all mam* 
mals have some indication at the proximal end in front. In the form 
of the distal end it approximates to that of mammals, being inter* 
mediate between that in the Kangaroo and the usual placental type. 
The proximal end is not expanded so much from front to back 
as in most mammals; but the articulation has two ill-defined 
facets for the femur. 

The fibula is relatively stronger than in the Ehinoceros, and 
differs from most mammals' in its cylindrical shaft, and in articu- 
lating proximally with the femur. Distally it articulates with 
the os calcis, as in Marsupials and, it may be, some Carnivores. 

The tarsus consists, as in mammals, of two rows of bones, but 
wants the naviculare, and differs, moreover, in having the astra- 
galus and os calcis anchylosed together side by side, so that 
neither bone has the characteristic mammalian characters. 

In the Testudine hind foot there are four digits. The metacar- 
pals are short, obliquely overlap each other at their proximal end*, 
and are expanded from side to side distally, shorter and stronger 



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BETWEEN TYPICAL BEPTILES AND OTHEB ANIMALS. 179 

bones than are usual with mammals. The claw- phalanges are pro- 
portionally longer than in 0/ycteropus ; but in that auimal they 
are compressed from side to side, and not from above downward. 

§ 2. The Avian Character* qf Chelonians. 

There is no resemblance between the Avian and Chelonian 
crania, except in the immaterial point that both are toothless, 
and both, in an immature condition, have members which show 
transitional indications of teeth. In the lower jaw both have the 
dentary bone similarly single [typically]. And the number of 
elements in the lower jaw is seemingly often the same, though, 
from the obliteration of sutures in birds, the number of bones is 
not always easily determined in the mature auimal. 

In the marine Ghelonia the length of the neck-vertebra is like 
that in the Penguin. In Tettudo there is an approximation, both 
in length and in form, to the anterior vertebra of long-necked 
birds, such as the Heron or Swan ; but the bird never has the 
centrum so free from lateral processes as Testudo, never has 
the sygapophyses prolonged so far forward, and never departs in 
the neck from the Avian articulation. The dorsal region of Che- 
lonians is so much modified in relation to the immovable carapace 
that detailed comparison is impossible. It may be noticed that 
the underside of the dorsal centrum is often smooth and rounded 
at in such birds as the Heron. 

The sacrum has nothing in common. The tail is similar in such 
birds as the Swan and in Testudo, correspondence being seen in 
the short centrum flat on the underside, the depressed neural arch 
devoid of neural spine, in the transverse process coming off from 
the base of the centrum. In place of the chevron bones seen 
in some freshwater Chelonians, birds rarely have more than a 
mere ossicle between the vertebra, approximating to the interver- 
tebral ossicle of Lizards, or a few vertebra have long double hy- 
papophyses after the manner of Serpents. 

The form of the Chelonian pectoral arch, consisting of scapula 
and coracoid, is closely paralleled by Struthious birds. The elon- 
gated coracoid in the young bird is about intermediate in length 
between that of the marine and land types ; but in Chelonians 
the bones have no distal articular surface, not meeting any ster- 
num. The scapula in Chelonians is straighter and more cylin- 
drical ; it gives off near the articulation with the coracoid a digital 
process which Mr. Parker names the precoracoid, and which in 

LINN. JOUBN. — ZOOLOGY, VOL. XII. 13 



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180 MB. H. G. 8EELEV. ON 08SEOTTS BESEMBLAWCIS 

Struthious birds is an ossified prolongation of tbe scapula along 
tbe side of the coracoid. In old age this element in the bird mutes 
again with the distal end of the coracoid so as to enclose a 
foramen. 

The sternum and clavicle of ordinary birds are not to be com- 
pared with those of the Chelonia. 

The testudine humerus is massive and stout, as in Parrots, from 
which that of Testudo differs chiefly in being more curved, in 
having the head hemispherical, and in having the ulnar process 
prolonged beyond the articulation instead of being reflected over 
on the posterior side of the bone as in Lizards. In the Ostrich 
the radial crest of the humerus is suppressed. At the distal 
end of the bone birds have the condyles much more developed 
than Chelonians, and in this respect are more Lizard-like; so 
that distally the resemblance is better in the Ostrich than in 
other birds. 

The proportions of the ulna and radius of Chelonians are 
perhaps best matched in the Penguins, in which, however, the 
bones are even more compressed. As in birds, the ulna is the 
larger bone ; but the majority of birds differ in having it cylin- 
drical and long. Both bones are best paralleled in the Ostrich ; 
and the comparison is better made with a middle-aged Teriudo 
than with an old animal. 

The carpus, metacarpus, and phalanges are incomparable. 

The dorsal ribs are comparable in that the epipleuron in such 
birds as the Parrot grows so as to cover the interspace between 
the ribs, and so shows a faint approximation to the condition 
of the same element in the young Ghelonian, though in the bird 
the epipleural parts overlap instead of abutting one against the 
other. 

The pelvis has no common character in birds and Chelonians. 

The femur is similar to that of a bird, but differs chiefly in the 
proximal end being twisted at right angles with the distal end, 
the twist being more perfect than in many mammals, while the 
proximal articulation is smaller in birds, and a sharp ridge runs 
from the great- trochanter some distance down the front of the 
bone. The distaTend in birds is thicker from front to back, and 
has the condyles much better defined. In its proportions the 
femur might be compared to that of the Ostrich and many cari- 
nate birdB. 

Birds often have a patella, which Chelonians have not. 



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BBTWIEK TYPICAL REPTILES AND OTHEB ANIMALS. 181 

The fibula of the bird is unlike the Chelonian's in haying no 
distal end ; but the proximal end similarly articulates with a facet 
on the outside of the femur. The tibia of the bird would only 
approximate to that of the Chelonian before its proximal and' 
distal epiphyses were anchylosed. As it is, there is no close re- 
semblance ; and no resemblance at all is found in the tarsus, 
metatarsus, and phalanges. 

§ 8. The OrocodiUan Characters of Chelomat*. 
[See also the Chelonian characters of Crocodiles, p. 172.] 

These characters, properly so called, may in the cranium be 
regarded as the growing together of the squamosal, parietal, and 
postfrontal bones, which in the Crocodilia leave only a small 
temporal fossa between them, while in the marine Chelonia the 
growth has extended till the foramen is obliterated. Similarly 
there may be supposed in Crocodiles a tendency of the squamosal 
and postfrontal bones to grow down to meet the quadrato-jugal 
and malar, which growth is seen perfected in Chelone, though the 
quadrato-jugal bone is vertical. On the other hand, by enlar- 
ging the temporal fossa in the Crocodile so as to divide the post- 
frontal from the squamosal bone (towards which there may be 
supposed a tendency in Crocodiles with the temporal fossa largest, 
such as the great Oavial), the postorbital features of the Croco- 
dilian head would approximate towards the Testudinata. In the 
vertebral column there is no character which can be considered 
to be Crocodilian, the long tail and chevron bones of Emysaura 
being associated with an opisthocoelous centrum, which hitherto 
has not been found in a Crocodile : though occurring in the tail 
and neck, it may be considered eminently Chelonian, and is pro- 
bably only obscured in the back by the formation of the cara- 
pace. 

What the pectoral arch would have been but for the peculiar 
envelope of the Chelonian it is difficult to judge; but as it 
stands, no Crocodilian characters can be recognized. The only 
Crocodilian feature of the humerus is the radial crest, which it 
shares with birds, the Chameleon, and a few mammals. 

The elongation of the proximal carpal bones under the ulna in 
Chelone is paralleled in Crocodiles. And the elongation of the 
metacarpals and phalanges of Crocodiles is better matched in the 
marine than the land Chelonia. 

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182 MB. H. O. SBELEY OK 088EOUS RESEMBLANCES 

In the pelvis the shortness of the ilium in marine Chelonia is 
a character which is approximately Crocodilian, but it is rather 
like a less distant removal than a mark of affinity : the form of 
the ischium, too, is least dissimilar in marine Chelonians. 

The approximation of the tibia in Emysaura and Chelone to 
the triangular form is Crocodilian. 

There is a general resemblance in the character of the articular 
surfaces at the joints, and in the absence of epiphyses ; but in 
the Chelonia the sharpness of definition increases considerably 
with old age, probably more than in Crocodiles. 

§ 4. Lacertian Character* of Chelonians. 

I do not recognize in the head any community of character 
beyond such generalities as the vertical orbits in Iguana with 
temporal fosso behind them. 

The pelvis is comparable both in the arrangement of the bones 
and in their form. The ilium, however, is attached to the sacrum 
by the middle of its inner surface, and not by its free end as in 
ChelGnians. As in Emysaura, the Lacertian pubes and ischia do 
not meet each other mesially so as to define obturator foramina. 
The os pubis of Lizards differs chiefly in being perforated by the 
obturator nerve, and in having the anterior digital process con- 
nected by intervening bone with the anterior margin, so aa to 
make the form of the pubis roughly triangular, and not tri- 
radiate as in Testudo. The ischium is like that in Emysaura ; so 
that when the two bones meet mesially their ventral margins 
form a Y-shape in Iguana, the cleft part being behind. 

The resemblance does not cease with the hind limbs, though 
they are usually larger than the fore limbs in Lizards, while in 
Chelonians the inequality is much leas marked, and only with 
Emydians are the hind limbs visibly the longer. 

To make the femur of Emysaura comparable to that of Iguana, it 
would only require that the bone should be straightened, and that 
the trochanter on the fibular side (the great trochanter of mam- 
mals) be entirely suppressed. 

There is a general resemblance of proportion and form between 
the subtriangular tibia and fibula. The latter bone is usually 
more slender. The comparison is best made between the Nilotic 
Monitor and Emysaura serpentina. 

The proximal tarsals with the bones anchylosed into one row 



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BETWEEN TYPICAL BEPTILIS AND OTHEB ANIMALS. 183 

are bo similar in Iguana and Emysaura that they might be easily 
confounded. The distal tarsal bones of Lizards differ in being 
limited to two. The metatarsals and phalanges of Lizards differ 
in being elongated, but approximate best to Emysaura and the 
marine Chelonia, which latter similarly have five digits. 

§ 5. The Chameleon-characters of Chelonians, 

The Chameleon-characters are few. In the head they are seen 
in the backward prolongation of the supraoccipital and parietal 
bones, coupled with the high form of the cranium. The pre- 
maxillaries are similarly narrow in front ; but they do not enter 
into the lateral perforation of the anterior nares, but into the 
superior membrane-covered vacuity which I have already spoken 
of as the middle hole of the skull. 

The palatine bone appears similarly to form the inner floor of 
the orbit. It may be worth consideration whether the Chelonian 
terminal hole in the head does not represent the middle hole 
rather than the true nares, and whether by the prolongation for* 
ward of the prefronto-nasal, maxillary, and premaxillary bones, 
nares in front of these might not be circumscribed which should 
be more analogous to the nares of Chamaleon — a view which is 
not unsupported by the existence of long fleshy snouts in some 
Trionychida*. 

The elongated scapula of the Chameleon approximates to that 
of the Tortoise ; but the resemblance would seem to be acci- 
dental. 

§ 6. The Bhynchoeephalian Characters of Chelonians. 

The Bhynchoeephalian palate has only a resemblance of form 
to the Chelonian ; for the maxillary and premaxillary only margin 
it, there is no similar aperture for the posterior nares, and, although 
the palatines are parted from each other as in many Chelonians, it 
is by the pterygoid bones and not by the vomer, which bone is here 
double and makes the anterior part of the palate. The basioccipi- 
tal and basisphenoid are exhibited on the underside of the head ; 
but in the adult they form one bone. The pterygoid gives off a 
strong lateral process into the lateral pterygoid fossa, as in Podo- 
cnemu ; and the bones diverge against the basisphenoid to reach 
the quadrate, as in Chelone midas ; but there the resemblance 
ends. 

The oblique orbit is surrounded by much the same bones as in a 



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184 MB. H. 0. 8BELEY ON 088B0U8 RESEMBLANCES 

Chelonian, the maxillary and malar below, the postfrontal and 
quadrate behind, though in Testudo the bone which represents 
the quadrato-jugal, while penetrating the suture between the 
postfrontal and malar, does not reach the orbit ; above are the 
postfrontal, frontal, and prefrontal, the latter bone in Chelonians 
rarely being distinct ; and in front is a small lachrymal, which is 
not fouud in Chelonians. 

The nostril differs from that of a Chelonian in having the pre- 
maxillaries prolonged upwards to be embraced by the front of the 
nasal bones. 

There is a resemblance to Chelonians in the median bones of 
the roof of the skull all being double. 

The quadrate bone is vertical in Hatteria, and suturally wedged 
in the skull ; but it has a form of its own and a peculiar antero- 
posterior perforation ; and the back of the skull has little in 
common with Chelonians. 

The pelvis is very like that of Emysaura, and in old animals 
would probably approach near to Testudo. 

The ischium has the Chelonian shape, with a not dissimilar 
posterior tuberosity ; it is, however, united to the pubis only by a 
strip of cartilage as in Iguana. The pubes have between them a 
diamond-shaped cartilage in front, which, fully ossified, would give 
the pubic bones a form like that of the old Testudo. The bones 
are perforated, as in Lizards, by the obturator nerve. The ilium 
inclines a little backward, is flattened, has the sides subparallel, 
but, as in Lizards, extends beyond the point of attachment to the 
sacrum. 

§ 7. The Serpent-characters of Chelonians. 

In the Boa there is a similar prolongation of the parietal and 
occipital bones backward into a crest and spine. The maxil- 
lary bone is similarly introduced into the base of the orbit ; and, 
as in Testudo, the posterior boundary is made by the postfrontal 
bone, the upper boundary by the frontal, and the front boundary 
by the prefrontal. In the Boa and in the poisonous group the 
small premaxillary is similarly toothless. And though the anterior 
nares are double in Serpents, they are bordered by the nasal, 
maxillary, and premaxillary bones as in Chelonians. 

The method of articulation in the vertebral column, and the 
double hypapophysis in the tail preclude further comparison. 



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BETWEEN TTFIC1X BSPT1LSS AND OTHER ANIMALS. 185 

§8. The Urtdelan Characters qf Chelonians. 

There is a general resemblance of form between the crania of 
Chelys mammata and the Menopome. The quadrate and squamosal 
bones are as firmly fixed in the skull as in Chelonians, and in the 
Mammata are similarly directed more outward than downward. 
The maxillary and prefrontal make the front and base of the 
orbit ; in Salamanders its hinder part is not circumscribed with 
bone. The pterygoid in the Menopome is a large bone like that 
of the Mammata, and the bones are mesially parted from each 
other as in Trionyx ; only the separation is made by the basi- 
temporal in the Menopome, and not by the basisphenoid. The 
pterygoid in both similarly meets the quadrate. In Tritons the 
quadrate bone is directed forward as in the extinct Ornitho- 
sauria. 

The humerus of the German Salamander has a digital process 
at the proximal end, which is not likely to recall the ulnar pro- 
cess in a Chelonian. The radius is proportionally a very large 
bone, and is greatly expanded at the distal end. The ulna is 
sufficiently similar to that of marine and freshwater Chelonia to 
suggest comparison. 

The carpals in Menapoma have no existence ; in the Salamander 
they are well ossified, and, though very different, are more sugges- 
tive of the marine Chelonia than of the other types. 

The pubis is unossified in the TJrodela ; and the ischia are large 
reniform bones unlike those of any Chelonian ; but the ilium 
appears to be similar. 

The femur, though haying a hemispherical proximal articulation 
and a widened distal end, has proximally a digital trochanter 
unlike that of a Chelonian and more suggestive of an Iguanodont 
Dinosaur's. 

The tarsals differ in the same way as the carpals ; and the 
compressed dicebox-shaped metacarpals and phalanges are in- 
termediate in elongation between the marine and land types of 
Chelonians. 

Usually Batrachian bones differ from those of Chelonians in 
being hollow, and in having epiphyses. 



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186 MB. H. G. SEELET ON 08SEOU6 RESEMBLANCES 

PAET III. 
THE SIMILITUDES OE LIZABD BONES. 

§ 1. The Mammalian Characters of Lizards. 

The nearest approximation to the diverging V-shaped parietal 
crest of Lizards is the faint V-crest of certain Seals, like the 
Grey Seal. The few mammals which have the external nostrils 
double never have the division made by the nasal and premaxil- 
lary bones meeting mesially, but by a jutting forward of the 
ethmoid. The maxillary bone is similarly excluded in Ruminants 
and Pachyderms from a circumscribed orbit, by development of 
the malar and lachrymal bones. 

A change in the forms of the teeth, like that of many Lizards, 
is seen in many mammals in the transition of incisors to canine, 
and to premolars and molars ; only the molar teeth of Lizards 
never have a divided fang. 

The ribless neck-vertebra in the Monitor are six ; in other 
Lizards there are usually fewer. Oxen have a strong neural 
spine and a well-developed hypapophysis ; but neither is rela- 
tively ever so long as in the Monitor ; and mammals never have a 
long intervertebral ossicle as in Iguana, or a procoelous cup-and- 
ball articulation; in many of the long-necked mammals the 
transverse process is as little developed as in Lizards. The axis 
of Iguana, with its large forward-reaching neural spine, and large 
odontoid process placed immediately under the neural canal, 
might well be compared to a mammal's. In long-necked mam- 
mals like the Q-iraffe there is a similar obliquity in the articula- 
tion in the centrum, its upper part leaning forward. 

The dorsal vertebra agree with those of all mammals except 
Cetaceans in not having the ribs supported on transverse pro- 
cesses, though a few early vertebra in the Dragon have a short 
massive lateral process to which the large head of the rib arti- 
culates. They resemble Myrmecophaga and Cetacea in having 
the rib attached only to its own proper vertebra. They resemble 
true Whales in the articulation being strictly single, but differ 
in the expanded cup-shaped articular head, which is sometimes 
vertical. This single-headed condition is seen in the hinder ribs 
of many mammals and in Ornithorhynchus. 

The dorsal region has the visceral surface of the centrum 



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BETWEEN TYPICAL BEPTILES AND OTHEB ACTUALS. 187 

generally rounded and smooth. The neural arch in the early 
part of the back is usually directed forward in mammals, as it is 
in the back of Iguana ; and in the lumbar region of mammals the 
neural spine is usually quadrate and erect as in the back of 
Monitor. 

The tail in long-tailed mammals like the Marsupials and Mono-* 
tremes rarely includes more than twenty vertebr©, except in 
Paradoxurus, while in Monitor there may be more than 100. 
The transverse process is more persistently developed in the 
mammalian caudal region than in Lizards ; in Lizards the neural 
arch is the persistent part. 

The ribs of Lizards appear to consist of a variable number of 
parts determined by the state of the specimen as fresh or dry. 
Taking three as the normal number in Iguana, the same number 
of parts may be seen in a few ribs of some Porpoises ; and in 
OrnithorhyncKu* there is a long unossified element between the 
dorsal and sternal ribs. 

The pectoral girdle resembles that of a Monotreme in con- 
sisting of scapula, coracoid, clavicle and interclavicle, while the 
mammal differs in the coracoids not meeting the sternum, and in 
those bones being divided by two others not seen in Lizards, which 
are named the epicoracoids. The episternum or interclavicle is a 
T-shaped bone in both, which carries the clavicles [often] on its 
cross bar in front, and in the mammal meets the proximal end of 
the sternum behind, while in the Lizards it extends mesially 
down the front of the large lozenge-shapjd sternum. The ends 
of the cross bar in some Lizards unite with a process of the 
coracoid ; in the mammal they extend along the clavicle nearly 
to the acromion process of the scapula. The scapula of the Mono* 
treme, with its anterior lateral acromion-process, situate as in 
Cetaceans, is like the scapula of Iguana, where, however, the pro- 
cess is much longer — though in Monitor the coracoid unites with 
the whole side of the scapula, so that there is no true acromion. 
In the Monotreme the clavicle extends to this process ; in the 
Lizard it extends beyond it to the suprascapular The massive 
coracoid of Chamaleon or Hatteria is more like that of Mono* 
treraes than the emarginate bones of ordinary Lizards. 

The diamond-shaped sternum of the Pike- Whale is relatively 
smaller than in Lizards, and has different relations ; and, except 
in Chameleons, it is not usual for Lacertians to have the sternum 



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188 MB. H. G. 8BSLBT ON OSSEOUS BESEMBLAXCSS 

formed of elements placed one behind the other, as in mam- 
mals. 

The limb-bones with their epiphyses remind us of mammals* 
and Salamanders', though in the larger bones the resemblance of 
form is small. Bears, like Lizards, have the ulna larger than the 
radius : mammals have the bone compressed from side to side as 
it is in Lizards ; but in mammals the proximal end is usually 
prolonged beyond the articulation. The carpus, metacarpus, and 
phalanges are very like in form to those of mammals, except that 
in Lizards the phalangeal bones are more elongated. 

There is considerable resemblance in the pelvis to that of a 
mammal, so that if the pelvis were turned round about the 
sacrum so that the ilia were directed forward, little would be 
needed to make the pelvis mammalian, beyond the prolongation 
mesially backward of the pubes to meet the ischia and so form 
obturator -foramina, a suppression of the prepubic angle of the 
pubis, and an expansion of the free end of the ilium. 

The femur is unlike that of any mammal in having the inner or 
tibial trochanter of the proximal end greatly developed, and the 
outer or great trochanter suppressed — as well as in having the 
articular head compressed, which is also a feature of the humerus. 
The inner trochanter of the femur of Ornithorhynchue is similar ; 
but the bone in no other respect is like that of Lizards. 

There is no patella in Lizards. The tibia differs from most 
mammals' in being, at the proximal end, compressed from front to 
back ; in Datyuru* it is subcylindrical. The fibula differs from 
mammals' in articulating with the side of the femur. The tarsus 
is not mammalian ; and the other bones of the foot differ from 
mammals' chiefly in their great length. 

§ 2. The Avian Characters of Lizard*. 

The single premaxillary extends between the nares and between 
the termination of the nasal bones, after the manner of birds ; 
but in birds the lateral rays of the bone diverge backward, and 
form that part of the palatal border which in Lizards is made by 
the maxillary bones ; and in Struthious birds the premaxillaries 
make a conspicuous part of the palate. 

The free motion of the quadrate bone is avian ; but the bone 
does not articulate with the wall of the brain-case as in birds. 
The basisphenoid in Struthious birds gives off similar lateral pro- 



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BETWEEN TYPICAL BEPTILES AND OTHEE ANIMALS. 189 

cesses to articulate with the pterygoid ; and the presphenoid is 
similarly prolonged forward between the pterygoids. These 
bones, though smaller in the bird and of different form, similarly 
diverge behind, and unite with the inner sides of the quadrate 
bones, lapping behind the process which the quadrate of the bird, 
in common with that of the Bhynchocephalian, sends forward and 
inward. 

There is a general resemblance between the form of the dorsal 
vertebrae in Monitor and in birds, so far as concerns the shape of 
the neural spine, the length of the centrum, and the concave side- 
to-side outline of the articulation seen on the under surface ; but 
lizards, unlike birds, Crocodiles, and Salamanders, have no trans- 
verse process, which in the neural arch of birds forms a platform 
down the back, to which the second head of the rib articulates. 
The elongation of the neck, the shortness of the tail, and the 
anchylosis of the sacral vertebra) in birds are unlizardlike. 

The pectoral arch of Struthious birds may be compared to 
that of Chamaleon. The sternum is similar, and gives attach- 
ment to short broad coracoids, which make the acetabulum for 
the humerus, with an elongated unexpanded scapula. 

Carinate birds have the clavicles as well developed as in ordi- 
nary Lizards ; and then, as in Monotremes, they similarly arti- 
culate with the small acromial process of the scapula, but do not 
reach beyond it as in Lizards. In the Penguin the scapula is 
almost as much expanded as in Lizards ; but the acromion is 
short and not given off from the middle of the front margin, but 
from near the union of the bone with the coracoid. If the keel of 
the bird's sternum represents the interclavicle of Lizards, it is not 
often that it preserves, as it does in the Shrike, the transverse bar 
of the T- shape ; the interclavicle of Iguana has an incipient keel ; 
and, in general, the interclavicle of the bird may be supposed to 
be formed, like that of the Skink, in a +, if it exists at all. 

The ribs of true Lizards never show the epipleura characteris- 
tic of birds, which are well developed in Hatteria ; nor do the ribs 
usually consist of so few as two elements, though often as many 
sternal ribs articulate with the sternum in Lizards as in birds. 

The humerus corresponds closely with that of carinate birds, 
and from the Parrot differs chiefly in not having the radial crest 
so much compressed, in not having the ulnar process excavated 
for a pneumatic foramen, and in having the distal end more ex- 
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ISO MM. H. 6. SKKLST OS OSSEOUS BX3EHBULXCE8 

TW ulna and radius rather resemble those of Struthious than 
carinate birds, since carinate birds hare not the proximal end of 
the ulna «o large, or the whole bone so much compressed, and 
they usually hare the distal end impressed mesially so as to make 
the articulation pulley-shaped. In Struthious birds, too, the 
distal end of the bone is more expanded from side to side. The 
radios corresponds with the Ostrich better in proportion than in 
tibe form of the articular ends. 

The resemblances in the remainder of the skeleton are very 
slight. Even the femur, though similar in proportion, differs in 
wanting the external trochanter, and in having an internal tro- 
chanter (which in birds is not developed), in having the proximal 
articulation large and terminal instead of at right angles with 
the shaft as in birds, and in having the condyles of the distal end 
less divided in those few Lizards which, like the Monitor, show 
indications of a dividing groove. 

The phalanges are often similar, and the claws are compressed 
from side to side. 

§ 3. The Crocodilian Character* of Lizards. 

Uromastis and Ipumm are Crocodilian in having the frontal and 
parietal bones single and the nasals double. The frontal bone 
similarly divides the orbits. The downward direction of a process 
of the pterygoid and of the transverse bone, so that they fall 
within the lower jaw, is Crocodilian. 

Those Lizards (like the white Skink) which after the first two 
vertebrae have cervical ribs, never have them of the x-shape with 
double heads which characterizes Crocodiles. 

Only in the earlier dorsal vertebrae of the Dragon are there 
short transverse processes to the vertebra? ; but they are given off 
from the centrum, and are never notched for ribs after the 
manner of Crocodiles, but are single-headed and shorter and 
stronger. In the tails of many Lizards, however, the transverse 
processes are even more developed than in the Crocodile, especi- 
ally in UromasHx ; and in Lizards the vertebrae are more nume- 
rous. They usually have the articulation of the centrum oblique, 
while in Crocodiles it is vertical ; and in Crocodiles the centrum 
is more compressed from side to side. In the young Crocodile 
the articular faces of the caudal centrum are flat or slightly 
convex as in mammals, and so far unlike Lizards'. 

The pectoral arch of the Crocodile differs from that of true 



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BETWEEN TYPICAL BEPTILE8 AND OTHER ANIMALS. 191 

Lizards in wanting an episternum and clavicles, as well as in the 
forms of the coracoids and the scapulae. The shapes of the pectoral 
bones are points in which the different Lizards differ greatly among 
themselves — the Skink having the episternum + -shaped, with 
expanded clavicles. In Monitor the scapula adjoins the coracoid 
along its whole length ; in TJromastia; the scapula has no acro- 
mion process ; in Stellio the clavicles are brought down to the 
anterior margin of the sternum ; and in the Dragon the scapula 
is like that of the Crocodile. 

The humerus similarly has a compressed proximal articulation ; 
but the bone in Lizards puts on many other characters not seen 
in Crocodiles, such as the twist in the bone, the widening of the 
distal end, the development of the distal condyles, the thickening 
of the radial crest, and the formation of an ulnar tuberosity. With 
a general resemblance, the ulna has scarcely a Crocodilian charac- 
ter beyond a compression of the bone from side to side ; for though 
the inner outline of the bone in Lizards is concave, its outer out- 
line is straight, and not convex as in Crocodiles, so that the prox- 
imal end of the bone in Lizards becomes more massive, is more 
prolonged on the outer side, and a concave articulation is made in it 
for the humerus. 

The radius has a straight Crocodilian cylindrical shaft, but de- 
velops characters of its own in the concave proximal end, and in 
the process of the distal articulation, which, like that of the 
mammalian tibia, is directed inward. 

The carpus is very unlike ; but the metacarpals and phalanges 
differ but little. 

There are no Crocodilian characters in the pelvis. 

The Lizard femur is less unlike the Crocodile than the hume- 
rus, being similar in proportion, and having a similarly compressed 
articular head ; but while in Crocodiles the articular head is so 
directed as to give a convex outline to the hinder side of the 
proximal end of the bone, in Lizards the corresponding surface 
is concave ; and the tuberosity, which on the inner side of the 
shaft in Crocodiles is scarcely a prominence, in Lizards becomes 
the large inner trochanter, which is especially prominent in Skinks, 
and but slightly prominent in the Dragon. 

There is much resemblance in the proportions of the tibia and 
the fibula : but in Lizards the distal end of the tibia sends a pro- 
cess downward and inward as in mammals, and the proximal end 
of the bone is compressed on the inside ; in Lizards the fibula is 



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192 MB. H. G. 8EELET OK OSSEOUS SBSSMBLAKOBS 

more compressed from side to side at the distal end, and its proxi- 
mal end usually curvep backward. 

There are many points of difference in detail (in the metatar- 
sals and phalanges), but nothing inconsistent with both having 
had a primitive plan in common. 

§ 4. The Chelonian Characters of Lizards. 

There is no community of character in the skull, or vertebral 
column, or pectoral girdle, beyond such features as all reptiles 
have in common. 

In the humerus of Emysaura, however, are found all the 
points of the lacertian humerus ; only they are exaggerated to 
an extent which might be considered grotesque. 

In the os pubis of Uromastix and the Dragon the prepubic 
angle is prolonged into a digital process similar to that of a 
Chelonian. The ischium oiEmysaura is similar to that of Iguana. 
But there seems to be in the ilium of Lizards always an angular 
process in front above the acetabulum, of which Chelonians give 
no indication. 

The characters of the Lizard femur, like those of the humerus, 
are burlesqued by Emysaura ; and a new character is added 
by the development of a great trochanter. 

The tibia and fibula would correspond very well with Emysaura 
but for the greater stoutness of the bones in the Chelonian. 

The tarsus corresponds generally ; and the bones of the Emy- 
dian digits may be matched by those of the White Skink. 

§ 5. The Serpent-characters of Lizards. 

The parietal in Iguana sometimes has a median ridge approxi- 
mating to that of Python. The squamosals in Serpents are always 
prolonged backward ; but in Lizards the parietals are prolonged 
with them and over them. The nares of both are divided by a 
single premaxillary. The orbits are similarly vertical. The 
pterygoid bones are very similar in their forms and in their con- 
nexions with the quadrate, transverse, basisphenoid, and palatine 
bones ; and in Iguana they are similarly divided from each other 
mesially. The palatine bones of Serpents, like those of Matteria, 
carry teeth, and similarly abut against the maxillary, and similarly 
are divided by the vomer ; but in the Boa the palatine is a nar- 
row bone 



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BETWEEN TYPICAL REPTILES AND OTIIEB ANIMALS. 193 

The vertebral column of Serpents resembles that of Iguana in 
the form of articulation of the neural arch by addition of a zygo- 
sphene ; but the Iguana has the neural spine inclined backward 
and thickened posteriorly, which is not the case in Serpents ; also 
in transverse section the part of the arch at the base of the neural 
spine which is convex in Serpents, in Lizards is concave. The 
articulation for the rib is more elongated vertically in Serpents 
than is usual in Lizards. 

§ 6. The Urodelan Characters of Lizard*. 

As in Bhynchocephalia and Ophidia the palatine abuts against 
the maxillary and carries a second row of teeth, the pterygoid 
and palatine are more expanded than in Lizards (in this rather 
recalling Chamaileon), and, with the parasphenoid between the 
pterygoids, in the Hell-bender, make a closed palate. 

The nasal sacs are double, and in the Hell-bender appear to 
be surrounded by a similar set of bones to those which mar- 
gin the anterior nares in Monitor. 

As in Monitor, the Hell-bender does not prolong the maxillary 
arch backward, and the orbit has no margin of bones behind ; the 
animal is unlike Monitor in having all the median roof-bones of 
the skull double. 

Supraoccipital and basioccipital in the Hell-bender would seem 
not to exist, though the posterior part of the basitemporal looks 
as though it might well become a basioccipital bone like that 
of mammals. 

The atlas of the Hell-bender has a strong resemblance to the 
axis of mammals and Lizards, what would be called the odontoid 
process fitting into the vacuity where the basioccipital is usually 
found, while the flattened lateral facets of the centrum fit on to 
the exoccipital bones. And this would raise the question whether 
if a vertebra with the characters of an ordinary atlas came to be 
developed between this vertebra and the skull, its centrum would 
not go to form a basioccipital bone. The outline of a vertebra in 
Hell-bender is very similar to that in Skink, differing in more 
perfect suppression of the neural spine, and in the development 
of transverse processes from the centrum, which in many Sala- 
manders are double-headed. These processes are long in the 
Hell-bender ; in Triton they are short, and give attachment to 
double-headed ribs, which have in the middle of their hinder 
margin an epipleural element, also seen in the earlier ribs of t v 



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194 MB. H. 0. 8EELEY OK OS8BOV8 BE8EMBLAKUS8 

German Salamander. The transverse processes are directed 
backward ; and the chevron bones of the tail are anchylosed to the 
centrum. 

The scapula and coracoid are the only elements of the pec* 
toral girdle ossified in Salamanders ; the coracoids are widely di- 
vided by cartilage. There is a general correspondence of this 
part of the pectoral arch to that of Skink, except that the acro- 
mion in Salamander is a very wide short process which unites 
along its length with the coracoid. The latter bone has much 
the form seen in Hatteria. 

The humerus and femur are both distinguished by the curious 
digital trochanters of their proximal ends. With regard to the 
other bones, along with a general resemblance of form, which from 
the absence of epiphyses cannot be traced in the articulations, 
there is a greater tendency in the bones to enlarge at the distal 
end than is the case with Lizards. 

The ilium has the Lizard-direction upward and backward ; but, 
as in Chelonians, it does not extend beyond its transverse 
process. 



PAET IV. 

THE SIMILITUDES OF SERPENTS* BONES. 

The absence of limbs and pectoral and pelvic arches limits com* 
parisons to the bead and vertebral column, which latter is so 
unlike what is characteristic of other types that the similitudes 
of Serpents' bones are necessarily few. Little in common with 
mammals will be noticed beyond the large development of the 
parietal and frontal bones, and the parietal crest seen in the Boa 
and Python, of which an analogue may be noticed in Dasyurus, 
Thglacinua, and the Spotted Hyaena. Au analogous form of the 
neural arch, but with the zygapophysial characters which are an- 
terior in Serpents developed at the posterior end of the arch, occurs 
in the lumbar vertebra of Armadillos and Myrmecophaga ; but 
the centrum in those animals is unlike that of a serpent's vertebra. 

The resemblances to the bird are chiefly in the large share which 
the parietals take in covering the brain, and in the function of 
the frontals in completing the covering in front, in the basisphe- 



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BKTWSKH TYPICJLL BEPTILS8 AND OTHER ANIMALS. 195 

noid having articular facets for the pterygoid bones, as in Lizards, 
8nd in the similar prolongation of the presphenoid bone forward. 
The pterygoid bones, as well as the palatines, are similarly divided 
from each other mesially ; in birds, however, they are toothless 
and small, and have attachments only with the quadrate, pala- 
tine, and presphenoid. The quadrate bone is free in Serpents, 
but of more typically lacertian than avian form ; and in Birds 
the squamosal bone enters into the wall of the brain-case, while 
in Serpents it has not even osseous union with the brain-case, 
though more closely applied to it than is the case with the bone 
in Lizards. 

There appear to be no Crocodilian characters beyond those 
enumerated already, p. 174. 

The Chelonian characters are chiefly those mentioned on p. 184. 

The Lizard-characters of the vertebral column and palate are 
chiefly given on p. 192. 

The Urodelan characters are some points in the head, such as 
the suppression of alisphenoids and orbitosphenoid bones. 



I made the foregoing comparisons many years ago for my 
own use as a basis for other researches, and now offer them as a 
contribution in aid of a better understanding of the term osteo- 
logical affinity in the reptilian ordinal groups, in the hope that 
they form a Catalogue Bauonnd of the more obvious osseous 
resemblances and points of supposed affinity, to which compa- 
rative anatomists, dealing with new animals or with questions of 
genetic relation, may have need to refer. And if, by indicating 
the marked broad resemblances between a few organic types, 
naturalists should find their toil lightened when pondering the 
causes of these similitudes and of the more familiar structural 
differences with which they are coupled — by here seeing at a 
glance ftn'nmla in which the resemblances are found, — I venture 
to suggest that perhaps a similar synthetic examination of the 
animal kingdom may furnish data for a morphological demon- 
stration of the method of organic evolution, and for that more 
definite knowledge of the nature of the relations between one 
group of animals and another which the classifications of the 
future will aspire to express. 



hUfV. JOUBK.— ZOOLOGY, VOL. XII. 14 

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196 PROF. J. C. 8CHIODTE OK LETTERS FROM 

Notes on the Letters from Danish and Norwegian Naturalists 
contained in the Linnean Correspondence. By Professor J. 0. 
Schiodte, of Copenhagen. 

[Bead June 18, 1874.] 

Amongst the treasures preserved by the Linnean Society, one of 
the most important is the correspondence of the King of Natu- 
ralists. It is true that for the appreciation of his own works and 
genius this vast collection is of minor value, because the letters 
are those of his correspondents and not his own. But Linii&us 
was the centre of the scientific world at his time and in his own 
department, such as no other man of science ever was to a similar 
degree ; and this enormous mass of communications sent to him 
by contemporary naturalists of every nation and every class, 
through a series of years, give in their totality a most interesting 
and unique picture of that whole period in the history of science, 
and throw so much light on many points in it, that this history 
certainly never can be properly written without a most ample use 
of this correspondence, such as has not yet been made. 

It was therefore a great satisfaction to me to be enabled, by 
the kind permission of the Linnean Society, to copy those letters 
to Linnaeus, preserved in its library, which had been written by 
naturalists in Denmark and Norway. As many of these letters as 
seemed to have any interest have now been printed, exactly tran- 
scribed (a few only in extracts) in the seventh volume of the 'Natur- 
historisk Tidsskrift/ pp. 333-509 ; and their historical value has 
been amply demonstrated by the quantity of new information which 
Mr. G-osch has derived from them and embodied in his work on 
the Zoological Literature of Denmark*. In order to explain 
fully the importance of these documents for the history of natural 
science in Denmark, I should have to trespass too far on the in- 
dulgence of my readers ; but a few short observations on the 
principal authors of them may perhaps not be unacceptable. 

The letters printed in the ' Naturhistorisk Tidsskrifb 9 are 180 
in number, including a very few to the younger Linn£. The fol- 
lowing are the principal Writers. 

1. Balth. Joh. de Buchwald, Professor of Medicine at Copen- 
hagen (five letters). 

» 'Udsigt orer Danmarks Zoologiake Literatur,' Pt. U. vol. i. pp. 293-302, 
321, 335, 339, 355, 360, 414, 417, 438-440, 451, 461. 



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DANISH AXD NORWEGIAN NATURAXT3T8. 197 

2. G. T. Holm, a favourite pupil of Linnaeus, who had -great 
expectations of him. He died very young ; and hitherto but little 
was known of his life. His letters (three) give very valuable in- 
formation on the efforts made by the Danish Government in 
order to resuscitate the study of natural history, which had lain 
dormant in Denmark since the time of Bartholinus and Steno. 

3. G. C. Oeder, the founder of the Botanical Garden at 
Copenhagen, and the first editor of the well-known work published 
by the Danish Government, the ' Flora Danica.' (Six letters.) 

4. P. Atcanius, the First Professor of Zoology at Copenhagen. 
(Six letters.) 

5. C. G. JKrotsetutein, Professor of Medicine and author of the 
original text to the splendid work on shells by Begenfuss (' Choix 
de CoquOlages ') published at the expense of the King of Den- 
mark. This text was withdrawn and another substituted for 
it, a very curious and hitherto but imperfectly understood episode 
in literary history *. Also with regard to the great expedition 
to Arabia sent out by the Danish Government, which resulted 
in the well-known works of Niebuhr and Forskihl, many new 
and interesting details are contained in the letters of Kratzenstein 
(six in number), Oeder, and Holm. 

6. ft F. Bottboll, afterwards Professor of Botany, author of 
several works in that department. (Five letters.) 

7. M. 1%. Brunnich, Professor of Zoology and Mineralogy at 
Copenhagen, author of ' Ichthyologia Massiliensis, 9 ' Ornithologia 
Borealis ; ' a friend of Jos. Banks, B. Tennant, Solander, Ac. 
(8ixteen letters.) 

After my return from London with the copies of these letters, 
I had occasion to examine the papers and manuscripts formerly 
belonging to Brunnich, and now preserved at the University 
library at Copenhagen. I had the great pleasure of finding 
amongst them nine autograph letters from Linnaeus, answers to a 
corresponding number of those from Brunnich. They have been 
printed in the ' Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, 9 vii. pp. 510-521. The 
two savants had never met ; but they understood and appreciated 

• It was originally intended to publish this work by subscription ; and a spe- 
cimen of the circular issued by Begenfuss, probably the only one existing, is 
bound up with Limueus's copy of the work in the library of the Society. 

14* 



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198 ON LETTKBS FROM DANISH AND NOBWKGTAH NATURALISTS. 

each other thoroughly ; and their correspondence bears strong 
testimony of their mutual esteem and sympathy. 

8. Lorenz Spengler, the widely known collector of shells, whose 
collection, containing a great number of types, is still preserved 
at Copenhagen. (Four letters.) 

9 and 10. Hans Strom and I. E. Qunnerus, Bishop of Throndhjem, 
able and industrious observers of nature in Norway and authors 
of many, for their time, valuable papers. (One and five letters.) 

11. O. F Mutter, the author of ' Zoologia Danica* and so many 
other distinguished works. Like Brunnich, he knew Linnaeus 
only by correspondence; but it is noticeable that the latter 
never entered into so cordial relations with him as with Brun- 
nich. (Fifteen letters.) 

12. Joh. Chr. Fabricius, the great entomologist and the ablest 
of Linn&us's personal disciples. Amongst the twelve letters in 
this collection is also the one (without date, but from other 
sources known to have been written in 1766) in which he sub- 
mits to Linnaeus his new method of analyzing and classifying 
insects. 

13. Jokan Zo'ega, a botanist of great ability, but who unfortu- 
nately was compelled from various circumstances to abandon na- 
tural science and enter on an administrative career. In this he 
distinguished himself greatly ; but natural history sustained a 
severe loss. He studied at Upsala together with his cousin, Joh. 
Chr. Fabricius; and it is recorded that Linn®us once said. 
" When I see Fabricius with an insect, and Zoega with a moss, 
I take off my hat and salute my masters.*' The twenty-six 
letters from his pen contain a great mass of valuable personal and 
scientific details. 

14. Martin Vahl, the celebrated author of the ' Symbol® Bota- 
nic®,' ' Eclog© American®,' Ac., himself a devoted personal dis- 
ciple of Linn®us. (One letter.) Besides these, there are letters 
from the statesman J. H. E. Bernstorflf, the historian Suhm, and 
other men of fame. 

The correspondents of Linnaeus very frequently sent him de- 
scriptions and annotations of plants and animals ; and many 
entries and alterations in the various editions of the * Sy sterna 



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OK THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. 190 

Naturae* may doubtless be traced to this correspondence. The 
often voluminous descriptions, sometimes accompanied by draw- 
ings, which form enclosures or parts of the letters in question, 
have not been reproduced in the ' Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift,' aB 
not having sufficient value in proportion to the space they would 
occupy. But as an instance of how the correspondence illustrates 
the systematic works of Linnaeus, we may mention the follow- 
ing. In the second edition of ' Fauna Suecica ' we find under 
the genus Hydra a species called trtiicea; but in the twelfth 
edition of the 'Systema Naturae' this is omitted, and rightly 
so. From one of the letters of Fabricius we gather in what 
way Linnaeus was led to correct the error ; for Fabricius here 
communicates to him that a certain Schun (whose name is pro- 
bably misspelt), minister at Bamf, had informed him that these 
supposed Hydras, which occur frequently on the coast, were only 
the ova of Bueeinum lapillu*, L. This letter is written from 
Edinburgh, 17 September, 1767 (Naturhistorisk Tidssrkrift, vii. 
p. 459). 

But as I have already said, it is for the appreciation of Lin- 
naeus's contemporaries and his influence on them (in short, of 
the Linnmn period in natural history) that this correspondence 
is principally valuable ; and 1 may perhaps, in conclusion, be per- 
mitted to express a hope that some writer thoroughly qualified 
for the task may bo found inclined to work up in an exhaustive 
manner the vast store of material for the history of science which 
I feel sure must be contained in this remarkable collection of 
letters. 
Copenhagen, April 1874. 



On the Classification of the Animal Kingdom. By T. H. Huxlbt, 
LL.D., Sec. B.S., F.L.S., Ac. 

[Bead December 3rd, 1874.] 

Ik the twelfth edition of the ' Systema Naturae * Linnaeus gives 
the following definition of the object of classification : — 

" Methodus, anima scientiae, indigitat primo intuitu, quodcunque 
corpus natnrale, nt hoc corpus dicat proprinm suum nomen, et 
hoc nomen quaecumque de nominato corpore beneficio seculi inno- 
tuere, ut sic in summa confusione rerum apparenti, summus con- 
spiciatur Naturae ordo " (/. c. p. 13). 



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200 TROT. HUXLEY OK THI 

While entertaining the same general conception of claflsificatory 
method, Cuvier saw the importance of an exhaustive analysis of 
the adult structure of animals. The most complete investigation of 
the kind ever made under the direction of a single mind, and far 
surpassing all previous attempts in extent and thoroughness, is 
contained in the ' Lemons d'Anatomie Compar6e ' and the 'R&gne 
Animal.* Cuvier's classification is purely morphological; it is 
an attempt to enunciate the facts of structure determined in his 
time, and largely by his own efforts, in a series of propositions 
of which the most general are the definitions of the largest groups, 
and are connected by a series of subordinate, differential proposi- 
tions with those which constitute the definition of the species. 

In his great work, the 'Entwickelungs-Geschiehte der Thiere,' 
Yon Baer, among other contributions to science of first-rate im- 
portance, showed that our knowledge of an animal's true struc- 
ture must be imperfect, unless we are acquainted with those 
developmental stages (which are successive structural conditions) 
through which the animal has passed in its way from the ovum 
to the adult state ; and, since 1828, no philosophical naturalist 
has neglected embryologies! data in forming a classification. 

In 1859, Darwin, in the ' Origin of Species/ laid a new and firm 
foundation for the thfeory of the evolution of living beings, which 
had been hypothetically sketched out by Lamarck, and thereby 
introduced a new element into Taxonomy. If a species, like an 
individual, is the product of a process of development, the 
character of that process must be taken into account when we 
attempt to determine its likeness or unlikeness to other spe- 
cies; and Phylogeny, or the history of the evolution. of the 
species, becomes no less important an element than Embryo- 
geny in the determination of the systematic place of an animal. 
The logical value of phylogeny, therefore, is unquestionable ; but 
the misfortune is, that we have so little real, knowledge of the 
phylogeny even of small groups, while of that of the larger groups 
of animals we are absolutely ignorant. To my mind there is full 
and satisfactory proof of the derivation of Equus from Rippmriot^ 
and of this from an Anchitherioid ancestor ; and there is much 
to be said in favour of the derivation of other genera of existing 
Mammals from their Tertiary predecessors. There are also pretty 
clear indications of the series of changes by which the Ornithic 
arose out of the Beptilian type, and the Amphibian from the 
Fish ; but I do not know that as much can be said of other large 



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cussrriCATiox of thx ajtcilax xikgdoic 201 

group*. We are reduced to speculation — to the formation of 
more or lees probable hypotheses; and, though I believe that phylo- 
genetic speculations are of great interest and importance, and are 
to be reckoned among the most valuable suggestors of, and guides 
to, investigation, 1 think it is well to recollect, not only that they 
are at present, for the most part, incapable of being submitted to 
any objective test, but that they are likely long to remain in that 
condition. For the ultimate test of the truth of a phylogenetic 
hypothesis is the historic record of the succession of living forms 
contained in the fossiliferous rocks; and the present state of 
geology gives no encouragement to the supposition that even the 
whole series of fossiliferous rods represents a period coextensive 
with the existence of life on the earth. In speculating on these 
subjects, it is constantly needful to remind oneself even now, that 
there is every reason to believe that all the leading modifications of 
animal form were existent at least as early as the close of the 
Paleozoic epoch; and though it is true that the fossiliferous 
Fataosoic rocks are thicker than all the rest put together, yet 
the amount of progress in evolution from a moner to the fully 
differentiated Vertebrata of the Trias bears an enormously larger 
ratio to the amount of progress from the Triassic vertebrates to 
those of the present day. All such comparative measurements 
as these are but rough aids to the imagination ; but the Inverte- 
brata yield even stronger evidence in the same direction. The 
larger divisions of the Arthropods were completely differentiated 
in the Carboniferous epoch ; so were those of the Mollusks and 
those of the Echinoderms. The great desideratum is the discovery 
of estuarine and freshwater formations of Silurian, Cambrian, and 
Laurentian date. At the present moment, I do not think that 
any one is in a position to form even a probable guess as to 
what will be found in such deposits. 

Taxonomy should be a precise and logical arrangement of veri- 
fiable facts ; and there is no little danger of throwing science into 
confusion if the taxonomist allows himself to be influenced by 
merely speculative considerations. The present essay is an attempt 
to set a good example, and, without reference to phylogeny, to 
draw up a classification of the animal kingdom, which, as a fair 
statement of what, at present, appear to be well-established facts, 
may have some chance of permanence, in principle, if not in 
detail, while the successive phylogenetic schemes come and go. 
No doubt the increase of our knowledge of embryology will largely 



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202 PItOF. HUXLEY ON THX 

modify any conclusions which may be based upon our present 
imperfect acquaintance with the facta of development ; and, in 
many cases, it is impossible to do more than suggest the conclu- 
sions towards which these incomplete data tend. 

Among those animals which are lowest in the scale of organi- 
zation there is a large assemblage, which either present no differen- 
tiation of the protoplasm of the body into structural elements ; 
or, if they possess one or more nuclei, or even exhibit distinct 
cells, these cells do not become metamorphosed into tissues — are 
not mitogenetic. In all other animals, the first stage of develop* 
ment is the differentiation of the vitellus into division-masses, or 
blastomeres, which become converted into cells, and are eventually 
metamorphosed into the elements of the tissues. For the former 
the name Protozoa may be retained ; the latter are coextensive 
with the Metazoa of Haeckel. 

I. The Peotosoa. 

The movements of the body are effected either by pseudopodia 
or by cilia, which latter may cither be small and numerous, or 
long and single, and at most two. When pseudopodia are the only 
instruments of progression, the animal may be termed a myxopod $ 
when numerous cilia, a triehopod ; when single or double fiagelli- 
form cilia, a mastigopod. 

Among the Protozoa, two groups are distinguishable : — 1. The 
Monera ; 2. The Endoplastica. 

1. The Monera. — There is no " nucleus." Our knowledge of 
these forms and of their relations is largely due to Haeckel, who 
has shown that several of them present a remarkable alternation 
of conditions. Thus, Protamwba is a myxopod which may become 
encysted, and, in that condition, divides into several portions which 
are set free and resemble the parent, or are myxopods. Proio- 
mono* is a mastigopod which becomes encysted, divides, and gives 
rise to myxopods, which subsequently become converted into mas- 
tigopods. Myxastrutn is a myxopod which becomes encysted, dip 
vides, and the products of division become enclosed in ovoid cases, 
whence they emerge as myxopods. VampyreUa is a myxopod 
which devours Gompkonema and other stalked Diatoms, encysts 
itself on their stalks, divides, and gives rise to new myxopods. 
In Protomyxa, the primitively independent myxopods unite into 
Plasmodia. Although our knowledge of the structure of the soft 
parts of the Foraminiftra is imperfect, and the case of Ghromia sug- 



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CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. 208 

gests caution in assuming that they are all devoid of nuclei, it is 
probable that the great majority of the Foraminifera resemble 
Protogene* and belong to this division, the extent of which will 
doubtless be greatly enlarged by the discovery of new forms. 

2. The Endoplastica. — The application of the term " nucleus " 
to the structure commonly so called in this division of the Pro- 
tozoa, to a certain extent implies a belief in its being homologous 
with the histological element to which the same name is applied ; 
and I prefer to revive a term I once proposed for the latter, and 
to call the body at present in question " endoplast." It may or 
may not be the homologue of the histological nucleus ; and with- 
out expressing any definite opinion on that subject, I wish to 
leave it open for further consideration. 

It is remarkable that among these Endoplastica there is a series 
of forms which run parallel with the Monera. Thus Amoeba is like 
a Protamceba with a nucleus and, commonly, a contractile vesicle. 
The Infusoria Flagellata are comparable to Protomonas with the 
same additions, and attaining a considerable degree of complexity 
in NooMuea. 

The Gregarinid© repeat the series of forms ofMyxastrum, though 
some become divided into several segments, and, asE.VanBene- 
den has shown, acquire muscular fibres. 

The Acinetid© and the Badiolaria apparently have their moneral 
representative in Actinophryt $ol, though the conversion of the 
pseudopodia into suckers in the Acineticto distinguishes them re- 
markably. 

On the other hand* while no moneral trichopod seems yet to 
have been discovered, the trichopod type is richly represented, in 
this division, by the Catallacta of Haeckel, and by the Infusoria 
Ciliata, of which I think the Catallacta should form only a sub- 
division. 

It is among the Ciliata that the Endoplastica attain their greatest 
degree of complexity, by a process of direct differentiation of their 
protoplasmic substance into tissues and organs, without the inter- 
vention of cell-formation. 

I have recently examined several genera of Infusoria (Para- 
mecium, Balontidium, Nyctotherut, Sptrostomum) with great care 
— using very high microscopic powers (1200-2000 diameters), 
employing osmic acid (which at once kills and preserves un- 
changed the tissues of the Infusoria) and other reagents, and 
comparing them with such truly cellular organisms of similar size 



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204 PROF. HUXLEY OK THE 

as Opalina ; and I must express my entire agreement with Yon 
Siebold and with Haeckel in their conclusion, that the protoplasm 
of these animals is not differentiated into cells. 

At most there is an excessively minute, and sometimes regular, 
granular structure, which is found in the endoplast, as well as 
elsewhere, and appears to me to be altogether similar to that 
of the protoplasm between the nuclei of Opalina. But although 
the bodies of the Infusoria contain no cells, they may be differ- 
entiated into very definite tissues. In the genera mentioned, 
the so-called " cuticula" is, I believe, simply the transparent outer- 
most layer of the protoplasm, and the cilia are directly continuous 
with it. Beneath this is a well-marked cortical layer, in which 
the " trichocysts " of Paramecium are situated, and which, in Spi- 
rostomum, Balantidium, and Nyctotheru*, presents the distinct 
muscular fibres described by Stein and others. The inner substance 
is, in some (Balantidium, e. g.\ semifluid, and undergoes an obvi- 
ous rotation ; but in Nyctotherus, not only is there no movement 
of this substance, but the long curved oesophagus is succeeded 
by an ill-defined region, which lies between it and the anus, is 
permanently filled with ingested matter, and is, in one sense, 
an alimentary tract. Even in Paramecium, the complex water- 
vessels, which lie, for the most part, not in the cortical layer, but 
beneath it, show, by the permanence of their disposition, that a 
great part of the inner substance is fixed. The constancy of posi- 
tion of the endoplast *, which also lies beneath, and not in, the 
cortical layer, is evidence to the same effect. 

In comparing the Ciliated Infusoria with nucleated cells, the 
existence of the so-called " nucleolus," which assuredly can have 
nothing to do with the histological element so named, and which 
I propose to term the endoplastula, is an important fact, often left 
out of sight. 

I have no observation to offer upon the vexed question of the 
nature of the endoplastula, as none of the numerous individuals 
of the different species named, which I have examined, showed the 
changes described by so many observers. That the endoplast 
itself is a reproductive organ is clear ; but the development of 
embryos by its fission is an argument rather against, than in favour 
of, identifying it with the nucleus of a cell. No cell is known to 
multiply by fission of its nucleus alone. 

* The membranous investment of the endoplast, so often described and figured, 
certainly has no existence in the unaltered state of the Infusoria I have men- 
tioned. 



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CLASSIFICATION OF THE AHIHAL KINGDOM. 205 

On the whole, while I hesitate to absolutely identify the endo- 
plast of an Infusorian with the nucleus of a histological cell, and 
can find no analogue for the endoplastula in the latter, I think 
that Yon Siebold's view holds good, and that the higher Infusoria 
are unicellular animals, in the sense that Mucor, Vaucheria, and 
Oaulerpa are unicellular plants. 

Nevertheless it must be admitted, on the other hand, that 
though the view for which Ehrenberg has so long contended, that 
the Infusoria possess, in miniature, an organization, in a broad 
sense, as complex as that of the higher animals, is not tenable, 
the great majority of them are far more highly organized than was 
suspected before that indefatigable observer commenced his long 
and remarkable series of investigations. 

II. The Metazoa. 

The germ undergoes differentiation into histogenetic cells ; and 
these cells become arranged into two sets, the one constituting 
the outer wall of the body, while the other lies internal to the 
foregoing, and forms the lining of the alimentary cavity, when, 
as is usually the case, a distinct alimentary cavity exists. Id 
the embryo, the representatives of these two layers are the 
epiblast and hypoblast. In the adult, they are the ectoderm and 
the endoderm, which answer to the epidermis, and the epithelium 
of the alimentary canal, in the higher animals. 

All the Metazoa, in fact, commence their existence in the 
form of an ovum, which is essentially a nucleated cell, supple- 
mented by more or less nutritive material, or food-yelk. The ovum, 
after impregnation, divides into blastomeres, giving rise to a 
Morula (Hseckel), in the midst of which arises a cavity, the blasto- 
ccele (cleavage- cavity, " Furchungshbhle " of the Germans), which 
may be larger or smaller, filled only with fluid, or occupied by 
food-yelk. When it is largest, the blastomeres, united into a 
single layer, form a spheroidal vesicle, enclosing a correspondingly 
shaped blastocoele. When it is reduced to a minimum, the 
Morula is an almost solid aggregation of blastomeres, which may 
be nearly equal in size, or some much larger than others, in conse- 
quence of having undergone less rapid division. The next stage 
in the development of the embryo of a Metazoon consists (in all 
cases except a few parasitic anenterous forms) in the conversion 
of the Morula into a body having a digestive cavity, or a Gastrula. 



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206 PBOF. HUXLEY OV THE 

The conversion of the Morula into the Gastrula may take place in 
several ways. 

In the simplest, the Morula, being composed of equal or nearly 
equal blastomeres, these, undergoing conversion into cells, differ- 
entiate themselves into an epiblast, which invests the remaining 
cells, constituting the hypoblast. The central cells of the hypo- 
blast next diverge and leave a space filled with fluid, the alimen- 
tary cavity, which opens at one end, and thus gives rise to the 
Gastrula. This is the process generally observed in Porifera, 
Coslenterata, Turbellaria, Trematoda, and Neroatoidea. 

In a second class of cases, the Morula becomes converted into 
blastomeres of Unequal sizes, a small and a large set. The smaller 
are rapidly metamorphosed into cells, and invest the larger(with any 
remains of the food-yelk) as a blastoderm. The hypoblast arises 
either from the blastoderm thus formed, or from the subjacent 
larger blastomeres. This is the process observed in certain Tur- 
bellaria, in the Ctenophora, in most of the Oligocmeta and Hiru- 
dinea, in the Arthropoda, and in most Yertebrata. 

In a third group of instances, the Morula, whether consisting 
of equal or unequal blastomeres, becomes spheroidal, and encloses 
a correspondingly shaped blastocoele. One part of the wall of this 
vesicular Morula then becomes invaginated, and is converted into 
the hypoblast, which encloses the alimentary cavity, the latter com- 
municating with the exterior by the aperture of invagination. 
This process has been observed in the Ch&tognatha, Echinoder- 
mata, and some Gephyrea, in Lumbricus and Hirudo — in poly- 
chwtous Annelida, Enteropneusta, Brachiopoda, and most Mol- 
lusca — and in Ampkioxus, Petromyzon, and the Amphibia among 
the Yertebrata. 

The various modes in which the two primary layers of the germ 
may be developed shade off into one another, and do not affect 
the essence of the process, which is the segregation of one set of 
cells to form the external covering of the body, and of another to 
constitute the lining of the alimentary canal We may, with 
Haeckel, term those animals which pass through the Gastrula 
stage, Gastrea. The Gastrula may be deeply cup-shaped, or flat- 
tened out into a disk, slightly concave on one side ; but in what- 
ever manner the Gastrula is formed, and whatever be its shape 
when its alimentary cavity is complete, one of two things hap- 
pens to it. It becomes provided with many iugestive apertures 
distinct from that first formed (polystomatous), or with one only, 



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CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. 207 

which may or may not be distinct from the first aperture of the 
Gastrula (monostomatous). 

Metazoa polystomata. — The former division comprises only the 
Sponges (Porifera or Spongida), in which, as the remarkable re- 
searches of Haeckel (" Monographic der Kalk-Schwamme ") have 
shown, the walls of the deeply cup-shaped Gastrula become per- 
forated by the numerous inhalant ostioles, while the primitive 
opening serves as the exhalant aperture. 

The latter division includes all the remaining forms, which may 
be grouped together as Metazoa monottomata. Among these, two 
primary groups are distinguishable, of which the second exhibits 
an advance in organization upon the first. In the first, the pri- 
mitive aperture of the Gastrula becomes the permanent mouth 
(Archa&ostomata). In the second, the permanent mouth is a 
secondary perforation of the body- wall (Deuterostomata). 

1. The Arekceostomata. — It is now well established that the 
aperture of the Gastrula becomes the oral aperture of the adult in 
the Coelenterata, which group includes animals differing much in 
grade of organization, from the simple Hydra to the complex 
Ctmophore, but all manifestly exhibiting variations of one funda- 
mental tVpe. 

In most of the Hydrozoa, the ovum passes into a solid Morula, 
which, as in the Porifera, becomes differentiated into an epiblast 
and a hypoblast. The central cavity of the latter opens at one end, 
and thus far the Gastrula of the. Hydrozoa is very like that of the 
sponges ; but the aperture produced in this manner becomes the 
mouth ; and if, as not unfrequently happens, apertures are formed 
elsewhere, they do not serve the purpose of taking in food. In 
such Hydrozoa as have thickened body -walls, hollow prolongations 
of the hypoblast extend into the blaatocoele, and are surrounded 
by a mesoblastic tissue. These prolongations may become branched 
and anastomose, resembling vascular canals; but they remain 
permanently in connexion with the alimentary cavity. The re- 
productive elements are developed in the body*wall, and usually 
in csDcal outwardly projecting processes of that wall, which dehisce 
and set free the ova and spermatozoa upon the outer surface of 
the body. 

The Actinozoa, while presenting the same continuity of the 
cavity of the body with the alimentary cavity which is exhibited 
by the Hydrozoa, differ from them in two respects. The com- 
mencement of the alimentary canal is, as it were, sunk in the 



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208 PHOF. HUXLEY ON THE 

body ; and the reproductive elements are developed in the walls 
of the gastrovascular canals, and pass into them on their way 
outwards. 

The development of the coralligenoua Actinozoa has not jet 
been thoroughly worked out; but Lacaze-Duthiers has shown 
that, in Oorallium rubrum and other Gorgonidas, the Morula passes 
into an elongated, almost vermiform, ciliated Gastrula, which be- 
comes fixed by one end, and then develops the iutermesenteric 
chambers. It can hardly be doubted that these are formed as 
diverticula from the basal end of the primitive alimentary canal, in 
which case the developmental process differs but little, essentially, 
from that of such a Hydrozoon as Carmarina hastata ; and the line 
of demarcation between the Actinozoa and the Hydrozoa becomes 
very narrow. 

The Ctenophora,onthe other hand, differ somewhat in develop- 
ment, as in other respects, from the Coralligena. Their develop* 
ment has been carefully worked out by Kowalewsky and more re- 
cently by Agassiz. 

The laid egg is contained in a spacious capsule, and consists of 
an external thin layer of protoplasm, which, in some cases, is con- 
tractile, investing an inner vesicular substauce. The vitellus 
thus constituted divides into two, four, and, finally, eight masses ; 
on one face of each of these the protoplasm-layer accumulates, 
and is divided off as a blastomere of much smaller size than that 
from which it arises. * By repeated division, each of these gives 
rise to smaller blastomeres, which become nucleated when they 
have reached the number of 82, and form a layer of cells, which 
gradually spreads round the large blastomeres, and invests 
them in a complete blastodermic sac. At the pole of this sac, on 
the face opposite to that on which these blastoderm-cells begin to 
make their appearance, an ingrowth or involution of the blasto- 
derm takes place, which, extending through the middle of the 
large yelk-masses towards the opposite pole, gives rise to the ali- 
mentary canal. This, at first, ends by a rounded blind termina- 
tion ; but from it, at a later period, prolongations are given off, 
which become the gastrovascular canals. 

At the opposite pole, in the centre of the region corresponding 
with that in which the blastoderm-cells first make their appear- 
ance, the nervous ganglion is developed by metamorphosis of some 
of these cells. 

It is clear that the in vaginated portion of the blastoderm, which 



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CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANIMAX KINGDOM. 209 

gives rise to the alimentary canal, answers to the hypoblast, while 
the rest corresponds with the epiblast. 

The large blastomeres which become enclosed between the 
epiblast and hypoblast in the manner described, appear to serve 
the purpose of a food-yelk ; and the space which they originally 
occupied is eventually filled by a gelatinous connective tissue, which 
possibly derives its origin from wandering cells of the epiblast. 

The Actinozoa and the Hydrozoa constitute the Corienterata, 
which are definitely characterized by the fact that, in all the higher 
forms, the mesoblast is traversed by canals formed by diverticula of 
the hypoblast, which permanently remain in continuity with the 
alimentary cavity, and that, in the lower forms, Ae alimentary 
cavity is prolonged into the coenosarc. They are usually said to 
have a radiate symmetry ; but, even in the Actinia, there are traces 
of bilaterality ; and in the Ctenophora the bilateral symmetry of 
the adult is obvious. 

Parallel with these may be ranged an assemblage composed of 
the Turbellaria, Botifera, and Trematoda, the Nematoidea, Oli- 
goch&ta, and Hirudinea, to which the name of * Scolecimorpha' 
may be applied. They are associated together by the closest 
resemblances of structure, and present an even greater range 
in grade of organization than the Goelenterata. The lower Bhab- 
doeoela come very close to the Infusoria (as close as the multicel- 
lular to the unicellular Algae), and are but little superior to Hydra 
in the degree of their organic differentiation, while in the land- 
PlanarifiB, the Trematoda, and the Nemertid® we have animals 
which attain a considerable complexity and, in the case of many 
Trematoda and of Lineu$ (Pilidium), undergo remarkable meta- 
morphoses. Such forms as Dinophilus appear to connect the 
rhabdoccele Turbellaria with the Botifera. The lower Nematoidea 
are extremely simple, while the higher are considerably differen- 
tiated ; and, as Schneider has shown, they are connected with the 
Turbellaria by such forms as Polygordiu*. The Oligochaeta and the 
Hirudinea either belong to this division, or constitute a transitional 
group between it and the Deuterostomata. In Lumbrieui (and 
apparently in Rirudo) there seems to be no doubt that the aperture 
of invagination of the Gattrulo becomes the mouth. According 
to Kowalewsky, the mouth in Euaxe$ and Tubifex is of secondary 
origin ; but its close resemblance to that of the earthworm and of the 
leech embryos leads me to suspect that there must be some error 
of interpretation here. On the other hand, it may be that these 



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210 PROF. HUXLIY OK THE 

Are transitional forms, such as we may expect to find bridging over 
the intervals between all groups, as knowledge widens. In any ease, 
they differ from the foregoing in the development of a segmented 
mesoblast. In the Coelenterata, Nematoidea, Turbellaria, Trema- 
toda, and Botifera, the mode of origin of the cells which lie be- 
tween the epiblast and the hypoblast, constitute the mesoblast, 
and give rise to the connective tissues and muscles of the body- 
wall and of that of the intestine, is not precisely known. They 
may take their origin in the epiblast or in the hypoblast, or in 
both. But, in the Earthworm and Leech, after the epiblast and 
hypoblast are differentiated, the cells of the latter give rise, by 
division, to two bands of cells which lie one on each side of the 
long axis of the ventral face of the worm, and constitute the me- 
soblast. This becomes marked out by transverse constrictions 
into segments, and, in each segment, gives rise to all the tissues 
which lie between the epiblast and hypoblast. The mouth cor- 
responds with the primitive involution of the Morula ; the anal 
aperture is a new formation. 

In the Nematoidea and in the lower rhabdoccele Turbellaria, the 
intestinal canal is a simple tube or sac. But, in some Turbellaria 
and Trematoda the alimentary canal gives off diverticula, which 
ramify through the mesoblast and even unite together, giving rise 
to a gastrovascular canal-system like that of the Coelenterata. 
These animals, therefore, have what may be termed an mU&rocmU, 
more or less distinct from the proper digestive cavity, but con- 
nected with it, ramifying through the mesoblast. 

Whether the remarkable group of worms termed Gephyrea by 
De Quatrefages (and including Stpmcutv*, Stenuupis, Bonellia y 
Ac.) belong to the Archjsostomata, or not, is uncertain, too little 
being known of the early stages of their development. They ap- 
pear to me to be closely allied to the Botifera (compare BonelHa, 
for example), to the Enteropneusta, and to the Echinodermata ; 
while Schneider, by his very ingenious comparison of the Phoroni** 
larva Aetinotrooko with Cyphonautet, affords even stronger grounds 
than those furnished by the structure of PhoronU itself, for sua* 
pecting that the Gephyrea and the Polyzoa are more ultimately 
connected than has been supposed to be the case. 

It will be observed that the Scolecimorpha present a series of 
modifications from the unsegmented Turbellaria and Nematoidea, 
through the imperfectly segmented Botifera, to the polymerous 
Oligochata and Hirudinea, and that the segmentation primarily 
occurs in the mesoblast. 



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CLARIFICATION OF TUB ANIMAL KINGDOM. 211 

2. The DeuterottonkUa. — In the remaining Gastre® the em- 
biyo develops a secondary mouth as a perforation of the body- 
vail, the primary aperture sometimes becoming the anus and 
sometimes disappearing. 

The Schizoc&la. — Of these Metazoa Deuterostomata there are 
some which follow the mode of development of the Oligoch&ta 
and Hirudinea very closely, so far as the formation and segmen- 
tation of the mesoblast is concerned ; though the question whether 
this segmented mesoblast arises from the epiblast or the hypo- 
blast, has not been exhaustively worked out. These are the An- 
nelida Polych&ta. 

It is a very general, if not universal, rule among these animals, 
that the Gattrula is formed by invagination, and that the aper- 
ture of invagination persists as the anus of the adult. Almost 
universally, again, the outer surface of the Oastrula is provided 
with cilia, by the working of which it is actively propelled through 
the water in which it lives ; and these cilia usually become re- 
stricted to certain areas of the body, in the form of zones trans- 
verse to its long diameter. In this respect the larvae of some 
Gephyrea present similar features. Moreover setae, developed 
in involutions of the ectoderm, are very generally present, espe- 
cially on the limbs, when such exist. Some are apodal; some 
possess symmetrically disposed set® in each segment of the body ; 
and in many, true though rudimentary limbs (parapodia), one 
pair for each segment of the body, occur. In a few of the highest 
forms (e. g. Polynoe) some of the anterior limbs are turned for- 
wards, and lie at the sides of the mouth, foreshadowing the jaws 
of the Arthropoda. In some, a process of the ectoderm, in the 
region of the head, gives rise to a cephalic hood or mantle. A 
perivisceral cavity occupies the space between the wall of the 
body and that of the alimentary canal, and, so far as is known, is 
invariably formed in the substance of the mesoblast, by a sort of 
splitting or divarication of its constituent cells, whence it would 
seem to be a rehabilitation of the primitive blastocoale. The great 
majority of the Polychata possess the so-called "segmental 
organs" — variously formed tubes, which open on the surface of 
the body, on the one hand, and, usually, into the perivisceral 
cavity on the other. Not unfrequently these, or some of them, 
play the part of conduits of the generative products. 

The lower Arthropoda closely resemble the Polychaeta in their 
development, except that the food-yelk is usually large, the ali- 

LUTH. JOUBN. — ZOOLOGY, VOL. XII. 15 



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214 PROF. HUXLBY OH TB» 

mentaify cavity &r rarely formed by invagination, and cilia Are 
never met #ith in any part of the body*. The meeoblast » 
developed and becomes segmented precisely in the same way* 
Limbs are formed and rarely remain rudimentary; usually they 
become jointed ; and, in almost all cases, more or fewer of those 
which lie in the neighbourhood of the mouth are converted into 
jaws. The perivisceral cavity is formed in the same way ae in th# 
foregoing group ; so that the Arthropoda, like the Polych&ta, aref 
" sohizoccelous." In the higher Insecta, the embryogenetic pro-' 
cess is complicated by the development of an amnion, which 
singularly resembles that met with in the higher Vertebrata. Mr, 
Moseley's recently published careful examination of Peripatu* 
tends to show that this animal, formerly regarded as an Annelid, 
is really a low and primitive form of Arthropod, and thus affords 
evidence of the) highest significance as to the relations of the An- 
nelida with the Arthropoda. 

The true position of the Potyzoa is as yet, as I have already 
said, a matter of doubt;. but the arguments of Morse, and still 
more the recent investigation of Kowalewsky into the develop- 
ment of the Brachiopoda, place the close affinity of the latter with 
the Annelida in a clear light. The free larva of Argiope, for ex- 
ample, is wonderfully similar to those of Spw and of Spirorbii • 
and the mantle of the Brachiopoda appears to* correspond with 
the cephalic hood of these Annelids. When it first becomes 
fixed, on the other hand, the young Brachiopod has many reeem* 
blances to Loxomma and PedicelUna among the Polyzoa. 

As regards the Mollusca properf, the lame of the Lamel& 
Dranchiata, and of the majority of the Odontophora, have then* 
parallel in the larva of the Armelidan Phylhdoce, while the young 
of Dentalium and of the Pteropods correspond with the laohr© of 
other Annelids. A Mollusk appears to me to be essentially an 
Annelid which is only dimerous, or trimerous, instead of poly- 
merous. 

The development of the perivisceral cavity in the Molluscan 
series stands much in need of elucidation. There seems to be 
Kttle reason to dotibt that the higher Moflusks aref Schizoecelous ; 

* The like absence of cilia is a notable peculiarity of Hirtido, among the 
Leechet. 

t See Mr. Lankester's valuable paper " On the Development of Lymnaut" 
Quarterly Journal of HicrofecOpical Science. 



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CLASSIFICATION OF THB AXIMAL KINGDOM. 213 

bat it is possible that the lower forms are Enteroccelous, like the 
members of the next division*. 

The Enteroccela. — Kowalewsky has shown that in the Chseto* 
gnatha, represented by the strange and apparently anomalous 
Sagitta, the vitellus undergoes complete segmentation, and is con- 
rerted into a vesicular Morula, on one side of which invagination 
takes place, and gives rise to the primitive alimentary canal, of 
which the opening of invagination becomes the permanent anus, 
the mouth being formed, by perforation, at the opposite end of the 
body. Before the mouth is formed, however, the primitive ali- 
mentary cavity throws out, on each side, a cascal pouch, which ex- 
tend as far forward as its central continuation ; while posteriorly 
these pouches stretch behind the anus, meeting, but remaining 
separated by their applied walls, in the median plane of the body. 
These lateral sacs are next shut off from the median portion of the 
primitive alimentary cavity, which becomes the permanent alimen- 
tary canal ; and they are converted into closed sacs, the cavity of 
each of which forms one half of the perivisceral cavity, while the 
inner wall, applied to the hypoblast, gives rise to the muscular 
wall of the intestine, and the outer wall, applied to the epiblast, 
becomes the muscular wall of the body, and gives rise to the 
generative organs. The great ganglia and nerves are developed 
from the cells of the epiblast. We have thus an animal which is 
temporarily coelenterate, but in which the two gastrovascular sacs, 
enclosing what may be termed an " enterocoale," become shut off 
and metamorphosed into parts of exactly the same order as those 
which arise from the mesoblast of an Annelid. But it is not 
altogether clear whether the cells of the enterocoele in this case 
give rise only to the lining of the perivisceral cavity, and whether 
the muscles and connective tissue are in fact derived from the 

* Wben I wrote this paragraph, I had been for some time in possession of 
the recent important memoir on the development of the BracMopoda by M. 
KowalewsVy, as that distinguished embryologist had been good enough to fSttd 
it to me. Bat it is written in Russian, and I could only judge from the figures 
that the periyitceral entity of Argiope is deYeloped in the same way as that of 
Sogitta. Some little time ago, however, my friend Mr. W. F« Balaton kindly 
took the trouble to translate so much of the text as referred to these figures for 
me, and I found that my interpretation of them was correct. The Braohio- 
poda, or some of them, therefore, are Enteroccela; and their relations with the 
schiioecele Annelida and Mollusca bring up anew the question suggested by the 
frequent origin of the mesoblast from the hypoblast (as in the Sharks for example), 
May aot the schizoccsle be deniable from a primitive enterocode condition? 

15* 



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214 PB0F. HUXLBT 09 THE 

epiblast or not. Kowalewsky's 'evidence, however, is in favour of 
the origin of the muscles directly from the cells of the mesoblastio 
diverticula. 

The brilliant investigations of Johannes Muller upon the de- 
velopment of the Echinodermata, confirmed in their general fea- 
tures by all subsequent observers, have proved, first, that the 
ciliated embryonic Gastraa (the primitive alimentary canal of 
.which is formed by involution of a vesicular blastoderm), to which 
the egg of all ordinary Echinoderms gives rise, acquires a mouth 
by the formation of an aperture in the body-wall distinct from 
the primitive aperture of the Gastrcea, so that, in this respect, it 
differs from all Coelenterata ; secondly, that the embryo thus, pro- 
vided with mouth, stomach, intestine, and anus acquires a com- 
pletely bilateral symmetry ; thirdly, that the cilia with which it is 
primitively covered become restricted to one or more circlets, 
some of which encircle the axis of the body, or a line drawn from 
the oral to the anal apertures ; and, fourthly, that within this bi- 
laterally symmetrical larva or JEchinopadium, as it may be called, 
the more or less completely radiate Echinoderm is developed by 
a process of internal modification. 

Muller believed that the first step in this process was the in- 
growth of a diverticulum of the integument, as a hollow process, 
out of which the ambulacral vascular system of the Echinoderm 
took its rise. He did not attempt to explain the origin of the 
jo-called blood-vascular system (or pseudhsemal vessels), nor of 
the perivisceral cavity. Muller's conclusions remained unchal- 
lenged until 1864, when Prof. Alexander Agassis took up the 
•question afresh, and, in a remarkable paper on the development 
of the genus Asteracanthion, detailed the observations which led 
him to believe that the ambulacral vessels do not arise by involu- 
tion of the external integument, but that they commence as two 
primitively symmetrical diverticula of the stomach (the " wurst- 
formige Korper " of Muller), one of which becomes connected 
with the exterior by an opening (the " dorsal pore " observed by 
Muller, and considered by him to be the origin of the ambulacral 
vessels), and gives rise to the ambulacral vessels, the ambulacral 
region of the body of the Echinoderm being modelled upon it ; 
while, upon the other gastric sac, the antambulacral wall of the 
starfish-body is similarly modelled. Both gastric sacs early be- 
• come completely separated from the stomach of the JSckino* 
pctckum, and open into one another, so as to form a single horse- 



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CLASSIFICATION OT THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. 215 

shoe-shaped sac connected with the exterior by a tube which is 
converted into the madreporic canal. Agassiz does not explain 
the mode of formation of the perivisceral cavity of the starfish, 
and has nothing to say concerning the origin of the pseudbaemal 
vessels. 

Secently Metschnikoff has confirmed the observations of 
Agassi*, so far as the development of the ambnlacral system from 
one of the diverticula of the alimentary canal of the starfish larva 
is concerned ; and he has added the important discovery that the 
perivisceral cavity of the Echinoderm is the product of the rest 
of these diverticula. Moreover his observations on other Echi- 
nodermata show that essentially the same process of development 
of the peritoneal cavity occurs in Ophiuridea, Echinidea, and 
Holothuridea. 

The precise mode of origin of the pseudhaemal system, or so- 
called blood-vessels, of the Echinoderms is not yet made out. 
But it is known that the cavity of these vessels contains cor- 
puscles similar to those which are found in the perivisceral 
cavity and in the ambulacra! vessels, and that all of these com- 
municate together. 

Agassiz and Metschnikoff alike, justly insist upon the cor- 
respondence in development of the lateral gastric diverticula of 
the Echinopadium with that of the trunks of the gastrovascular 
system of the Ctenophora ; and, on the ground of this resemblance, 
the former refers the Echinoderms to the Badiata, retaining under 
that Cuvierian denomination the Acaleph® (Ccelenterata) and the 
Echinodermata. But this arrangement surely ignores the great 
value of his own discovery, which shows that the Echinoderms have 
made a great and remarkable progress in passing from their pri» 
marily coelenterate stage of organization to their adult condition. 
And it further ignores the unquestionable fact, admirably brought 
out by the same able naturalist's investigations into the develop- 
ment of Balanoghssut, that the Uchinopadium is almost identical 
in structure with the young of animals, such as the Gephyrea and 
Enteropneusta, which are in no sense radiate, but are eminently 
bilaterally symmetrical. In fact, the larva of Balanoglostu*, the 
sole representative of the Enteropneusta, was originally described 
by M tiller under the name of Tornaria, as an Echinoderm larva, 
and was subsequently more fully examined by Prof. Alex. Agassiz, 
who also regarded it as an unquestionable Echinoderm larva; 
and it is only recently that it has been proved, partly by Metsch- 



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2L6 MOT. HUXLEY OH TH 

nikoff and partly by Agassis hitneelf, to be the larval form of 
BaUmogl***u*. In Balanogltttu*, as in the Echiaoderms, saccular 
diverticula of the intestine appear to give me to the perivisceral 
cavity and its walls. In the Ghotognatha, Eohinoderasta, and 
Enteropneusta, therefore, the perivisceral cavity is a portion of 
the alimentary cavity shut off from the rest ; and in contradistinc- 
tion to the Schkocoela, in which the perivisceral cavity is pro- 
duced by a splitting of the mesoblaat, they may be said to be 
Enteroeoela. 

The JBpuxdos—In the Ascidians, the investigations of Kowa- 
leweky, now confirmed in all essential points by Kupffer, have 
shown that the alimentary cavity is formed by the invagination 
of the vesicular Morula, that the blood-channels answer Co the 
blastocoele, that the central nervous system is produced by inva- 
gination of the epiblast, as in the Vertebrata, and that, in most, 
the mesoblast of a caudal prolongation gives rise to an axial 
column flanked by paired myotomes, which are comparable to the 
notoehord and myotomes of the vertebrate embryo*. 

In the simplest Ascidians (the Appendi&daria) the modified 
pharynx, which constitutes the branchial sac, is perforated by 
only two apertures, which open on the b&mal or ventral face of 
the body, and there is no atrial chamber. But in til other Asci- 
dians an invagination of the epiblast takes place on each side of 
the anus, and, extending alongside the branchial sac nearly as far 
as the endostyle, give rise to a spacious chamber, lined by the so- 
called atrial or " third " tonic. In many Ascidians the chamber 
extends much further, so that even the alimentary canal and the 
generative organs are situated between the atrial tunic and the 
ectoderm. In this manner a kind of " perivisceral cavity " is 
formed, which is of a totally different nature from the " schizo- 
eoele " of the Annelid, and from the " enterocoale " of the Echino 
derm, and which may be termed an epicoele. 

The resemblance of the simplest of vertebrated animals, the 
Lancelot (Atnphioxus lanceolatwi), to the Tunicata was first in- 
dicated, though, it must be admitted, very vaguely, by Ooodsirf. 

* It is with great diffidence that I venture to expreas my dissent from the 
viewi of my venerated friend Von Baer, from whoae work* I first gathered 
sound principles of morphological ecienoe, and whoae authority in such a matter 
aa this has no equal; hut I cannot think that the doubts'he has exproased re- 
specting the fundamental similarity between the Ascidians and the Vertebrata 
are warranted. 

t "On the Anatomy of Ampkioxw lanceolate." Bead before the Royal 



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CLASSIFICATION OT THX A2QMAL KINGDOM. 217 

In 1852 I gave fall reasons for believing that the branchial sac of 
the Ascidian " represents, not the gill of the Mollusk, but the per- 
forated pharynx ofAmphioxus " * ; and I described the develop- 
ment of the muscles of the tail in the larval Ascidian as " closely 
resembling that of the muscles of the Tadpole j ' ' but in the absence 
of any sufficiently detailed knowledge of the development of the 
embryo of either the Aspidian or of Amphioxus, it was impossible 
to know what weight ought to be attached to these resemblances ; 
and it was not until the publication of the memoir of Kowalewsky 
on the development of Atnphioxu* that their real significance 
became manifest. 

In this animal, in fact, yelk- division gives rise to a vesicular 
Morula, which becomes provide4 with an alimentary cavity by in- 
vagination, and with a cerebrospinal axis by the development of 
lamina dorsales and the invagination of the corresponding portion 
of the epiblast, as in other Vertebrata. 

The branchial clefts are secondary perforations of the body- 
wall and pharynx ; and the protovertebro and notochord are de- 
veloped, as in Annelids and Arthropods, out of a mesoblastic layer 
situated between the epiblast and hypoblast, and therefore in the 
blastoccsle. But one of the moat important points made out by 
Kowalewsky is, that the branchial clefts at first open externally— 
and that they only acquire their anomalous position in the adult 
by the growth over them of two laminse of the body-wall, which 

Society of Edinburgh, May 3rd, 1841, and published in toL xy. of the « Trans- 
actions ' of that Society. "Viewed at an entire animal, the Lancelot is the 
most aberrant in the yertebrate subkingdom. It connects the Vertebrata, not 
only to the Annulose animals, but also, through the medium of certain symme- 
trical Asridig (lately described by Mr. Forbes and myself), to the Molluscs. 
We hare only to suppose the Lancelot to hare been developed from the dorsal 
aspect, the seat of its respiration to be transferred from the intestinal tube to 
a corresponding portion of its skin, and ganglia to be deyeloped at the points 
of junction of one or more of its anterior spinal neryes and inferior branch of 
its second pair, to haye a true annulose animal, with its peculiar circulation, 
respiration, generative organs, and nerroue system, with supra-asophageal 
ganglia, and dorsal ganglionic recurrent nerve." 

With every desire to give credit for sagacity where it is due, I think it is 
obvious from this passage, and from the fact that Goodair denied the existence 
of the branchial clefts, or eyen of the abdominal pore, in Ampkioxus, that he 
had no conception of its true morphological relations, and no yalid grounds for 
the hint which he throws out. 

• Eepoit of the Belfast Meeting of the British Association, 1852. Trans- 
ections of the Sections, pp. 76, 77. 



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218 PBOP. HUXLEY OK THE ' 

unite In the median ventral line for the greater part of their 
length, leaving only the abdominal pore open. 

Although the structure of Amphioxus has been investigated by 
many able observers • during the last forty years, a reexamination 
of this singular animal, with which I first made acquaintance in 
1846, has convinced me that some of its most remarkable morpho- 
logical features have hitherto escaped notice ; and I will take this 
occasion of laying a summary of the chief results at which I have 
arrived before the Linnean Society. 

Amphioxus has hitherto been generally assumed to be a ver- 
tebrated animal, which differs from all others in possessing a mere 
rudiment of brain and of skull, and in being devoid of renal organs. 

It is quite true that Amphioxus has neither brain nor skull, if 
we restrict the application of these terms to those particular 
forms under which the brain and skull are met with in the higher 
Vertebrata ; but if we ask whether those regions of the cerebro- 
spinal axis, and of the axial endoskeleton, which are metamor- 
phosed into the brain and skull in the higher Vertebrata are, or 
are not, represented in Amphioxus, the answer must be, that these 
regions are not only present, but that, in relation to the size of 
the body, they are much longer than in any other Vertebrate, and 
that, in this respect, as in so many others, Amphioxus is the 
counterpart of the embryo of the higher Vertebrate. 

The oral aperture of Amphioxus is surrounded by a series of 
tentacula ; and the spacious buccal chamber is divided from the 
branchial one by a curiously arranged valvular "velum" (the 
" Franzen " of Muller). Close to the anterior end of the cerebro- 
spinal axis is the ciliated olfactory sac discovered by Kolliker; 
•and the pigment-spot, which represents the eye, coats the extre- 
mity of the same part of the cerebrospinal axis. 

On comparing Amphioxus with the Lamprey, in its larval or 
Ammocates condition, the cerebrospinal axis of the latter is seen 
to be a mere rod, somewhat enlarged at its anterior end, where it 
bears a mass of pigment representing the eye, and connected, by 
a very short cord, with a single ciliated olfactory sac* The oral 
aperture of the Ammocostes is also surrounded by tentacles ; and, 
as in Amphioxus, leads into a wide buccal cavity, which is sepa- 
rated from the branchial sac by two remarkable folds, originally 

* I need only mention the names of Retxius, Bathke, Miiller, Goodair, and 
Quatrefages. Within the last two jean Stieda has published an elaborate 
paper on Amphioxus in the Transactions of the Academy of St. Petersburg. 



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CLASSIFICATION 07 THE ACTUAL KINGDOM. 219 

described by Bathke, which answer to tbe velum of Amphioxm. 
But the dorsal ends of the attached edges of these folds are 
situated immediately under the middle of each auditory capsule ; 
aud, in the adult Lamprey, they can be proved to correspond 
with the position of the hyoidean arch. In the Amphuunu their 
dorsal attachment corresponds with the anterior angulation of 
the intermuscular septum between the sixth and seventh myo- 
tomes, counting from the anterior end of the body. Hence, it 
follows that this septum answers to the hyoidean arch of the 
higher Vertebrata, and that the six myotomes in front of it re- 
present six primary segments of the body, or somatomes. But 
the first of these lies behind the eye, whence it also follows that 
the region occupied by these somatomes answers to the region in- 
cluded between the optic foramen and that for the seventh nerve 
in the skull of an ordinary vertebrated animal, and that so much 
of the head of Amphioxv* as lies in front of the hyoid region 
answers to the praauditory moiety of the skull in other Ver- 
tebrata. 

In Ampkioxus, a nerve leaves the cerebrospinal axis in cor- 
respondence with the interval between each pair of myotomes, 
and then divides into a dorsal and a ventral branch, like an ordi- 
nary spinal nerve. And, in front of the first myotome, two nerves, 
or perhaps one nerve in two divisions, are given off. The more 
anterior of these two passes above the eye, and is distributed to 
the end of the body in front of the mouth, while the second and 
-the other nerves pass to the side walls of the oral cavity. 

These nerves, arising as they do between the homologue of the 
optic nerve and that of the portio dura, must represent the third, 
fourth, fifth, and sixth pairs of cranial nerves of the ordinary Ver- 
tebrata ; while the myotomes between which five of them pass 
must represent the muscles, of the nose, eye, and jaws. In fact, the 
course of the most anterior nerve is exactly that of the orbito- 
nasal nerve (the so-called ophthalmic, or first, division of the tri- 
geminal), as is conspicuous when this nerve in Amphioxu* is com- 
pared with the undoubted orbito-nasal of the Lamprey. 

In the embryo Lamprey, at the most advanced stage described 
by Scbulze, the portion of the centro-spinal axis which lies between 
the ear and the eye is relatively very long ; but the cerebral hemi- 
spheres are beginning to grow out beyond the primitive anterior 
end of the cerebro-spinal axis, and project beyond the eye. In the 
young AmmocmU* of 1*5 inch long the length is still great, though 



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299 P*0f. HCTU6T OJf TUB 

it has not increased in proportion to the bod/ % but the cerebral 
hemispheres are relatively larger, and the eyes are fully formed 
and have moved backwards, dividing the series of myotomes into 
a supraocular and a subocular bundle of muscles. And, in the 
adult Lamprey, changes in the same direction have gone still 
further. 

It is clear, therefore, that the region occupied by the six most 
anterior myotomes of the body of Jjnphiosu* answers to the pro* 
auditory region of the skull in the higher Vertebrate. The ques- 
tion next arises, How many of the succeeding myotomes are in,, 
eluded in the region which corresponds with the postauditory 
or parachordal region of the skull in the higher Vertebrates f 

The Lamprey has seven branchial sacs, with as many externa} 
clefts ; and no Vertebrate ever possesses more. To each of these 
sacs nerves pass which undoubtedly correspond with the branchial 
brandies of the glossopharyngeal and pneumogastric nerves ; and 
strong grounds for thinking that the pneumogastric trunk con* 
tains the representatives of, at fewest, six primary distinct nerves, 
answering to the six posterior branchial sacs, have been given by 
by Gegenbaur and myself. If this be so, then the seven pairs of 
nerves behind the representative of the portio dura in Ampku 
&tu* will answer to the glossopharyngeal and pneumogastric, and 
the eighth somatome will correspond with the occipital segment 
of the Ichthyopsida. Thus the skull of a Lamprey or of an 
Efamobranch fish is represented by the anterior region of thf 
body of the Ampkioxut as far back as the fourteenth myotome. 
As there are from sixty to seventy myotomes, this estimate makes 
the head of AmpHosu* to occupy, uiorphologically, one fifth of 
the whole body. 

With respect to the renal organs, Miiller thought he had ob* 
served some rounded bodies which might have a renal character 
in the posterior part of the abdominal cavity of living specimens 
of Amp\io*u9 ; but as he could not find them by dissection, and 
«s no other anatomist has been more su c cessful, they need not 
now be discussed. 

fiathke described two canjris situated in the ridges which are 
developed at the junction of tfee ventral with the lateral faces of 
•the body. He states that these canals open, behind, at the abdo- 
minal pore, and in frxmt at the mouth. Muller and, more recently, 
Stieda confirm Bathke's account, which appeared to be strength- 
ened by Kowalewsk/s statement that he had seen the ova pan 



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CLASSIFICATION OF THE JJ*I|£AL KINGDOM. 221 

out by the mouth. Nevertheless there are no such canals. The 
ventro-lateral folds in question begin on each side of the front 
part of the mouth, and ace continued along-side it, as Goodsir 
rightly states, becoming deeper as they pass back. At the sides 
of the abdominal pore, they terminate without uniting, one oj* each 
aide of the/praanal fin. In the living state, as well as in spirit 
specimens, these ventro-lateral lamia© are strongly curved in- 
wards ; and they meet, or nearly meet, in the middle line, more or 
leas covering the proper ventral aspect of the body, between the 
mouth and the respiratory pore. And it is simply the semicanals 
enclosed by these infolded ventrolateral lamina) which Bethke 
took for abdominal canals, open only in front and behind. The 
superficial layer of the integument, with its epiderm, is continued 
from the outer margin of each ventro-lateral lamina, over its edge, 
on to the inner surface of the lamina, and, in the normal state, 
is closely adherent to the greater part of that surface, becoming 
detached, to be reflected on to the proper ventral face of the 
body, only at the reentering angle between the ventro-lateral 
lamina and the ventral face. But, in spirit specimens, this super* 
ficial layer, which coats the inner face of the ventrolateral lamina, 
sometimes becomes detached, along with more or less of its conti- 
nuation on to the ventral surface of the body, and leaves a wide 
space, .which is the abdominal canal described by Stieda, and 
erroneously supposed by him to be Sathke's canal, The floor of 
the respiratory chamber is formed by a layer of transversely 
disposed fibres, chiefly composed of muscular tissue and coated 
on the dorsal face by a layer of cells, forming part of the epithe- 
lium of the chamber. In the middle line these fibres are more 
or leas interrupted by the raphe described by Stieda; the dorsal 
aspect of the floor is longitudinally grooved in correspondence 
with the raphe; and, not unfoequently, the epithelial cells dip 
down into this groove for a greater or less distance. 

On the ventral face of the thick floor of the respiratory cham- 
ber the superficial layer of the integument is naturally separated 
by a narrow interspace from the transverse fibres of the floor, ex- 
cept in the middle line, where it is attached along a depression or 
groove corresponding with the raphe, like that of the dorsal aspect 
of the floor. This layer of integument is thrown into regular and 
close-set longitudinal plaits, which have been described as muscular 
fibres by Bathke, Miiller, Goodsir, and Quatrefages. Stieda dis- 
covered the true nature of these longitudinal fibres; but his 



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222 PHOP. HITXLEl OK THE 

figures give no idea of the regularity of the plaits, or of the manner 
in which the cells of the epidermis line the sides of the folds, which 
in transverse sections, have the appearance of glandular caeca. 
It is this organ which I conceive to be the renal organ, function- 
ally, and to represent the Wolffian ducts, morphologically. These 
ducts are now known to be formed in the higher Vertebrates by 
involutions of the lining of that part of the peritoneal cavity 
which lies external to the generative area. Taking the raphe in 
Amphioxus to represent the line of union of the lateral laminae, the 
development of which into the walls of the " perivisceral " cavity 
has been observed by Kowalewsky, the space between each lateral 
half of the plaited integument and the ventrolateral fold of its 
side, will answer to an involution of the epithelium of the soma- 
topleure, such as that by which the "Wolffian duct of osseous 
fishes • commences ; and the position of the reproductive gland 
low down on the wall of the somatopleure is in accordance with 
this interpretation. 

On this view, the wall of the respiratory chamber of Am- 
phioxus is strictly comparable to the somatopleure of a higher 
Vertebrate embryo. On the other hand, the cells which line it 
and represent the peritoneal epithelium must, from the mode of 
formation of the cavity, occupy the place of the epiblaat, and re- 
present a continuation of the epidermis. Thus the respiratory 
chamber of the Amphioxus is an epicale, a cavity of the same 
fundamental nature as the atrium of the Tunicata ; and this 
circumstance constitutes another curious point of resemblance 
between the Tunicata and Amphioxus. 

On the other hand, it is such a cavity as would be formed by 
the growth and extensive union in the middle line of the lateral 
prolongations of the wall of the body in Balanoglossus. 

To what does the respiratory chamber of Amphioxus answer in 
the higher Vertebrata ? In the manner of its formation it cor- 
responds, as I have elsewhere t suggested, very closely with the 
respiratory chamber into which the gill-clefts open in the Tad- 
pole, and which, in most Anura, communicate with the exterior 
by only a single external opening on the left side of the body, 
though there are two symmetrical apertures in the Tadpole of 
Dactylethra. But, in its relations to the alimentary canal, and to 

* Bosenberg, " Untermichungen iiber die Bntwickelung der Teleostier-Niere/' 

1867. 

t Manual of the Anatomy of Yeriebrated Animate, p. 121. 



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CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. 223 

the generative and urinary organs, it is obvious that it no less 
closely answers to the " pleuroperitoneal "* chamber of the higher 
Vertebrates. The opercular fold which constitutes the outer wail 
of the branchial chamber in the Tadpole is formed by an out- 
growth of the body-wall, as Kowalewsky states the wail of the 
respiratory chamber in Amphioxus to be. On the other hand, in 
all the higher Vertebrata, the somatopleure which bounds the 
u pleuroperitoneal cavity " seems to be formed by a sort of split- 
ting by the mesoblast, apparently very similar to the process which 
gives rise to the perivisceral cavity of Annelida and Arthropoda. 
And the discovery of the free communication of the great serous 
cavities with the lymphatic system, has removed the objection 
that might have been urged that the serous cavities of the Verte- 
brata are not parts of the vascular system. 

But it has been seen that it is only by the most careful study 
x>f development that the " enterocoelous " " perivisceral cavity" of 
the Echinoderm has been shown to be morphologically distinct 
from the " schizocoelous " " perivisceral cavity " of an Annelid ; 
and I think it probable that renewed investigation will prove 
that the " splitting of the mesoblast " in the Vertebrata repre- 
sents the invagination of the epiblast in the Ascidian, and the 
formation of an epicoele by outgrowth of a ridge in Amphioxus. 
Provisionally, at any rate, this hypothesis may be adopted, and 
the Vertebrata in general, as well as Amphioxus, ranked among 
the Epiccela* 

The discovery of the true head, brain, and renal organs of 
Amphioxus removes the chief supposed anomalies of the struc- 
ture of this animal, and to so great an extent bridges over the 
supposed hiatus between it and the Marsipobranchii, with which 
the development of the latter shows it to be very closely related, 
that I see no reason for separating it from the class Pisces, in 
which, however, it may properly rank as the type of a distinct 
order, which may be termed Entomocrania, in contradistinction 
•to the rest, in which, as in all the higher Vertebrates, the skull, 
even in the embryonic state, exhibits no indication of its primitive 
segmentation t, and which may be termed Holocrania. 

* More accurately " pericardio-pleuroperitoneal " chamber, as the pericar- 
dium is only part of it, and, indeed, is only incompletely shut off in the Bays and 
Myzinoid fishes. 

t See the proof of this position in my Croonian Lecture, 'Proceedings of the 
Boyal Society, , 185& 



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224 nor. huxley ok thb 

The eye-spots of Amphiosus were single in all the specimens I 
hare examined; in the very young Ammoccetes, described by 
Sebuke, there are two such pigment-spots, separated by the very 
short representatives of the cerebral hemispheres and olfactory 
lobes. This suggests that the eye, like the nose, was primitively 
simple in the Vertebrata, and that it has become divided in 
the same way as the nose. In this case the involution of the 
epiblast, out of which the cornea and the crystalline lens are 
developed, should have been primitively a median sac ; and it is 
a curious circumstance that, in the very young tadpole, Mr. "W. 
E. Parker, F.E.S., has described and figured a transverse groove 
connecting the eye-sacs. 

I am unable to find any thing in the structure or mode of deve- 
lopment of the Marsipobranchii which gives this group more 
than an ordinal value in the class Pisces. Their great peculi- 
arities are the structure of the skull, the presence of a naso- 
palatine passage which opens posteriorly in the Myxinoids, and 
the existence of a large superior median brain-lobe. 

As respects the first point, the skull is strictly comparable 
with that of the embryo of any higher Vertebrate, being com* 
posed of a parachordal occipital portion, of largely developed 
trabecule, and of auditory capsules. In the Lampreys the carti- 
laginous hyoidean and mandibular arches are represented, and 
the curious facial cartilages appear to me to be reducible to the 
type of the labial cartilages of the Elasmobranchs. The deve- 
lopment of the olfactory organ of the Lamprey proves that the 
single nasal sac of Amphiosus is the homologue of the nasal sac 
of the Marsipobranchii (at least of that part which is lined by 
the Scbneideriaa membrane), to which, however, two olfactory 
nerves, produced apparently by the division of a primitively 
simple and median nerve, proceed. The term " Monorhina," 
applied by Haeckel to the Marsipobranchii, therefore, is not 
strictly applicable, and I cannot attach any great taionomic 
value to the structure of the olfactory organs in this group* 
The external duplication of the nasal apertures in the higher 
Vertebrata appears to me to be chiefly due to the fact that, 
in them, the cerebral hemispheres are thrown out in front of 
the anterior cerebral vesicle, the front wall of which (the lamina 
terminate of the third ventricle of the fully developed brain) 
corresponds with the anterior end of the oerebro-spiual axis of 
Amphioxui, and attains a large size and considerable downward 



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0UlS8OTCATI0» O* THE ABUCAL XHT0DOX. 226 

growth before the olfactory sacs ate distinguishable. The regions 
whence the olfactory nerves will be developed are thus widely 
Separated, and thrown to the ventral and lateral aspect of the 
head, before the Schneiderian membrane k differentiated* It 
must also be recollected that, when the naso-frontal process 
of the embryo appears, the olfactory sacs become connected with 
one another by a transverse groove, which is persistent in the 
Bays, and has the same relations as the middle of the olfactory 
sac of the Marsipobranchii would have if it Were supposed to 
be transversely elongated. 

; Becent investigations lead me to think that the lower jaw is 
by no means wanting in the Marsipobranchii, though it presents 
a very curious modification. In the Ammoccste the hyoidean 
cleft, which has been overlooked, is present ; and the manner in 
which the branchial filaments are developed leads me to believe 
that those which are first formed represent the external gills of 
the Ebsmobranohii, Ganoidei, Dipnoi, and Amphibia. 

I have formerly expressed the opinion that the naso-palatine 
canal of the Marsipobranchii represents the " primitive mouth " 
of the Vertebrata. The resemblance of the mouth of Asnphioxu* 
to that of an Ascidian renders this comparison questionable ; but, 
on the other hand, it is a remarkable cireumstanee that the median 
nasal involution ofAmphioxu* corresponds very nearly, in its rela- 
tion to the segmented mesoblast, with the oral aperture of an 
Arthropod or an Annelid ; and it may be that the canal represents 
the ordinary invertebrate oral passage. 

The dorso-median brain-lobe of the Marsipobranch appears to 
me to be represented in the higher Yertebrata by the peduncle 
of the pineal gland, which in the embryo is a hollow process of the 
roof of the anterior cerebral vesicle. It is particularly conspi- 
cuous in young Elasmobranchs. 

la a few Metazoa, as in some small Sotifera and in the Gor- 
diaeete, the alimentary canal never becomes developed, although 
theee animals clearly belong to groups in which the alimentary 
apparatus is normally formed, and may be safely regarded as 
modified Gastre®. Whether the like is true of the Cestoidea, 
which are so closely allied with the Trematoda, and of the Acan* 
thocephala, is not certain. Probable as it may be that these are 
Gastres with aborted digestive cavities, it may be well to bear in 
mind the possibility of their never having passed through the 



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226 CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. 

Qattrula stage. It is conceivable that an opaliniforar Morula 
should, under completely parasitic conditions of life, have deve- 
loped the organization of a Cestoid worm. At any rate, the con- 
trary must not be assumed without good evidence ; and to indi- 
cate the doubt, it may be well to establish a provisional group of 
Agastre® for these forms. 

I subjoin a tabular arrangement of the animal kingdom accord- 
ing to the yiews expressed in this paper, remarking, in conclusion, 
that, in my belief the progress of knowledge will eventually break 
down all sharp demarcations, and substitute series for divisions. 

ANIMATJA. 
I. PBOTOZOA. 

i. MoNERA. 

Protamabida. Protomanadida. Myxattridw. Forantinifera* 

iL ENDOPLA8TICA. 

Amabida. Infusoria flagellata. Qregarinidw. Aemetidat 
Infusoria ciliata. BadMaria. 

II. METAZOA. 

A. G-A8TB2A. 

i. POLTSTOMATA. 

Port/era (or Sponaida). 

ii. MONOBTOMATA. 

1. Arch&ostomata* 

a* Scolecimorpha. b. Coelenterata. 

Hotjfera. Turbellaria. . Hydrozoa. 

Trematoda. Actinozoa. 

Nematoidea. Hirudinea. (Ctenophora). 

Oligocholia. 

2. Deuterostomata. 

a. Schizocttla. b. EnteroccBla. 

, A v / A V 

Annelida Gkpkyrea(?). Brachiopoda. JSnteropneusta, 

polychata. Polyzoa (?). Chdftognatha, 

Arthropoda. Mollusca. JBckinodermmta. 

c. Epicoela. 

Tunieafa or Aseidioida. 

Vertebrata. 

B. Aoabtbejb (provisionally). 

Cestoidea. Acanthocepkala. 



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ftim JOHH LUBBOCK OH BU8, WASH, ABB AltTS. 227 



Obeerrations on Bees, Wasps, and Ants. — Part II. By Sir Johu 
Litbbock, Bart, FJGL&, M.P., F.L.S., Yice-Chancellor of the 
Unrrersity of London. 

[Bad December 17th, 1874.] 

Iv the Twelfth Yolnme of the Journal, the Society has done me 
the honour to publish some obserrations on Bees and Wasps, of 
which the present paper is a continuation. 

Beet. 
Following up the obserrations recorded in my prerious paper, 
on the 19th July I put a bee (No. 10) to a honeycomb containing 
12 lbs. of honey 



at 12.30; 




at 12.36 sb 


e wentba 


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„ 12.50 she returned ; 


99 


12.55 


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.1.6 


99 


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1.12 


99 


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n 1-53 


99 


99 


1.57 


99 


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„ 2.5 


n 


99 


2. 9 


99 


99 


„ 2.16 


99 


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2.20 


99 


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„ 258 


n 


99 


2.82? 


99 


99 


» 2.49 


99 


99 


2.55 


99 


99 


„ 8.13 


n 


99 


3.20 


99 


99 


» 851 


n 


99 


3.39 


99 


99 


„ 8.45 


99 


99 


3.55 


99 


99 


4. 2 


» 


99 


4. 8 


99 


9t 


„ 4.18 


99 


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4.24 


99 


99 


„ *31 


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91 


4.37 


99 


99 


„ 8.47 


99 


99 


4.58 


99 


99 


» 5.10 


99 


99 


5.19 


99 


99 


* 627 


99 


99 


5.30 


99 


9* 


„ 6.9 


99 


99 


6.15 


99 


99 


„ 6.23 


99 


99 


6.29 


99 


99 


„ 719 


99 


99 


7.24 


99 


99 


n 7-35 


99 


99 


7.40 


99 


99 


„ 7.50 


99 


99 


7.55 


99 


99 



and during all this time no other bee came to the comb. 
On the following morning, July 20, this bee came to the honey* 

comb 
at 6. 5jum. ; at 6.10 she went back to the hiye ; 

„ 6.87 she returned; „ 6.42 „ „ 

99 7.17 „ „ 7.21 99 „ 

IOTT. JOTOV. — EOOLOOT, TOL. HT. 16 



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8IE JOHN LUBBOCK ON BEES, WASPS, AND ANTS. 



at 



7.41 sbe returned ; 


at 7.47 she < 


went back to the hire; 


8. 8 


99 


„ 8.12 


9* 


f» 


8.21 


tt 


„ 8.25 


n 


99 


8.32 


n 


„ 8.54 


a 


99 


9. 4 


tt 


„ 9.9 


tt 


99 


9.45 


it 


„ 9.51 


a 


99 


10. 4 


tt 


„ 10.10 


It 


99 


10.19 


it 


„ 10.26 


99 


99 


10.40 


tt 


„ 10.47 


99 


n 


10.59 


a 


i. 11. 4 


99 


9> 


1L14 


tt 


„ 11.19 


99 


99 


11.44 


a 


„ 11.52 


99 


99 


11.59 


a 


„ 12. 6 


99 


99 


12.15 


w 


„ 12.23 


91 


99 


12.29 


91 


„ 12.35 


tt 


99 


12.41 


„ was disturbed, 


„ 12.52 


tt 


99 


1. 2 


» 


„ 1. 9 


tt 


99 


1.16 


tt 


„ 1.30 


tt 


99 


1.46 


» 


„ 1.55 


it 


99 



I then left off observing ; but during the whole of this time no 
other bee had come to the comb. 

Oct. 9. I took a bee (No. 11) out of the hive and put her 
to some honey; she returned and kept on visiting it regu- 
larly. 

Oct. 10. This bee came to the honey at 7.30 a.m., and went on 
visiting it ; but I was not able to watch her continuously. During 
these two days no other bee came to this honey. 
Oct. 11. No. 11 came to the honey 
at 7.12 a.m., but did not alight ; 

„ 7.18 she returned, and at 7.21 went back to the hive ; 
99 7.27 „ „ 7.31 „ 

„ 7.38 „ „ 7.44 

„ 7.51 „ „ 7.56 

>9 8. 2 „ „ 8. 8 „ 

„ 8.15 „ „ 8.22 

99 8.30 „ „ 8.35 „ 

99 8.41 „ „ 8.46 „ 

99 8.55 „ „ 8.59 w 

„ 9. 6 „ „ 9.11 n 

„ 9.20 „ „ 9.25 

« 9.45 „ „ 9.50 



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SIB JOHN LUBBOCK OH BEES, WASPS, AND ANTS. 229 

Oct. 11. No. 11 (continued). 

at 9.55 she returned, and at 10. 1 went back to the hire ; 
„ 10. 7 „ „ 10.11 

„ 10.19 „ „ 10.23 

„ 10.30 a strange bee came ; I killed her. 
At 10.35 No. 11 returned, andat 10.40 wont back to the hive ; 
„ 10.55 „ „ 10.59 

„ 11. 4 „ „ 11. 8 „ 

„ 11.26 „ „ 11.80 

„ 1185 „ „ 11.88 

Another strange bee came ; I killed her also. 
At 11.52 she returned, and at 11.55 went ; 
„ 12. 7 „ „ 12.12 „ 

„ 12.17 „ „ 12.22 „ 

,,12.31 „ „ 12.36 „ 

„ 12.58 „ „ 1. 2 „ 

„ 1. 8 „ „ 1.12 „ 

„ 1.19 „ „ 1.23 „ 

1,30 „ „ 1.34 „ 

1.45 „ „ 1.48 „ 

2. 2 „ „ 2. 6 „ 

„ 2.15 „ „ 2.18 „ 

„ 2.29 „ „ 2.35 „ 

„ 2.45 „ „ 2.47 „ 

„ 2.50 „ „ 2.52 „ 

„ 2.57 „ „ o „ 

after which she did not come any more that day. It was, how- 
ever, a bad day, and after 1 o'clock she was almost the only bee 
which came out of the hive. The following morning she came to 
the honey at 7.58 a.m., but did not alight, behaving just as she 
had done the day before. 
At 8. 6 a.m. No. 11 returned to the honey, and at 8. 9 she went; 
w 8.14 „ i, „ 

„ o«oU „ ,, ,, 

„ 8.42 „ „ „ 

„ 8.54 » » » 

» 9. 9 „ „ » 

„ 9.19 n „ » 

n 9.29 „ „ ii 

„ 9.37 „ „ „ 

.. 954 ,, „ but 



8.20 


>f 


8.84 


n 


8.46 


n 


8.59 


n 


9.14 


91 


9.24 


n 


9.83 


tt 


9.44 


n 


m disturbed. 


16* 




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jO 



280 BIB JOHK LUBBOCK OK BEES, WASPS, AJJD JlNTS. 

A strange bee came, which I killed. At 9.69 No. 11 went away ; 
at 10. 5 she returned to the honey, „ 10. 8 „ 

* 10.12 „ „ „ 10.13 

* 10.16 „ „ „ 10.20 
„ 10.26 „ M 10.28 

„ 10.33 „ „ „ 10.86 „ 

„ 10.40 „ „ „ 10.46 

„ 10.55 a strange bee came which I killed. No. 11 returned to 
the honey regularly; and went on coming. 

Oct. 13. 6.28 a.m. she came, but, as before, flew away again 
without alighting. 

At 6.32 she came to the honey, at 6.36 she went away ; 
„ 6.42 
„ 6.51 
„ 7.10 
„ 7.26 
„ 7.46 
„ 7.55 
„ 8.12 

„ 8.20 „ 

„ 8.30 

„ 8.37 „ 

„ 8.60 
and so on. 

Oct. 14. She came for the first time at 8.15 a.m., and went on 
visiting the honey at the usual intervals. After this day I saw 
her no more ; she had probably met with some accident. But 
these facts show that some bees, at any rate, do not communicate 
with their sisters, even if they find an untenanted comb full of 
honey, which to them would be a perfect Eldorado. This is the 
more remarkable because these bees began to work in the morn- 
ing before the rest, and continued to do so even in weather which 
drove all the others into the shelter of the hive. That the few 
strange bees which I have recorded should have found the honey 
is natural enough, because there were a good many bees about in 
the room. 

The following fact is mentioned by F. Mailer as seeming also to 

show a limited power of communicating facts on the part of bees : 

— " Once," he says* " I assisted at a curious contest, which took 

place between the queen and the worker bees in one of my hives, 

♦ 'Nature/ June 11, 1874. 



99 


„ 6.46 


V 


„ 6.56 


» 


„ 7.14 


f» 


„7.84 


M 


,,7.60 


ft 


„ 8. 


n 


„8.15 


•i 


„ 8.26 


» 


„ 8.38 


99 


„ 8.44 


if 


„ 8.56 



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BIS JOBS LUBBOCK OH BEES, WASPS, JLFTD AOT8. 281 

and which throws some light on the intellectual faculties of these 
animals. A set of forty-seven cells had been filled, eight on a 
nearly completed comb, thirty-five on the following, and four 
around the first cell of a new comb. When the queen had laid 
eggs in all the cells of the two older combs she went sereral times 
round their circumference (as she always does, in order to ascer- 
tain whether she has not forgotten any cell), and then prepared 
to retreat into the lower part of the breeding-room. But as she 
had overlooked the four cells of the new comb, the workers ran 
impatiently from this part to the queen, pushing her, in an odd 
manner, with their heads, as they did also other workers they 
met with. In consequence the queen began again to go around 
on the two older combs ; but as she did not find any cell wanting 
an egg she tried to descend, but everywhere she was pushed back 
by the workers. This contest lasted for a rather long while, till 
the queen escaped without having completed her work. Thus 
the workers knew how to advise the queen that something was 
as yet to be done, but they knew not how to show her where it 
had to be done." 

I have already mentioned with reference to the attachment 
which bees have been said to show for one another, that though 
I have repeatedly seen them lick a bee which had smeared herself 
in honey, I never observed them show the slightest attention to 
any of their comrades who had been drowned in water. Far, 
indeed, from having been able to discover any evidence of affec- 
tion among them, they appear to be thoroughly callous and utterly 
indifferent to one another. As already mentioned, it was neces- 
sary for me occasionally to kill a bee ; but I never found that the 
others took the slightest notice. Thus on the 11th of October 
I crushed a bee close to one which was feeding — in fact, so close 
that their wings touched ; yet the survivor took no notice what- 
ever of the death of her sister, but went on feeding with every 
appearance of composure and enjoyment, just as if nothing had 
happened. When the pressure was removed, she remained by 
the side, of the corpse without the slightest appearance of appre- 
hension, sorrow, or recognition. It was, of course, impossible for 
her to understand my reason for killing her companion ; yet neither 
did she feel the slightest emotion at her sister's death, nor did 
she show any alarm lest the same fate should befall her also. In 
a second case exactly the same occurred. Again, I have several 
times, while a bee has been feeding, held a second bee by the leg 



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SIB JOHN LUBBOCK OH BEES, WASPS, A*D AJTTS. ' 

close to her ; the prisoner, of coarse, struggled to escape and 
buzzed as loudly as she could ; yet the selfish (?) eater took no 
notice whatever. So far, therefore, from being at all affectionate, 
I doubt whether bees are in the least fond of one another. 

Their devotion to their queen is generally quoted as a most 
characteristic trait ; yet it is of the most limited character. For 
instance, I was anxious to change my black queen for a Ligurian ; 
and accordingly on the 26th of October Mr. Hunter was good 
enough to bring me a Ligurian queen. We removed the old 
queen, and we placed her with some workers in a box containing 
some comb. I was obliged to leave home on the following day ; 
but when I returned on the 80th I found that all the bees had 
deserted the poor queen, who seemed weak, helpless, and miserable. 
On the 81st the bees were coming to some honey at one of my 
windows, and I placed this poor queen close to them. In alight- 
ing, several of them even touched her ; yet not one of her subjects 
took the slightest notice of her. The same queen, when afterwards 
placed in the hive, immediately attracted a number of bees. 

Although the experiments on colour which I have already 
recorded seem to me tolerably conclusive, still I thought it 
would be worth while to make a few more. Accordingly, on the 
12th July I brought a bee to some honey which I placed on blue 
paper, and about 8 feet off I placed a similar quantity of honey 
on orange paper. After she had returned twice, I transposed 
the papers ; but she returned to the honey on the blue paper. 
After she had made three more visits, always to the blue paper, I 
transposed them again, and she again followed the colour, though 
the honey was left in the same place. The following day I was 
not able to watch her ; but on the 14th, at 
7.29 a.m. she returned to the honey on the blue paper. 7.81 left. 
7.44 „ 7.47 „ 

7.56 

I then again transposed the papers. At 8.6 she returned to the 
old place, and was just going to alight ; but observing the change 
of colour, without a moment's hesitation, darted off to the blue* 
No one who saw her at that moment could have entertained any 
further doubt about her perceiving the difference between the 
two colours. At 8.9 she went ; 

8.18 she returned to the blue. 8.16 went. 

8.20 „ „ 8.28 „ 

8.26 n „ 8.80 „ 



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•IE JOHK LUBBOCK OH BKE8, WASPS, AND AlTTS. 

Transposed the colours again. 
At 8.85 she returned to the blue, and at 8.39 went ; 



288 



8.44 


w 


91 


8.47 


*» 


8.50 


t> 


11 


8.53 


n 


Transposed 


the colours 


again. 






8.57 she returned 


again to the blue. 


9 


19 


9. 4 


» 


n 


9. 7 


91 


9.12 


w 


11 


9.15 


n 


9.19 


91 


w 


9.22 


• »i 


9.25 


n 


11 


8.27 


W 


9.30 


n 


it 


9.84 


f» 


9.40 


19 


>t 


9.44 


» 


9.50 


99 


w 


9.55 


W 


Transposed 


the colours 


again. 






10. 2 she returned 


again to the blue. 


10. 6 


-•1 


10.10 


» 


» 


10.14 


» 


10.20 


f» 


*> 


10.25 


» 


10.80 


» 


» 


10.34 


19 


10.40 


w 


» 


10.44 


» 


10.48 


» 


» 


10.51 


» 


11.12 


» 


» 


11.14 


W 


1121 


» 


„ and flew about, having 








been disturbed. 


11.26 


» 


n 


11.28 went. 


11.86 


99 


» 


11.40 


*» 



12. 5 came and flew about, but did not settle till 
12.17. 12.17 went; . 

12.21 came and flew about. 
Though it was a beautiful afternoon, she did not return any 
more that day. 

That bees can distinguish scents is certain. On the 5th Oct. 
I put a few drops of Eau de Cologne in the entrance, and imme- 
diately a number (about fifteen) of bees came out to see what was 
the matter. Eose- water also had the same effect ; and, as will 
be mentioned presently, in this manner I called the bees out 
several times ; but after a few days they took hardly any notice 
of the scent. For instance, on the 17th Oct. I tried them with 
twenty drops of Eau de Cologne, the same quantity of essence of 
violet, of lavender-water, of essence of musk, of essence of Pat- 
chouli, and of spirits of wine ; but they took no apparent notice 
of any of them. 



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234 8IB J0HH LUBBOCK ON BEES, WA8PS, A1TD ANTS. 

I have also made some observations with the view of ascertain- 
ing whether the same bees act as sentinels. With this object, on 
the 5th of October, I called out the bees by placing some eau de 
Cologne in the entrance, and marked the first three bees that came 
out. At 5 p.m. I called them out again ; about twenty came, in- 
cluding the three marked ones. I marked three more. 

Oct. 6. Called them out again. Out of the first twelve five 
were marked ones. I marked three more. 

Oct. 7. Called them out at 7.80 am. as before. Oat of the first 
nine, seven were marked ones. 

At 5.80 p.m. called them out again. Out of six, five were marked 
ones. 

Oct. 8. Called them out at 7.15. Six came out, all marked 
ones. 
Oct. 9. Called them out at 6.40. Out of the first ten, eight 

were marked ones. 
„ „ „ 11.80 a.m. Out of six, three were 

marked. I marked the other three. 
„ „ „ 1.80 p.m. Out of ten, six were 

marked. 
„ „ „ 4.30. Out of ten, seven were 

marked. 
Oct. 10. „ „ 6.5 a.m. Out of six, five were 

marked. 
„ Shortly afterwards I did the same again, when out of 

eleven, seven were marked ones. 
„ 5.80, p.m. Called them out again. Out of seven, five 

were marked. 
Oct. 11. 6.80 a.m. Called them out again. Out of nine, seven 

were marked. 
„ 5 p.m. „ Out of seven, five were 

marked. 
After this day they took hardly any notice of the scents. 

Thus in these nine experiments, out of the ninety -seven bees 
which came out first, no less than seventy-one were marked ones, 
though out of the whole number of bees in the hive there were 
only twelve marked for this purpose, and, indeed, even fewer in 
the earlier experiments. I ought, however, to add that I gene- 
rally fed the bees when I called them out. 

It is sometimes said that the bees of one hive all know one 



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SIB JOHH LUBBOCK OB BXBS, WASPS, ABB ABTS. 285 

another, and immediately recognise and attack any intruder from 
another hire. At first sight this certainly implies a great deal of 
intelligence. It is, however, possible that the bees of particular 
hires have a particular smell. Thus Langstroth, in his interest- 
ing 'Treatise on the Honey Bee/ says : — * Members of different 
colonies appear to recognise their hire companions by the sense 
of smell ;" and I believe that if colonies are sprinkled with scented 
syrup, they may generally be safely mixed. Moreover, a bee re- 
turning to its own hive with a load of treasure is a very different 
creature from a hungry marauder ; and it is said that a bee, if 
laden with honey, is allowed to enter any hive with impunity. 
Mr. Langstroth continues, " There is an air of roguery about a 
thieving bee which, to the expert, is as characteristic as are the 
motions of a pickpocket to a skilful policeman. Its sneaking 
look and nervous guilty agitation, once seen, can never be mis- 
taken." It is at any rate natural that a bee which enters a wrong 
hive by accident should be much surprised and alarmed, and would 
thus probably betray herself. 

On the whole, then, I do not attach much importance to their 
recognition of one another as an indication of intelligence. 

I had made some observations also with the view of ascertaining 
whether the bees which collect honey also work in the hive and 
attend to the brood, or whether they devote themselves exclu- 
sively to one or other of these duties. My observations, how- 
ever, were not conclusive ; but some light has been thrown on the 
subject by Dzierzon, from which it would appear that for the first 
fortnight of a bee's life she attends exclusively to indoor duties, 
and only afterwards takes to the collection of honey and pollen. 
Dsierzon's statements have been confirmed by Br. Donhoff. On 
the 18th April he introduced a Ligurian queen into a hive of black 
bees. The first Ligurian workers emerged on the 10th May, and 
made their first appearance outside the hive on the 17th ; but 
not until the 25th did any of the Ligurian workers appear on his 
feeding-troughs, which were constantly crowded with common 
bees, nor were any seen to visit the flowers. Eepeated observa- 
tions, says Dr. Donhoff, u force me to conclude that during the first 
two weeks of the worker-bee's life the impulse for gathering 
honey and pollen does not exist, or at least is not developed, and 
that the development of this impulse proceeds slowly and gradu» 
ally. At first the young bee will not even touch the honey pre- 
sented to her ; some days later she will simply taste it ; and only 



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SIB JOHN LUBBOCK OK BEES, WASPS, AHD AJTTS. 

after a lapse of time will she consume it eagerly. Two weeks 
elapse before she readily eats honey; and nearly three weeks pass 
before the yotftfrtfty-impulse is sufficiently developed to impel her 
to fly abroad and seek for honey and pollen among the flowers"*. 

In my first memoir I alluded to the difficulty which bees expe- 
rience in finding their way about. In this respect they certainly 
differ considerably. Some of the bees which came out through 
the little postern door (already described) were able to find their 
way back after it had been shown to them a few times. Others 
were much more stupid; thus, one bee came out on the 9th, 11 tb, 
12th, 14th, 16th, 16tb, 17th, 18th, and 19th, and came to the honey ; 
but though I repeatedly put her back through the postern, she 
was never able to find her way for herself. 

I often found that if bees which were brought to honey did not 
return at once, still they would do so a day or two afterwards. 
For instance, on July 11, 1874, a hot thundery day, and when the 
bees were much out of humour, I brought twelve bees to some 
honey ; only one came back, and that one only once ; but on the 
following day several of them returned. 

My bees sometimes ceased work at times when I could not 
account for their doing so. Oct. 19 was a beautiful, sunshiny, 
warm day. All the morning the bees^were fully active. At 11.26 
I brought one to the honey-comb, and she returned at the usual 
intervals for a couple of hours ; but after that she came no more, 
nor were there any other bees at work. Yet the weather was 
lovely, and the hive is so placed as to catch the afternoon sun. 

I have made a few observations to ascertain, if possible, whether 
the bees generally go to the same part of the hive. Thus, 

Oct. 6. I took a bee out of the hive, fed her and marked her. 
She went back to the same part. 

Oct. 9. At 7.16 I took out two bees, fed and marked them. 
They returned ; but I could not see them in the same part of the 
hive. One, however, I found not far off. 

At 9.80 brought out four bees, fed and marked them. One 
returned to the same part of the hive. I lost sight of the others. 

Since their extreme eagerness for honey may be attributed 
rather to their anxiety for the commonweal than to their desire 
for personal gratification, it cannot fairly be imputed as gree- 
diness ; still the following scene, one which most of us have wit- 
nessed, is incompatible surely with much intelligence. " The sad 
* ' Hit*- and Honey-B*,' Lsngitrotb, p. 195. 



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8DI JOM2T LUBBOCK OS BBSS, WASPS, ABB AX*8. $37- 

fate of their unfortunate companions does Dot in the least deter 
others who approach the tempting lore from madly alighting on 
the bodies of the djing and the dead, to share the same miserable 
end. No one can understand the extent of their infatuation until 
he has seen a confectioner's shop assailed by myriads of hungry 
bees. I hare seen thousands strained out from the syrup in 
which they had perished; thousands more alighting even upon 
the boiling sweets ; the floor covered and windows darkened with 
bees, some crawling, others flying, and others still, so completely 
besmeared as to be able neither to crawl nor fly — not one in ten 
able to carry home its ill-gotten spoils, and yet the air filled with 
new hosts of thoughtless comers" *. 

If, however, bees are to be credited with any moral feelings at 
all, I fear the experience of all bee-keepers shows that they have 
no conscientious scruples about robbing their weaker brethren. 
" If the bees of a strong stock," says Langstroth, " once get a 
taste of forbidden sweets, they will seldom stop until they have 
tested the strength of every hive." And, again, "Some bee- 
keepers question whether a bee that once learns to steal ever 
returns to honest courses." Siebold has mentioned similar facta 
in the case of wasps (Polities). 

Wasps. 
Sept. 13. At 6 i~m. I put a wasp to some honey on green paper, 
and about a foot off I put some more honey on orange paper. 
The wasp kept returning to the honey at the usual intervals. At 
&30 I transposed the papers ; but the wasp followed the colour. 
At 9 o'clock I transposed the papers again, but not the honey ; 
she returned again to the green, from which it would appear that 
she was following the colour, not the honey. At 10.20 1 again 
transposed them, with the same result. 

Ant*. 
M. Forel, in his excellent work * Lea Fourmis de la Suisse.' 
asserts that Ants, when they first quit the pupal state, like the 
bees, devote themselves to household duties and the care of the 
young, not taking any part in the defence of the nest until a 
later period of life. He has repeated many of Haber's expe- 
riments. As regards the memory of ants, he convinced him- 
self that they recognized their companions after a separation of 
; * ' Hive- and Honey-Bee,' Langstrvth, page 277. 



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SIB JOHff LUBBOCK OK BBE8, WASPS, ATO AKT8. 

four months ; but he believes they would not do so for more than 
one season. In my previous memoir I have described the be- 
haviour of ants to companions from whom they had been sepa- 
rated for several months, and mentioned that I could not satisfy 
myself as to the lively manifestations of joy and satisfaction de- 
scribed by Huber as being shown under such circumstances. M. 
Forel, in the above-mentioned work, expresses his opinion that 
the signs which Huber regarded as marks of affection, were in 
reality signs of distrust and fear, which, however, were soon 
removed. 

Ants of different nests are generally enemies ; but M. Forel 
assures us (p. 262) that when they first quit the pupa-stage, ants 
do not distinguish friends from foes, though three or four days are 
sufficient to enable them to do so. It is to be regretted that he 
does not give the facts on which this interesting statement is 
based. 

The behaviour of ants to one another differs very much accord- 
ing as they are alone or supported by numerous companions. An 
ant which would run away in the first ease, will fight bravely in 
the second (p. 249). 

MM. Forel and Ebrard both assert that if an ant is a little ill 
or slightly wounded, she is carefully tended by her companions ; 
while, on the other hand, those which are dangerously ill or 
wounded are carried out of the nest to die. I have not met with 
any cases of this kind. 

Again, some days I found no ants about on my window-sill as 
usual, although there seemed nothing in the weather to account 
for it. 

I quote the following in order to show the steadiness with 
which ants work. 

July 13. At 6.20 a.m. I put an ant to some honey ; at 6.40 
she went, 7.2 she returned, and at 7.8 went away again, but not 
to the neat ; at 7.11 she returned, and at 7.15 went away again. 
At 7.27 she came back. 7.40 went. 

7.49 „ 8. 5 „ 

* 8.14 „ 8.19 „ 

8.81 „ 8.89 „ 

8.43 „ 8.47 „ 

8.55 „ 9 

9. 8 „ 9.10 „ 

9.17 „ 9.26 „ 



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BIB JOHN LUBBOCK 09 BEES, WASPS, AND ANTS. 239 

At 9.34 she came back, and at 9.40 went ; 
9.49 „ 10 

10.11 „ 10.20 „ 

10.27 „ 10.36 „ 

10.44 „ 10.52 „ 

12.52 „ 12.54 „ 

1. 3 „ 1.2Q „ 

1.30 „ 1.41 „ 

1.51 „ 2. 6 „ 

after which I was unable to go on watching. 
Another ant the same morning 

came to the honey at 6.55 a.m., at 7. 4 went away. 
Beturned at 7.10 „ 7.14 „ 

7.34 „ 7.36 

7.45 „ 7.50 

„ 8. 2 „ 8. 7 „ 

8.17 „ 8.22 

„ 8.31 „ 8.36 „ 

8.44 „ 8.58 

8.59 „ 9 

after which she came back no more. During this time fifteen 
others had come to the honey. 

That ants have a certain power of communication has been 
proved by Huber and other observers. Several striking cases are 
mentioned by M. Forel. For instance (op. cit. p. 297), an army 
of Amazon ants, on an expedition in search of slaves, attacked a 
nest of Formica rufibarbis. In a few seconds (quelques secondes) 
the dome of the nest was covered with F. rufibarbis, which rushed 
out to defend their house. 

On another occasion he placed a number of Tetramorium ca$- 
pitum about four inches from a colony of Fheidole pallidula* 
"En un clin d'oeil," he says (p. 384), "Talarme fut repandue, et 
des centaines de Pheidole se jet&rent au devant de l'ennemi." 

Again, he (p. 349) placed some earth containing a number of 
Tetramorium about four inches from a nest of Strongylognathu* 
Hubert. Several combats took place ; but after the lapse of a few 
minutes (quelques minutes) a whole army of S. Hubert emerged 
and attacked the intruders. 

On another occasion, some Amazon ants (p. 301) were search- 
ing in vain for a nest of Formica rufibarbU. After a while some 
of them found the nest. " Immediately " (aussitdt), he says, " a 



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240 BIB JOHN LUBBOCK ON BKES, WASPS, AND ANT*. 

signal was given, the Amazons rushed in the right direction and 
pillaged the nest in spite of its inhabitants." This is a surprising 
statement. If it is to be taken literally, the communication can- 
not have been made by the antennae ; the signal can hardly have 
been a visible one ; are we then to imagine a sound or smell to 
have been made use of which our auditory and olfactory nerves 
are incapable of perceiving ? or have ants some sense which we 
do not possess ? 

It would even appear, from M. Forel's statements, that in 
some cases one species comprehends the signs of another. Thid 
is, of course, the case when different species live in association ; 
but I am now speaking of hostile species. Formica sangnineo, 
he assures us, understand the signals of F. pratetuU. u Elles 
savent," he says (p. 359), "toujours saisir r instant ou lespra- 
tensie se communiquent le signal de la d£route, et elles savent 
s'apprendre cette d6couverte les unes aux autres avec une rapidity 
incroyable. Au moment m&me ou Ton voit les pratenti* se jeter 
les unes contre les autres en se frappant de quelques coups 
rapides, puis cesser toute resistance et s'enfuir en masse, on voit 
aussi les tanguinea se jeter tout-a-coup au milieu d'elles sans la 
plus petite retenue, mordant k droite et a gauche comme de* 
Folyergus, et arrachant les cocons de toutes les praUnsi* qui en 
portent." 

He is of opinion (p. 864) that the different species differ much 
in their power of communicating with one another. Thus, 
though Folyergu* rvfescens is smaller than F. $anguinea, it is 
generally victorious, because the ants of this species understand 
one another more quickly than those of jP. sanguinea. 

It appeared to me that the following experiment might throw 
some light on the power of communication possessed by ants, viz. 
to place several small quantities of honey in similar situations, 
then to bring an ant to one of them, and subsequently to register 
the number of ants visiting each of the parcels of honey, of course 
imprisoning for the time every ant which found her way to the 
honey except the first. If, then, many more came to the honey 
which had been shown to the first ant than to the other parcel*, this 
would be in favour of their possessing the power of communicating 
facts to one another, though it might be said they came by scent 
Accordingly on the 18th July,at 8 p.m., I took a piece of cork about 
8 inches long and 4 inches wide, and stuck into it seventeen pint, 
on three of which I put pieces of card with a little honey. Up 



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MBL JOB* LUBBOCK OK BBSS, WASPS, AJTD ACTS. 241 

to 5.15 no ant had been np any of these pins. I then put an ant 
to the honey on one of the bits of card. She seemed to enjoy it, 
and fed for about five minutes, when she went away. At 5.30 
she returned, but went up six pins which had no honey on them. 
I then put her on to the card. In the mean time twelve other 
ants have been up wrong pins and two up to the honey ; these 
I imprisoned for the afternoon. At 5.46 my ant went away. 
From that time to 6 o'clock seven ants came, but not the first. 
One of the seven went up a wrong pin, but seemed surprised, 
came down and immediately went up the right one. The other 
six went straight up the right pin to the honey. Up to 7 o'clock 
twelve more ants went np pins — eight right, and four wrong. 
At 7 two more went wrong. Then my first ant returned, bring- 
ing three friends with her; and they all went straight to the 
honey. At 7.11 she went: on her way to the nest she met 
and spoke to two ants, both of which then came straight to the 
right pin and up it to the honey. Up to 7.20 seven more ants 
came and climbed up pins — six right, and one wrong. At 7.22 
my first ant came back with five friends; at 7.80 she went 
away again, returning at 7.45 with no less than twenty com- 
panions. During this experiment I imprisoned every ant that 
found her way up to the honey. Thus, while there were seven- 
teen pins, and consequently sixteen chances to one, yet between 
5.45 and 7.45 twenty-seven ants came, not counting those which 
were brought by the original ant ; and out of these twenty-seven, 
nineteen went up the right pin. Again, on the 15th July, at 2.80, 
I put out the same piece of cork with ten pins, each with a piece 
of card and one with honey. At 4.40 1 put an ant to the honey ; 
the fed comfortably, and went away at 4.44. 

At 4.45 she returned, and at 5. 5 went away again. 
„ 5.40 „ „ 5.55 

„ 6.13 „ and again at 6.25 and 6.59. 

There were a good many other ants about, which, up to this time, 
went up the pins indiscriminately. 

At 7.15 an ant came and went up the right pin, and another at 
7.18. At 7.26 the first ant came back with a friend, and both 
went up the right pin. At 7.28 another came straight to the 
honey. 

At 7.30 one went up a wrong pin. 
„ 7.31 one came to the right pin. 
„ 7.36 „ „ with the first ant. 



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242 bib jomr lubbock on bkes, wasps, akd aots. 



At 7.39 one came to the right pin. 


„ 7.40 


99 


99 


„ 7.41 


99 


99 


„ 7.48 


99 


99 


„ 7.45 


99 


99 


„ 7.46 


99 


99 


99 


99 


wrong 


99 


99 


99 


„ 7.47 two 


n 


99 


„ 7.48 one 


99 


right 


„ the first ant 


came back. 


„ 7.49 another came to the right pin 


„ 7.50 „ 




n wrong „ 


„ 7.51 „ 




99 right „ 


„ three 




„ wrong „ 


„ 7.52 one 




99 right „ 


„ 7.55 „ 




99 wrong „ 


» » 




99 right „ 


n 7-57 „ 




99 wrong „ 


» 7.58 „ 




9i right „ 


„ 7.59 „ 




99 wrong „ 



Thus after 7 o'clock twenty-nine ants came ; and though there 
were ten pins, seventeen of them went straight to the right pin. 

On the 16th July I did the same again. At 6.25 I put an ant 
to the honey ; at 6.47 she went. 

At 6.49 an ant came to the right pin. 

„ 6.50 another „ „ 

„ 6.55 „ „ „ 

„ 6.56 „ „ wrong pin, and then to the right onew 

„ 6.58 „ „ right pin. 

99 • 99 9> 99 

„ 7. 5 thejfirst ant came back, and remained at the honey till 
7.11. 
„ another came to the right pin ; but she was with the first. 
„ 7. 6 another ant came to the right pin. 
99 '. 6 „ „ 

„ 7.12 „ „ 

99 ^'18 „ „ 

These two ants were met by the first one, which crossed an- 
tenna with them, when they came straight to the honey. 
At 7.14 another ant came straight to the honey. 



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61K JOHN LUBDOCK ON BEES, WASPS, AND ANTS. 243 

At 7.21 tbe first ant returned ; at 7.2a she left. 
„ 7.24 another ant came, but went to a wrong pin, and then 
went on to the right one. 
„ an ant came to wrong pin. 



„ i .o*k „ „ „ 

„ 7.35 „ „ „ 

„ 7.38 the first came back, at 7.45 went away again. 

„ 7.42 an ant went to a wrong pin. 
7 47 
748 
74A 

„ 7.52 „ the right pin. 

„ 7.55 the first ant returned, and at 7.56 went away again. 

„ 7.57 an ant went to wrong pin. 

, ? 7.58 „ right „ 

„ 8 „ wrong „ 

» right „ 

„ 8.1 „ wrong „ 

After this, for an hour no more ants came. On this occasion, 
therefore, while there were ten pins, out of thirty ants, sixteen 
came to the right one, while fourteen went to one or other of the 
nine wrong ones. 

July 18. I put out the boards as before at 4 o'clock. Up to 
4.25 no ant came. I then put one (No. 1) to the honey ; she fed 
for a few minutes, and went away at 4.31. 

At 4.85 she came back with four friends, and went nearly 
straight to the honey. At 4.42 she went away, but came back 
almost directly, fed, and went away again. 

At 4.57 she returned, and at 5.8 went away again. 

„ 4.45 an ant came to wrong pin. 

„ 4.4/ „ ,« 

„ '4.4ftl „ „ 

„ 4.50 „ right pin. 

„ 4.52 

„ 4.55 „ wrong pin. 

„ 4.56 „ right pin. This ant (No. 2) I allowed 

to return to the nest, which she did 

at 5.23. 
„ 5. 6 „ right pin. 

UNN. JOUKN. — ZOOLOGY, VOL. XII. 17 



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244 SIB JOIIK LUBBOCK ON BSK8, WASPS, AND AKTS 

At 5.11 an ant came to wrong pin. 
„ 5.12 „ right pin. 

I changed the pin. 
„ 5.16 an ant came to the pin which I had put in the same 

place. 

„ „ right pin. 

„ 5.19 „ „ 

„ 5.20 two ants „ with No. 2. 

„ ant No. 1 „ and went at 5.25. 

„ 5.25 an ant „ : this ant had been spoken 

to by No. 2. 
„ 5.20 another ant „ 

„ 5.85 „ „ 

n 5.37 „ „ 

» 0.4sU „ • „ 

„ 5.41 aut No. 1 „ and went at 5.49. 

„ 5.45 another ant „ 

„ 5.50 

„ 5.51 ant No. 1 came back, and 5.54 went. 
„ 5.58 two ants came to the right pin. 
„ 5.59 another ant „ „ 

„ „ „ a wrong pin. 

1 changed the pin again. 
„ 6.49 an ant came to the pin which I had put in the same 

place. 
„ 7. 1 another ant came to the right pin. 
,, 7.20 

» 7.38 „ „ 

,. „ 7.46 ant No. 1 returned, 7.55 went. 

Thus during this time, from 4.50 until 7.50, twenty-nine ants 
came, twenty-six went to the right pin, while only three went up 
any of the nine wrong ones. Moreover, out of these twenty-six, 
only four were distinctly brought by the two ants which I had 
shown the honey. 

On the 19th I tried a similar experiment. The marked ants 
frequently brought friends with them ; but, without counting 
these, from 3.20 to 8 o'clock, out of forty-five ants, twenty-nine 
went up the right pin, while sixteen went up the nine wrong ones. 
Thus on 
July 18, out of 27 auts, 19 went right and 8 wrong. 
„ 15, „ 29 „ 17 „ 12 „ 



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BIB JOHN LUBBOCK ON BIBS, WABP8, AND ANT8. 245 

July 16, out of dO ants, 16 went right and 14 wrong. 
„ 18, „ 26 „ 28 „ 3 „ 

„ 19, „ 45 „ 29 „ 16 „ 

Or adding them ail together, while there were ten pins at least, 
out of 156 ants 103 came up the right pin, and only 58 up the 
others. 

It certainly appeared to me that some of the ants were much 
cleverer in finding their way to the honey than others ; several 
ants which I put on honey came back to nearly the same place, 
and yet did not seem able to find the exact spot. 

Again, some appeared to communicate more freely with their 
friends than others; and I have met with cases which show that some 
ants certainly do not, under such circumstances, summon others 
to their assistance. From this point of view the following obser- 
vation may be compared with those already recorded. On the 1st 
August an ant came to the honey at 4.20 and went away a few 
minutes afterwards. 

At 4.36 she returned, and at 4.41 went away again. 
„ 4.52 „ 4.58 

„ 5.11 „ 5.15 

„ 5.80 „ 5.35 

„ 6. 5 „ 6.10 

„ 6.21 „ 0.31 

„ 6.89 „ 6.43 

„ 6.55 „ 6.59 

„ 7.80 „ 7.36 

„ 7.49 „ 7.54 

Tet during ail this time she brought no friend with her. 

The following additional observations were made after the read- 
ing of the paper, at the dates severally mentioned below. 

Thus on the 3rd Jan. I placed some larva? in three small porce- 
lain saucers in a box 7 inches square attached to one of my frame- 
nests. The saucers were in a row 6 inches from the entrance to 
the frame and 1| inch apart from one another. 

At 1.10 an ant came to the larva? in the cup *hich I will call 

No. 1, took a larva, and returned to the nest. 
At 1.24 she returned and took another. 
1.45 

2.10 she went to the further saucer, No. 3. I took he 

and put her to No. 1. She took a larva and retun 

2.24 she returned to cup No. 3. As there were only 



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24G 81 H JOHN LUBBOCK OX B It ER, WASPS, AND A NTS. 

lame in this cup, I left her alone. She took one and 

returned. 
At 2.31 she returned to cup No. 3 and took the last larva. 
2.40 she came back to cup No. 3 and searched diligently, 

went away and wandered about for two minutea, then 

returned for another look, and at length at 2.50 went 

to cup No. 1 and took a larva. 
3 came to cup 1 and took a larva. 

3. 7 „ w 

3.15 „ „ , first, however, going and 

examining cup 8 again. 

3.18 came to cup 3, then went to cup 2 and took a larva. 
3.30 „ „ 2 „ 

3.43 „ „ 2 

5.53 came to cup 3, but did not climb up it, then went to 

cup 2 and took a larva, which phe either dropped or 

handed over to another ant ; for without returning to 
. the nest, at 3.55 she returned to the empty cup, and 

then to cup 2, where she took the last larva, so that two 

cups are now empty. 

4. 3 she came to cup 3, then to cup 2, and lastly to cup 1, 

when she took a larva. 
4.15 came to cup 1 and took a larva. 

4.88 „ ff 

5 came to cup 3, then to cup 2, and lastly to cup 1, when 
she took a larva. 

5.19 came to cup 1 and took a larva. 

5.50 came to cup 2 and then to cup 1 and took a larva. 

6.20 „ 1 and took the last larva. 
I now put about 80 larva) in cup 3. 

It is remarkable that during all this time she did not come 
straight to the cups, but took a roundabout and apparently irre. 
solute course. 

At 7. 4 she came to cup 1 and then to cup 3, and then home. 

There were at least a dozen ants exploring in the box; but 
■he did not send any of them to the larvie. 

At 7.80 she returned to cup 3 and took a larva. 

I now left off watching for an hour. On my return at 
8.30 she was just carrying off a larva. 
8.40 she came hack to cup 3 and took a larva. 



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mb nnr vnmocm. car un, vasm, jj» ast*. S47 

JL55 «he mm to cap 1 tken to cap 3 and took a burs. 
912 w „ 

9*> „ 3 „ 

iau i w 

10AJ site went and examined cop 2, then to cap 3 and took 
a lam. 
At 10.45 the came to cap 3, and I went to bed. At 7 o'clock 
the next morning the lame were all removed. In watching this 
ant I was much struck by the difficulty she seemed to experience 
in finding her way. She wandered about at times most irreso- 
lutely, and, instead of coining straight across from the door of the 
frame to the cups, kept along the side of the box ; so that in 
coming to cop 3 she went twice as far as she need have done. 
Again, it is remarkable that she should have kept on visiting 
the empty cups time after time. I watched for this ant care- 
fully on the following day ; but she did not come out at all. 

During the time she was under observation, from 1 till 10.45, 
though there were always ants roaming about, few climbed up the 
walls of the cups. Five found their way into the (empty) cup 
1 and one only to cup 3. It is clear, therefore, that the ant 
under observation did not communicate her dwcovery of larva 
to her friends. 

The following day I watched again, having, at 7 a.m., put larvae 
into one of the porcelain cups arranged as before. No ants found 
them for several hours. 

At 11.37 one came and took a larva. 

„ 11 .50 she returned and took a larva. 

„ 11.59 she returned „ 

w 12. 9 „ „ 

„ 12.16 

„ 12.21 

„ 12.26 „ „ 

„ 12.32 „ „ 

„ 12.3 1 „ „ 

„ 1241 

„ 12 .45 

„ 12.60 

,, 1257 

M *■• " »» »» 



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248 8IH JOHN LUBBOCK OK B1K8, WASPS, AKD AJTT8. 



At 


1.21 she returned and took a larva 


tt 


1.85 


ii 


11 


n 


1.40 


ii 


11 


11 


1.44 


ii 


11 


»» 


1.52 


*t 


11 


11 


1.56 


91 


11 


11 


2. 2 


H 


n 


ii 


2.10 


11 


ii 


ii 


2.17 


11 


19 


ii 


2.24 


If 


n 


y> 


2.80 


ft 


ii 


ii 


2.86 


n 


ii 


H 


2.48 


if 


tt 


ii 


2.48 


tt 


ft 


ft 


2.54 


91 


ft 


ii 


2.59 


tl 


tt 


ii 


8. 8 


11 


ii 


ii 


8.10 


91 


ii 


ii 


8.14 


19 


ft 


ii 


8.19 


99 


ft 


ii 


8.84 


19 


t» 


tt 


8.89 


19 


91 


tt 


3.47 


yy 


t 


11 


8.56 


ii 


tt • 


11 


4. 7 


19 


1 


11 


4.13 


ii 


11 


11 


4.20 


ft 


11 


11 


4.28 


ii 


ft 


11 


4.39 


ii 


ft 


11 


4.44 


ii 


t> 


11 


4.50 


ii 


tt 


11 


4.55 


ii 


tt 


11 


5. 1 


ft 


ft 


11 


5. 7 


if 


ft 


11 


6.17 


ii 


11 


11 


5.28 


ii 


11 


11 


5.28 


ii 


91 


11 


5.40 


ii 


11 


11 


5.45 


ii 


11 


11 


5.59 


19 


11 


91 

11 


6. 9 
6.13 


If 
if 


11 
11 



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SIB JOHH LUBBOCK OH BIBS, WA8F8, A2TD ABTS. 249 

At 6.85 she returned and took a larva. 
„ 6.40 



ff 


6.46 


19 


19 


6.51 


19 


ff 


6.58 


n 


ff 


7* 2 


ff 


99 


7. 8 


if 


91 


7.12 


ff 


19 


7.16 


>f 


99 


7.21 


w 


ff 


7.26 


ff 


ff 


7.89 


ff 


19 


7.44 


19 


ff 


7.68 


ff 


ff 


7.57 


ff 


ft 


8. 8 


ff 


If 


8. 8 


ff 


w 


8.18 


ff 


ff 


8.20 


ff 


91 


8.26 


ff 


91 


8.81 


ff 


19 


8.88 


ff 


ff 


8.45 


ff 


ff 


8.50 


ff 


If 


8.55 


ff 


ff 


9. 2 


ff 


If 


9.11 


If 


» 


9.19 


ff 


f> 


9.25 


ff 


ff 


9.88 


ff 


ff 


9.40 


ff 


ff 
f» 


9.46 
9.52 


ff 

M 



» 
n 
» 



This is an unusually long interval ; still I am sura the time 
is correct. 

» 10-32 

,, 10.89 

» 10-49 

» 1054 

„ 11. 1 



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250 SIB JOHN LUBBOCK ON BBE8, WA8P8, ABD AXT8. 

At this time I went to bed. There were still about twenty-five 
larvae in the cup, which had all been removed when I looked at 6.15 
the next morning. During the whole time she was under obser- 
vation, only two strange ants found their way to the cup, though 
there were some wandering about in the box all day. Towards 
evening, however, they went into the nest, and for some hours my 
ant was the only one out. It will be observed that she returned 
at shorter intervals than the previous ones. This was partly 
because she had a shorter distance to go, and partly because she 
was not bewildered by three cups, like the preceding. I bad 
placed a bit of wood to facilitate her ascent into the cup. This 
she made use of, but instead of going the shortest way to the 
cup, she followed the side of the box, partly, perhaps, because 
the floor was covered with a plate of porcelain. This, however, 
would not account for the fact that at first she invariably went 
beyond the cup, and even past the second cup ; gradually, how- 
ever, this circuit became smaller and smaller ; but to the last she 
went round the outside of cup 1 instead of going straight to the 
spot where I had placed the bit of wood. 

On the 9th January again I watched her under similar circum- 
stances. From 9.85 to 1.40 she made 55 journeys to and fro, 
carrying off a larva each time ; but during this period only one 
strange ant found the larvae. 

In the afternoon of the same day I watched the ant which had 
been under observation on the 3rd Jan. From 3.27 to 9.80 she 
made forty-two visits, during which time only four strange ants 
came to the larva?. 

On the 10th Jan. I watched the same ant as on the 4th. 
Between 11 a.m. and 10 p.m. she made no less than ninety -two 
visits ; and during the whole time only one' strange ant came to 
the larvae. 

On the 18th Jan. I put out some more larvae in the small por- 
celain cups. Between 8 and 9 both these ants fpund them, and 
kept on coming all day up to 7 p.m., when I left off observing. 
There were a good many ante wandering about in the box ; but up 
to 4 o'clock only four came to the larvae. Two of them I impri- 
soned as usual ; but two (which came at 4.80 and 4.86) I marked. 
These went on working quietly with the first two till I left off 
observing at 7 p.m. ; and during this latter time only three other 
ants found the larva?. 

On the 31st Jan. I watched another specimen. At 9.14 I put 



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FAOJP. JLLLMAN OX SEW OENKEA AHD SPECIES OF UTDUOIDA. 251 

ber into a small cup containing a number of linje. She worked 
continuously till half past seven in the evening, when I left off 
watching. During that time she had made more than ninety 
journeys, carrying each time a larva to the nest. During the 
whole time not a single other ant came to the larvae. 

Again on the 7th Feb. I watched two ants in the same manner. 
At 7 a.m. I put some larva? in the small china cups. Up to 8 no 
ants had come to them. Soon after 8 I put two marked ants, 
neither of them being the same as these whose movements are 
above recorded. They were then watched until a quarter to eight 
in the evening, during which time one of them had made twenty- 
six journeys, carrying off a larva each time ; the other forty-two. 
During this period of about eleven hours, two strange ants had 
come to the cup at which these were working, and the same 
number to one of the other cups. 

None of these ants, therefore, though they had found a large 
number of larvae, more than they could carry in a whole day, sum- 
moned any other to their assistance. 



Diagnoses of new Genera and Species of llydroida. 
By Professor Allmax, M.D., LL.D.,F.R.S., Pres. L.S., Ac. 

[Read December 17th, 1874.] 
(Plates LX-XXIII.) 

Some very interesting collections of Hydrcida have been recently 
placed in my hands for determination. One of the most impor- 
tant of these is from the Zoological Museum of the University of 
Copenhagen, and consists exclusively of gymnoblastic forms. It 
has been obtained from various parts of the world ; but most of 
the species are from the Scandinavian shores. It has been put 
into spirits, and is, for the most part, in a very good state of 
preservation, so much so, indeed, as frequently to admit of accu- 
rate drawings being made from the soft parts. Among the 
Hydroids of this collection sufficiently well preserved for deter- 
mination, are seven undescribed species, referable to six genera. 
For the opportunity of examining it I am indebted to Professor 
Liitken, of the University of Copenhagen. 

Another collection, also preserved in spirits, consists entirely 
of calyptoblastic forms, and was made in the Japan seas by Capt. 

LINN. JOURN. — ZOOLOGY, VOL. XII. 18 



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252 PttOF. ALLtfAN OK NEW QENERA 

St. John, of H.M.S. ' Silvia.' It was submitted to me for deter- 
mination by Mr. J. G-wyn Jeffreys, by whom it is destined to 
form part of the collection of the British Museum. It consists 
of seven species ; and not one of these has been hitherto described. 
They are referable to four genera, of which two, namely Gampanu- 
laria and Thuiaria, are well represented in the European seas, 
while two are now for the first time defined, and, so far as I 
know, have no representatives elsewhere. 

This collection, though small, is thus of special interest, coming 
as it does from a region whose Hydroid fauna has been hitherto 
entirely unexplored, and which, I am strongly induced to believe, 
constitutes a distinct and well-defined area in the geographical 
distribution of the Hydroida. 

To Mr. Busk I am indebted for a collection of calyptoblastic 
Hydroids, consisting entirely of dried specimens or of specimens 
which, after having been dried, had been mounted in liquid for 
the microscope. It contains a large number of species: many 
of these have been already examined and described by himself; 
many others he has also examined, designated by MS. names, 
and, in many cases, figured, so that his very careful and accurate 
work only awaits publication. Others, again, hitherto unexamined, 
he has liberally intrusted to myself; and these are described and 
figured in the present paper. 

From Mr. Holdsworth I have received a collection of dried 
specimens, made on the shores of Ceylon. It contains several 
new and interesting species, chiefly belonging to the Aglaophenian 
section of the Plumulariidae. 

Lastly, a small collection of Hydroida and Polyzoa was made 
by the Rev. A. E. Eaton during a yacht voyage to Spitsbergen . 
The specimens were collected in the Spitzbergen seas, and were 
placed by Mr. Eaton at my disposal. Among the Hydroids, 
however, of this collection there is only one specimen sufficiently 
well preserved for determination. 

HYDROIDA GYMNOBLASTEA. 

BO TJQAIUmLLIIDJE. 

Pkbigonihus. 

Pbrigonimus multicorni8. Plate IX. figs. 1, 2. 

Trophotome. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of about two inches. 

springing from a creeping network of hydrorhizal tubes, not 



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AND SPECIE 8 OF HTDBOLDA. 253 

fascicled, very much branched, with a subalternate disposition of 
the branches, which ascend at a small angle from the main stem 
and from one another ; ultimate ramuli annulated at their origin, 
rest of the hydrocaulus smooth, except with an occasional annu- 
lation here and there. Hydranths with about forty tentacles. 

Gonosome. Gonophores springing from the ultimate ramuli at 
some distance below the hydranth. 

Locality. Kattegat, collected by Mr. Oersted, ZooL Mus. Cop. 

The gonophores in the specimen were not sufficiently far ad- 
vanced to enable their true structure to be determined ; and little 
more than their position in the hydrosoma can be asserted of 
them. Their appearance, however, renders it highly probable 
that they become developed into planoblasts of the type met with 
in the genus Perigonimus ; but in the absence of an accurate 
knowledge of the developed gonosome, the reference of the pre- 
sent species to that genus cannot be viewed as otherwise than 
provisional. 

The most striking peculiarity of the species is the great number 
of tentacles in the hydranth. 

EVDENDEIIDM. 

EUDEFDRIUM. 
ElDSNDRIUM RIGIUUM. Plate IX. figs. 3, 4. 

Trophosome. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of about one inch, 
much and very irregularly branched, springing out of an entangled 
mass of tortuous wiry filaments, fascicled in the main stem and 
principal branches ; subordinate branches not fascicled, capillary, 
and strongly annulated throughout, the whole forming rigid tufts. 
Hydranths with about twenty tentacles. 

Gonosome not known. 

Locality. Denmark, Zool. Mus. Cop. 

There can be little doubt that the Hydroid just described is a 
true Eudendrium ; for though no gonosome was present in the 
specimen, the trophosome is entirely that of a Eudendrium ; 
and, from all we know of the species of Eudendrium, the tropho- 
some of this genus will in itself afford characters sufficient for 
generic determination. 

The species here described bears a considerable resemblance to 
Eudendrium capillare ; but the strongly fascicled condition of the 
main stem and principal branches, and the complete annulation 



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254 PROF. ALLMA* Off tfEW GEffERA 

of the unfascicled portion, at once distinguish it from that species. 
It is this fascicled condition which gives it the rigid habit which 
has suggested its specific name. 

Such hydranths as are present in the specimen are evidently 
those of a second crop which had replaced an earlier one — a phe- 
nomenon not uncommon in Hydroid trophosomes. Each is borne 
on the summit of an attenuated continuation of the original 
branch ; and the new growths have much the appearance of having 
been produced in the confinement of an aquarium ; at all events, 
the attenuated extension of the branches is plainly not the normal 
condition of these parts. 

HYDRACTINIIDJBs. 

Hydractinta. 
Hydractinia monocarpa. Plate X. figs. 1-3. 

Trophotome. Basal expansion thin, furnished with well-de- 
veloped chitinous spines ; spines with a continuous axile cavity, 
and destitute of longitudinal furrows, except close to the base, 
frequently bifurcate. Hydranths with about twelve tentacles. 

Gonosome. Blastostyles short, destitute of capitulum, and ter- 
minating di8 tally in a blunt point ; each blastostyle (female) car- 
rying near its middle a single very large sessile spherical sporosac. 

Locality. Spitzbergen, Zool. Mus. Oop. 

This is a very interesting and well-marked form. It is easily 
distinguished from H. eehinata by its nearly smooth spines, and 
especially by its noncapitate blastostyles, each with its single 
sporosac. The sporosac is very large, and encloses a great number 
of ova ; while that portion of the blastostyle which lies at the 
distal side of the point of attachment of the sporosac is much 
attenuated, and bent to one side by the enormously developed 
sporosac. The blastostyle, with its sporosac, presents entirely 
the condition met with in certain calyptoblastic Hydroids, in 
which the gonangium contains only a single sporosac, by the 
great development of which the blastostyle becomes more or less 
atrophied and displaced. 

The basal expansion is thin, and its chitinous framework far 
less developed than in H. eehinata. The superficial coenosarcal 
layer is very distinct, and is extended over the whole surface of 
the spines. 

The chitinous walls of the hollow spines, besides presenting a 



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AND SPECIES OF IITDROIDA. 255 

general lamination, consist of two distinct layers. The external 
one, itself distinctly laminated, forms a sort of sheath which in- 
vests the inner one, also laminated, and can be separated from it 
by the needle. The tubular cavity of the spine, which is con- 
tinuous from its summit to its base, is filled with coenosarc. 

The description here given is that of a female colony, no male 
specimen being contained in the collection. 

The colony covered the surface of a gasteropodous shell, 
Trophon clathratum, Linn., which was obtained off the coast of 
Spitzbergen, and is still inhabited by the mollusk. Its hi^h 
northern locality thus gives to Hydr actinia monocarpa a special 
interest from a distributional point of view. 

PODOCORYNIDjE. 
podocoryne. 

Podocorynb IKBRMI8. Plate X. figs. 4, 5. 

Trophosome. Hydrorhizal expansion forming a thin layer en- 
tirely destitute of projecting chitinous spines. Proliferous hy- 
dranths but slightly smaller than the sterile hydranths. 

Gonosome. Oonophores forming a verticil late cluster at a short 
distance below the tentacles. 

Localities. Oeresund and Middelfartsund, Denmark, Zoo I. Mas. 
Cop. 

The present species comes very near to Podoeoryne cornea, and 
may possibly be only a varietal modification of it. It differs from 
it, however, in the entire absence of the chitinous spines which 
in P. carnea are developed from the hydrorhizal expansion, as 
well as in the much less arrested condition of the proliferous hy- 
dranths. It is possible that specific characters may be afforded 
by the free planoblasts ; but the exact form of these can be deter- 
mined only from living specimens. 

The specimens occur on the shells of young living individuals 
of Nassa reticulata. 

CLADOCORYNIDM 
Cladocoryke. 
Cladocoryns prlaoica. Plate X. figs. 6, 7* 
Trophosome. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of about one fifth 
of an inch, simple, with the perisarc distinctly annulated towards 
the base. 



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256 PBOF. ALLHAN ON NEW OE2UCRA 

Gonosome. Gonophores borne singly on short peduncles, which 
spring from the body of the hydranth within the tentacles. 

Habitat. On Sargassum baccifcrum. 

Locality. Gulf-stream, collected by Mr. Hygom, Zool. Mm. Cop. 

Hitherto only one species of the genus Cladocoryne has been 
described. This (C.floccosa) was discovered by Mr. W. D. Botch, 
in Herm, one of the Channel Islands ; but no trace of the gono- 
some was present in any of his specimens, and it was therefore 
impossible to draw up a complete character of either the species 
or the genus. The specimens of the new species from the Copen- 
hagen Museum supply in some degree the deficiencies in our 
knowledge of this remarkable genus, though they still leave much 
to be determined. It seems pretty certain that the gonophores 
are phanerocodonic or inedusiform ; but the state of the specimens 
does not allow of an absolute determination of this point. 

Cladocoryne pelagica is a smaller form than C.flocco*a t from 
which it also differs in the very distinctly annulated condition of 
the lower part of its stem. It had attached itself to gulf-weed 
obtained in lat. 57° N., long. 13° W., by the late Mr. Hygom, 
who, as I am informed by Prof. Liitken, was " the captain of a 
trading- vessel, and a zealous and intelligent collector." 

CORYMORPRIDjE. 
Ahalthjsa. 

AMALTHiEA I8LANDICA. Plate IX. figS. 5, 6. 

TVophosomc. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of about l^ tf inch, 
swollen below, where it is provided with numerous rows of papil- 
liform processes, which become longer as they approach the base, 
and are ultimately replaced by long filaments, which form a dense 
tow-like hydrorhizal plexus. Proximal tentacles about twenty 
in number, and about / of an inch in length ; distal tentacles 
rather long, very numerous, and forming a dense terminal brush. 

Gonosome. Gonophores oval, in about nine pendulous clusters, 
each cluster consisting of numerous gonophores, which are borne 
on short stalks from all sides of a rather long common peduncle; 
more mature gonophores with four short tentaculiform processes 
on the summit. 

Locality. North Iceland, Zool. Mum. Cop. 

This is an interesting Hydroid, and, as far as can be determined 
from the specimen, is an Amalthafa nearly allied to Amaltkcra 



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AND SPECIES OF UYDHOIDA. 257 

sarsii, Steenstrup, from which it would seem to differ chiefly in 
its shorter stem, less numerous proximal tentacles, and longer 
distal ones, and in the simple common peduncles of its gonophore- 
cl listers. The structure of its gonophores, however, could not be 
determined with certainty ; and though these appear to develop 
into true planoblasts of the Amalthcea type, it was impossible, 
from a mere spirit specimen, to satisfy one's self entirely on this 
point. The reference of the Hydroid to the genus Amalth&a is 
thus, to a certain extent, provisional. 

One of the most striking features in the present species con- 
sists in the great length of its proximal tentacles. These nearly 
equal the entire height of the stem, round which, in the living 
state of the animal, they must have formed a graceful inverted 
tassel of flexile filaments, subject to the impulse of every passing 
current of the surrounding water. 

The thin pellicle which in Amalthcea replaces the strong peri- 
sarc of other Hydroids, was here irregularly corrugated and sepa- 
rated by a considerable interval from the ectoderm of the stem ; 
but this latter state was probably connected with the alcoholized 
condition of the specimen. 

MONOCAULIDJS. 

MoNOCAULUS. 
Monocaulus GRCENLANDICA. Plate IX. figs. 7, 8. 

Tropkosome. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of about 1 inch, 
emitting towards the base numerous capillary filaments. Hy- 
drant hs with the tentacles of the proximal zone moderately long, 
about twenty iu number ; tentacles of the distal zone very short 
and numerous. 

Gonosome, Gonophores oviform, destitute of tentaculiform ap- 
pendages, in seven or eight clusters, each cluster consisting of 
numerous gonophores, which are borne on all sides of a common 
peduncle, on which they are sessile. 

Locality. Greenland, collected by Hollboll, Zool. Mus. Cop. 

There can be scarcely any doubt that the gonophores of this 
Hydroid are simple fixed sporosacs, and that the species is rightly 
referred to the genus Monocaulus. The pellicle, which takes the 
place of the perisarc, is somewhat thicker than in Corymorpha 
and other so-called naked Hydroids, but is yet very different 
from the thick firm perisarc of Tubularia, Eudendrium, &c. It 



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258 PRO*. ALLMAX ON NJSW OENKliA 

loses itself on the base of the hydrauth, and in the specimen is 
irregularly corrugated aud separated along the stem by a con- 
siderable interval from the ectoderm, this interval becoming still 
wider at the base of the stem ; the separation of the pellicle 
from the ectoderm, however, may be due to the action of the 
alcohol in which the specimen is preserved. 

The filaments, which are emitted from the stem, commence at 
some distance above the base ; they are simple and capillary, and 
are each surrounded by a delicate extension of the investiug 
pellicle of the stem. 

The proximal tentacles, which are of moderate length, taper to- 
wards their extremity, where they end in a blunt, sligbtly enlarged 
extremity, showing an apparent tendency to a capitate termination. 
The distal tentacles, which are very short and very numerous, 
cover a narrow zone just below the mouth. 

The clusters of gonophores lie, in the specimen, entirely at the 
distal side of the longer tentacles ; and it does not seem that in 
the living state of the Hydroid they could have formed pendulous 
groups hanging below the tentacular verticil. No evidence of 
the sex of the specimen could be obtained. 

The specimens are adhering by their base to fragments of shell, 
and seem to have been dredged from a bottom of shelly sand. 
They were collected by Mr. Holboll, mentioned in a note from 
Prof. Liitken as " the lamented Governor of South Greenland, a 
zealous and able collector." 



HYDEOIDA CALYPTOBLASTEA. 
CAMPANULAEIIDJS. 
Campanulahia. 
Cam pa nu labia crenata. Plate XI. figs. 1, 2. 
Trophosome. Hydrophyton a creeping adherent filament, which 
sends off from distance to distance short free hydrotheca-bearing 
branches; adherent portion smooth, hydro thecal branches very 
distinctly ringed, slightly thinner than the adherent portion. 
Hydrothec® deep and narrow, about fa of an inch in height, 
somewhat tumid at the base, slightly contracting upwards, and 
then gradually expanding at the orifice, so as to form an everted 
lip ; margin of orifice crcuate, with eight broad shallow lobes. 



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AND 8PKCIF.S OF 1IYDBOIDA. 259 

Gonosome. Not known. 

Locality. Japan, Copt. St. John. 

This Campanularian is remarkable for the comparatively large 
size of its hydrothec®, with their elegantly crenate lip. It oc- 
curred creeping over the stems of a Thuiaria (T. crassicaulis). 
The specimen is well preserved, many of the hydranths being 
still quite perfect in the hydrothec® ; but the absence of all 
knowledge of the gonosome renders its reference to the genus 
Campanularia entirely provisional. 

Campanularia oranois. Plate XII, figs. 2-4. 

Tpqphosome. Hydrophyton consisting of creeping, tortuous, 
smooth, more or less aggregated tubes, which send off from dis- 
tance to distance the peduncles of the hydrothec® ; peduncles 
slightly thinner than the tubes from which they spring, scarcely 
attaining a length equal to tliat of the hydrothec®, immediately 
below which they have a node-like enlargement. Hydrqthec® -fl T 
of an inch in height, gradually narrowing upwards, and termi- 
nating with an abruptly everted lip. 

Gonosome. Gonangia springing in a dense cluster from the 
aggregated basal tubes, nearly sessile, lageniform, with strong 
longitudinal ridges, slightly exceeding a quarter of an inch in 
height. 

Locality, Japan, Copt. St. John. 

The comparatively enormous size of the hydrothec® constitutes 
a very remarkable feature in this Hydroid. It is also strikingly 
marked by its very large, lageniform, ridged gonangia. 

The adherent portion of the hydrophyton consists of strong 
tubes which creep over the surface to which it has attached 
itself. In the specimen examined it had taken possession of 
another Hydroid (Selayinopsu Jueca), the older parts of whose 
stem it had enveloped in a close plexus. This plexus bad entirely 
replaced the stem which bad originally given it support ; and it 
was from this part that the gonangia sprung in a dense group. 
They had the appearance of being sessile, but are in reality borne 
each upon a very short peduncle. Their large size and the peculiar 
way in which they were grouped together suggested at first the 
possibility of their being only the ovarian nidus of a gastero- 
podous mollusk instead of the gonangia of the Hydroid. They 
attain about the size of the nidus of Buccmmm lapillu* ; and it 
was onry by a careful examination that their real nature was 

Lnrir. jouW— zoology, yol. xij. 19 



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200 PBOF. ALLMAX OX NEW GENERA. 

made apparent. It was impossible, however, from the dead speci- 
men to determine whether the contents of the gonangia were sporo- 
sacs or planoblasts ; and it is therefore, as in all similar cases, only 
provisionally that the present Hydroid can be assigned to a defi- 
nite genus. 

Campanularia oracili8. Plate XII. figs. 5, 6.' 

Trophotome. Hydrophyton a slender, smooth, creeping tube, 
sending off from distance to distance long slender hydrothecal 
branches ; hydrothecal branches with one or two rings at their 
origin from the creeping stem, and two deep constrictions at the 
base of the hydrotheca, destitute of annulation on the remainder 
of their length. Hydrotheca* deep bell-shaped, about ^ of an 
inch in height. 

Gonosome, Gonangia borne by the creeping tube, scattered, 
cylindrical, about ^ of an inch in height, deeply and regularly 
annulated, tapering below into a short peduncle, and terminating 
distally in a truncated summit. 

Locality. Japan, Copt. St. John. 

This little Campanularian occurred abundantly on the same 
Hydroid which gave support to Campanularia grandU, and crept 
also over the stems and hydrotheca? of the latter, with whose 
great size this small form strikingly contrasted. Numerous 
young solitary individuals, with the embryonal hydrorhizal shield 
still present, had attached themselves to the supporting Hydroids. 

Though the hy drouths were sufficiently well preserved, nothing 
could be determined regarding the contents of the gonangia; and 
without a knowledge of these the reference of the Hydroid to the 
genus Campanularia is only provisional. It is probably, however, 
a true Campanularia^ and appears to be nearly allied to C. John- 
$toni. 

Campanularia juncba. Plate XI. figt.3, 4. 

TrophoMome. Hydrocaulus consisting of a cluster of strong 
stems, which spring from a common entangled mass of hydro- 
rhizal filaments, and, after rising to some height as simple undi- 
vided tubes, begin to send off thinner, simple, for the most part 
alternately disposed branches, and continue to ascend to a height 
of about 12 inches, becoming gradually thinner towards the distal 
extremity. Hydrotheca large, tobacco-pipe-shaped, almost sessile, 
supported on bracket-like lateral processes, which are situated 



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A2TB SPECIES OF HTDBOIDA. 261 

dose to the distal ends and on alternate sides of rather short 
internodes, into which both main tube and branches are divided ; 
margin of orifice entire, surrounded by a narrow band-like rim. 

Gonosome. Not known. 

Locality. Ceylon, Mr. Holdsworth. 

Campanularia juneea is a very large, strong species ; the stems, 
towards their base, where they are as yet unbranched, have a thick- 
ness of about fa of an inch, and might here almost be taken for 
a cluster of the stems of Tubularia indivisa. The specimens were 
all incrusted with an opaque calcareous deposit ; and when freed 
from this, the stems presented a light-brown glossy surface marked 
by shallow longitudinal corrugations. The hydrotheca have a 
singular resemblance to the usual form of the bowl of a tobacco- 
pipe ; they measure about -^ of an inch in height, and contract 
below into a very short peduncle, by which they are supported on 
the bracket-like processes of the hydrocaulus. The branches are 
considerably thinner than the main stem, from which they spring 
at a wide angle ; they attain a length of from | an inch to about 
2 inches, and are mostly given off from alternate sides. 

The Hydroid grew in dense clusters of closely approximated 
tubes ; the clusters often measure at their base 1 or 2 inches in 
diameter. 

As nothing is known of the gonosome, the reference of this 
species to Campanularia is provisional. 

SERTULARIIDJE. 

Skbttlarblla. 

Sertularella Johnstoni, Gray. Plate XIII. figs. 1, 2. 

Syn. Sertularella Johnstoni, Gray, in Dieffenbach's New Zealand; 

Coughtrey in Journal of Otago Institute, May 1874. 
Sertularella gracilis, Allman, MS. 

Trophosome. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of about 4 inches, 
very slender, much and irregularly branched; branches zigzag, 
sending off pinnately-disposed alternate ramuli at regular inter- 
vals along their length, the whole forming a dense tuft. Hydro- 
thecse carried each near the middle of a rather short, well-defined 
internode, adnata to the internode for about half their height, 
free portion slightly contracted ; orifice with three well-marked 
teeth, one of which is superior and two lateral. 

Gonosome. Gonangia borne both upon the main stem and the 

19* 



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262 



PROF. ALL VAX ON NEW GENXBA 



ramulf, each springing from a point just below a hydrotheca, 
obovate, gradually contracting below into a short peduncle, ter- 
minating above in a tubular orifice, which is situated excentrically 
on the truncated summit, distinctly and closely simulated in its 
entire length. 

Locality. New Zealand, Mr. Busk 1 * collection. 

Mr. Coughtrey's amended description of tho Sertularella John- 
itoni of Gray renders it pretty certain that Gray's description was 
intended to apply to the present species, and necessitates the sup- 
pression of the specific name " gracilis" under which I had origi- 
nally described it, in favour of the name previously assigned to it by 
Gray +. It is a delicate and very elegant species, rendered obvious to 
the naked eye by the tufts of long slender stems with their regu- 
lar pinnately disposed rarouli. In the same collection is a form 
differing from that here described in the central position of its 
less decidedly exserted gonangial orifice ; in all other respects it 
is indistinguishable from it. I regard the difference as merely 
varietal or possibly sexual. 

Sertularella Integra. Plate XIII. figs. 3, 4. 

Trophosome. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of about an inch, 
simple, or sparingly branched. Hydrotheca? adnate to each in- 
ternode by somewhat more than a third of their height, slightly 
swollen below, becoming gradually narrower towards the orifice, 
marked upon the upper side with shallow annulations, orifice 
destitute of teeth. 

Gonosome. Gonangia springing from a point just below the 
base of a hydrotheca, ellipsoidal, marked in somewhat more than 
the distal half by shallow annulations, terminating by a tubular 
4-toothed orifice. 

Locality. New Zealand Mr. Busk'* collection. 

The perfectly even rim of the hydrotheca, destitute of all trace 
of teeth, is an obvious feature in this species. Just within the 
orifice, upon the inferior walls of the hydrotheca, is a very distinct 

* The proof-sheets of the present paper were passing through my hands when, 
by the kindness of Mr. Coughtrey, I received a copy of his M Notes on the New 
Zealand Hydroidece," read before the Otago Institute, May 1874. The paper » 
aooompanied by figures, and amends in many important points the descriptions 
already giren by Grey (Catalogue in Driffenbach's 'New Zealand') and by 
Captain Hutton ("On the New Zealand Sertulerians," Trans. New Zeal Inst. 
toL v. 1872). Without such figures and, corrections it would, indeed, in many 
eases be impossible to identify the species to which the descriptions of these 
naturalist* refer. 



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▲YD SPEClta OF BTDBOIDA. 263 

conical process, similar to that which in other Hydroids (Tkwiari*) 
gives attachment to a valve-like operculum. No trace of the 
operculum was detected in the dried specimens. 

SmTCLABBLLA EPI8COPU8.. Plate XIII. figS. 5-7- 

Syn. SertularUfwsjformis, Hntton in Trans. N. Z. Inst 1872; Cough- 
trey in Jonrn. Otago Inst. 18/4. 

Tropkosome. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of about an inch, 
simple, given off at short intervals from a creeping ramified 
tubular fibre. Hydrotheca tubiforra, springing from the distal 
end of the supporting internode, to which they are attached by 
their fundus, free in the remainder of their height, and strongly 
diverging from the stem ; orifice deeply cleft above and below, so 
as to present a mitre-like form, bordered by a thickened margin, 
below which, on the side facing the internode, there is a thickened 
involution of the walls of the hydrotheca. 

Gonosome. Gfonangia elongated, ovoid, with one wide and shallow, 
and two narrow and deep longitudinal depressions, which extend 
from the summit to the base, supported on a short thickish pe- 
duncle, springing one from each internode at the side opposite 
to that which carries a hydrotheca. 

locality. New Zealand, Mr. Bush's collection. 

Notwithstanding a want of sufficient exactness in the descrip- 
tion given by Captain Hutton of his Sertularia fusiformis, there 
can, I think, be little doubt that that species is identical with the 
Sertularella episcopus of the present paper. The name otjusifbr- 
mis, however, has been already assigned by Hincks to a very dif- 
ferent British species, and therefore cannot be given to the New- 
Zealand one. Mr. Coughtrey has in some points amended 
Captain Hutton's description, and has given us a figure of the 
species. 

The remarkable mi triform and margined hydrotheca of this 
curious Hydroid at once distinguish it from all other known 
species. The hydrotheca?, besides diverging from the stem to the 
right and left, spring more decidedly from one of the remaining 
two sides than from the other, and are directed at a low angle 
from the plane of this side. The stem thus presents an anterior 
(from which the hydrothec® spring) and a posterior, as well as a 
right and a left side. The origin of the gonangia is also somewhat 
from the anterior side of the internode. 

The specimens formed a dense growth on the surface of a fucoid 



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264 PROF. ALLMAN OK NEW OBNERA 

alga. In every instance the gonangia presented a collapsed ap- 
pearance, with wide longitudinal depressions (mostly three) sepa- 
rated from one another by narrow longitudinal ridges. This 
condition was not obliterated by boiling in water or in a solution 
of caustic potash ; but it is possible that it does not exist in the 
living Hydroid. 

SSRTULARIA. 

Sertularia arctic a. Plate XIV. figs. I, 2. 

Trqphosome. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of about l£ inch, 
main stem undivided, slightly zigzag, sending off pinnately 
disposed alternate ramuli, each internode of the ramuli car- 
rying, near its middle, a pair of opposite, or nearly opposite, 
hydrothec®. Hydrothec® elongated, free, and divergent from 
the internode for rather more than their distal half, narrow- 
ing towards the aperture ; aperture cleft, so as to present two 
broad lateral teeth, to the lower angle between which is attached 
a valve-like operculum. 

Oonosome. Gonangium springing from the internode, just below 
the base of a hydrotheca, elongate-ovate, with a constriction a 
little beyond its middle, terminating distally in a rather wide 
tubular outlet. 

Locality. Spitzbergen, Mr. Eaton. 

This is an elegant and delicate little species. It is difficult to 
determine the exact form of the hydrothecal orifice, the walls 
being here very thin and collapsible. In most of the hydrothec® 
the appearance of an imperfect diaphragm could be seen at some 
distance within the orifice. 

Desmoscyphus, nov. gen. 

Trophosome. Hydrocaulus jointed, each internode corresponding 
to one or more pairs of hydrothec®. Hydrothec® adnate to one 
another in pairs, and each pair adnate to the front of the hydro- 
caulus. 

Gonosome. Gonangia simple, borne along the front of the hydro- 
caulus. 

The genus Desmoscyphus resembles Thuiaria in its hydrothec© 
being adnate to the hydrocaulus ; but it differs from it in the fact 
of its hydrothec® being also adnate to one another in pairs, which 
are thus all brought to one side of the hydrocaulus, and in the 
further fact of certain parts of its hydrocaulus being divided into 



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AND SPECIES OF UYDROIDA. 265 

regular intemodes, which correspond in number to the pairs of 
hydrothec©. 

Dehmoscyphus Burkii. Plate XIV. figs. 3-7. 

Tropho$ome. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of about 3 inches ; 
main stem sending off at irregular and distant intervals pinnately 
disposed ramuli, which are much attenuated at their origin, and 
are divided into regular intemodes, each of which carries one pair 
of hydrothec©. Hydro thee© swollen below, narrowing towards 
the orifice, and here slightly curving outwards ; orifice oval, entire ; 
pairs of hydrothec© closely approximate on the pinnae, but on the 
main stem separated from one another by considerable intervals ; 
main stem with only an occasional joint at distant and irregular 
intervals. 

Gonosome. Gonangia ovoid, with a truncated contracted sum- 
mit, springing from the front of the pinnae between the diverging 
summits of the hydrothec©. 

Locality. New Zealand, Mr. Busk** collection. 

The present Hydroid occurs attached to a Sertularella indis- 
tinguishable from the widely distributed Sertularella gayii. The 
greatest diameter of the hydrothec© is not seen in a directly 
front or in a directly lateral view of the stem or pinnae, but only 
when viewed in a position intermediate between these two. The 
inner surface of the gonangium just within its orifice is set with 
some irregular short furcate spines. 

SvHTnEcnjM. 

Trophosome. Hydrocaulus divided into intemodes, each inter- 
node carrying a pair of opposite sessile hydrothec©. 

Gonosome. Gonangia supported upon peduncles which spring 
from within the cavity of certain hydrothec©, where they take the 
place of the hydranth. 

The genus Synthecium is characterized by a feature which is 
absolutely without parallel in any other known group of hydroids. 
This is found in the relation of certain hydrothec© to the gouangia, 
the peduncle of the hydrotheca being enclosed within the cavity 
of the gonangium. 

The hydrothec© which thus carry gonangia differ in no respect, 
either in form or position, from those which continue to exercise 
the normal function of giving protection to the hydranth ; and I 
can find no clue to the meaning of this most exceptional character. 



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266 PROF. AXLlfAK OTf VTW GKXKBA 

Synth eci um blhgans. Plate XV. figs. 1-3. 

Trophoiome. Hydrocaulus attains a height of about 2 inches, 
springing from a creeping tubular filament and soon sending off 
opposite pinnately arranged branches ; internodes separated from 
one another by a deep constriction. Hydrothec* borne along 
both the main stem and its branches, deep, tubular, cylindrical, 
with perfectly even orifice, adnate to the internode for about two 
thirds of their height, and then becoming free and curving out- 
wards. 

Gonosome. Gonangia large, elliptical, opening on the summit by 
a tubular orifice, strongly annulated, with the annular ridges, 
discontinuous, where they meet a mesial zigzag line on the front 
and the back of the gonangium, peduncle of gonangium entirely 
concealed within the hydrotheca which encloses it. 

Locality. New Zealand,* Jlfr. Busk 9 * collection. 

I have elsewhere * given a general description of this remark- 
able hydroid, but without the technical diagnosis which I have 
here supplied. It is a beautiful little species, rendered striking 
by the regularity of its ramification, its distinctly separated per- 
fectly symmetrical pairs of hydrotheca and its large curiously 
ornamented gonangia borne in pairs corresponding to those of the 
hydrothec© out of which they spring. 

The peduncle of the gonangium nearly fills the cavity of the 
long tubular hydrotheca, from the very bottom of which it springs. 
It is covered with a delicate chitinous perisarc, and immediately 
on emerging from the cavity of the hydrotheca carries the gonan- 
gium on its summit. Its coenosarc is doubtless continuous at 
tlie bottom of the hydrotheca with that of the common stem ; but 
as the specimens examined had all been dried before I received 
them, the exact relation of the soft parts could not be determined. 

In the dried trophosome itself there is nothing exceptional. 
Indeed, so far as this part of the hydroid is concerned, there is 
nothing which would separate it generically from a typical Ser- 
tularia. 

Whether those hydrothecie from which the peduncles of the 
gonangia emerge ever carried hydranths which subsequently be- 
came replaced by the gonosome, or whether they have been all 
along exclusively devoted to the gouoscme, it is impossible to de- 
termine from dead and desiccated specimens. 

* ' Gvmnoblastic Hydruids,' p. 229. 



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AND 8PE0IE8 OF HYDBOIDA. 267 

TKVIARIIDJ&. 

Thuiaria. 

The characters which have been hitherto employed in the defini- 
tion of the genus Thuiaria are altogether inadequate. The species 
have all a very distinctive aspect, and the whole facies of the forms 
which are referable to this genus is so characteristic as at once to 
strike the observer ; and yet in the attempts hitherto made to 
define the genus not a single character has been introduced which 
will not just as well apply to some of the typical Sertulariidans. 

The peculiarity which has been regarded as of sufficient import- 
ance to constitute the essential character of the genus Thuiaria 
is the more or less completely adnate condition of the hydrotheca* 
to the hydrocaulus, which gives to these receptacles the appearance 
of being immersed in the substance of the stem and branches. 
The degree, however, in which this condition presents itself varies 
greatly in the different species ; and the character is just as de- 
cided in many species rightly referred to Sertularia or Sertularella. 

The adnate condition of the hydrotheca affords, in fact, no di- 
stinctive character at all ; and if Thuiaria is to stand as a legiti- 
mate genus, some other character must be sought for. Now this 
will be found in the mode of division of the hydrocaulus into 
internodes. In all the true Sertulariidans (Sertularia, Sertularella, 
Diphasia) there is a joint occurring at regular intervals between 
every two or every two pairs of hydrothec© quite irrespectively 
of the degree of adhesion of the hydrotheca to the hydrocaulus ; 
while in Thuiaria the joints occur at distant and, for the most 
part, irregular intervals, thus leaving numerous hydrotheca? to be 
carried on each internode. It is this, combined with the far less 
distinctive feature of the more or less adnate condition of the 
hydrotheca), which gives its peculiar aspect to a Thuiaria, and 
which must be taken as the essential character of the genus*. 

Thuiaria. 
Thuiaria crassicaulis. Plate XVI. figs. 1-5. 
Trophosome. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of six inches, very 

* Guided by this character, some of the species hitherto included among the 
true Sertularians must be removed to Thuiaria, Thus the Sertularia argtntea 
and 8. cwpretsina of authors are true Thuiaria. Indeed 8. cupremna, even in 
subordinate details, the immersion of its hydrothec* and its peculiar ramification, 
is in all respects a typical Thuiarian. 



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268 PBOF. ALLMAN ON NEW GENERA 

thick, having, just above the base, a diameter of ^ of an inch, 
irregularly branched ; hydrothecal rainuli dichotomously divided, 
forming fan-shaped groups, which are disposed upon the main 
stem in a closely set spiral, a joint for the most part at the 
proximal side of each bifurcation. Hydrotheca alternate, flask- 
shaped, with a short blunt tooth at each side of the orifice, sepa- 
rated from one another by slight intervals towards the proximal 
parts of each fan-shaped group of ramuli, but closely approxi- 
mated towards the distal parts, where the base of each hydrotheca 
is slightly overlapped by the summit of that below it. 

Gonosome. Gonangia forming two alternating rows on the 
upperside of the hydrotheca-bearing ramuli, each gonangium 
springing from a point just below the base of a hydrotheca, ob- 
conical, crowned with eight short thick spines which surround 
the broad summit, in the centre of which is the slightly elevated 
orifice ; margin of orifice with minute teeth, which are directed 
towards the centre. 

Locality. Japan, Capt. St. John. 

This species is especially remarkable for the great thickness of its 
stem. The thick chitinous walls of the stem are traversed by very 
numerous irregular longitudinal canals, which, for the most part, 
communicate laterally with one another and with the great irre- 
gular central canal. This central canal, in the specimen exam- 
ined, was bounded by a wall of chitine much thicker, but lighter- 
coloured, than that which surrounded the more external canals. 
The remains of the coenosarc were visible not only in the central, 
but in some of the external canals ; and it is probable that in a 
living state they were all pervaded by it. 

Thui aria coronifrra. Plate XVII. figs. 1-3. 

Trophosome. Main stem attaining a height of more than 4 
inches, sparingly branched, not fascicled, slightly zigzag, carrying 
dicbotomouB hydrothecal ramuli, which are spirally disposed 
around the stem, extending backwards for some distance from the 
summit. HydrotheciB flask-shaped, alternate. 

Gonosome. Gonangia [female] borne upon the upperside of 
the hydrothecal ramuli, springing each from a point just below 
the base of a hydrotheca, obovate, crowned by about nine hollow 
bifurcating spines, whose length equals that of the gonangium. 

Locality. Japan, Capt. St. John. 

The specimen examined was plainly a part of a female colony, 



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AXD 3NEC1E8 OF HTDBOIDJL 209 

and contained within the cage-like chamber formed bj the spines 
of the gonanginm a well-preserved acrocyst. I have no know- 
ledge of the form of the gonangia in the male; but, judging from 
analogy, they are probably destitute of the marsupial chamber 
and acrocyst which characterise the female. This species is thus 
distinguished by the peculiar form of its female gonangia, which 
differ from those of the other described species of TkmimrU much 
as the female gonangia of Dtpkmtim differ from those of Set-febf-io. 

H»e specimen being imperfect, its actual height could not be 
ascertained. About four inches of the stem remained; but it had 
evidently been broken off at some distance from the root. 

When the gonangia are young, they are obconical in form, with 
a broad, flat summit, and in this stage show no trace of mar- 
supial spines. As the gonangium continues to increase in sise it 
assumes an obovate form, and the spines begin to grow out round 
the margin of its summit. These are at first simple, and after- 
wards become bifurcate. There are three bifurcations in every 
spine, each branch of the first bifurcation dividing into two. 

An extension of the coenosarc is continued through the whole 
length of the spines, from the enlarged summit of the blastoetyle ; 
and as the blastoetyle must be homologically regarded as a hy- 
drantfa arrested and adapted to functions connected with repro- 
duction instead of nutrition, I look upon the spines here in the 
same light as I regard the corresponding parts in the gonangium 
of Diphatioy namely as blastostylic tentacles, thus representing the 
tentacles of a hydranth which have lost their prehensile functions, 
become clothed with chitine, and adapted to the piotection of the 
ova during an early period of their development. 

The ova are formed as usual, in a sporosac which springs from 
the blastostyle within the gonangium, and are subsequently dis- 
charged into the marsupial chamber, where, however, they are 
not free, but continue for some time confined within an acrocyst. 

Thuiaria bidbns. Plate XVIII. fig*. 1, 2. 

Trop\o$ome. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of 4 inches, 
springing from an entangled mass of tubular filaments, mnch 
and irregularly branched, pinnate, main stem and principal 
branches fascicled for some distance from their origin, becoming 
monosiphonic towards their extremities; pinna alternate; hy- 
drothecsB of the pinna? adnate in their entire height, alternate, 
following one another without an interval, somewhat swollen 



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270 PBOF. ALLMAX OK NEW GENKRA 

below, slightly narrowing upwards, orifice with two narrow teeth 
projecting from the inner side of the margin ; hydrothec® of the 
main stem and branches separated from one another by consider- 
able intervals. 

Gonosome. Gonangia borne by the stem and pinnae, each spring- 
ing from a point just below the base of a hydrotheca, nearly ses- 
sile, ovoid, with truncated summit, strongly annulated in their 
distal half or two thirds, orifice borne on the summit of a narrow 
tube which springs from the centre of the truncated. summit. 

Locality. New Zealand, Mr. Busk's collection. 

This is a fine species, with a handsome plumose aspect, con- 
ferred on it by the pinnate disposition of its ultimate ramuli. 

Thuiaria dolichocarpa. Plate XIX. figs. 3, 4, and 4 a. 

Trophosome. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of about four 
inches, and formed by an undivided main stem with closely set 
pinnately disposed, simple, opposite ramuli. Hydrothec® alter- 
nate, closely set on the ramuli, more distant on the main stem, 
diverging upwards; margin of orifice strongly toothed, with a 
deep notch on each side, separating it from the hydrocaulus, the 
notch surrounded by a thickened rim ; teeth three on each side 
of the orifice, and one in front ; hydrothec® adnate to the pinna 
from their base to the bottom of the marginal notch ; pinnae with a 
strongly marked mesial keel running down each side ; main stem 
not keeled, with joints at irregular intervals, and its hydrothec® 
more distant, and with the margin less distinctly dentate than 
is the case with the hydrothec® of the pinnae. 

Gonosome. Gonangia springing by a small basal joint from the 
pinn®, close to the base of a hydrotheca, very long, being about 
twelve times the length of a hydrotheca, rapidly widening upwards 
for some distance from their origin, then becoming nearly cylin- 
drical to within a short distance of the summit, and then continued 
by a short, tubular prolongation, which carries the terminal orifice. 

Locality. Northern Island, New Zealand, Dr. Andrew Sinclair, 
Mr. Busk's collection. 

Thuiaria dolichocarpa is a striking form, conspicuous by its 
pinnately disposed opposite ramuli, springing from a simple stem, 
and giving to the entire Hydroid an elegantly plumose habit, as 
well as by the strongly dentate margin of its hydrothec®, and its 
greatly elongated gonangia. The strong keels running down, one 
on one side and the other on the opposite side of the pinna, to 



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UTD SPECIES OP HYDROIDA. 27 i 

which they give a somewhat prismatic form, constitute also a 
striking feature. 

Only a single specimen of this species was contained in the 
collection. Its main stem was quite simple ; and this is probably 
the general character of the species. Its hydrorhiza was not 
present. 

Thuiaria cbrastium. Plate XVIII. figs. 3, 4. 

Trophosome, Hydrocaulus attaining a height of about two 
inches, springing from a bundle of entangled tubular filaments, 
simple for some distance from the hydrorhiza, and then becoming 
dichotomously branched with great regularity ; simple portion of 
hydrocaulus and its more proximal subdivisions fascicled, the rest 
of the subdivisions monosiphonic. Hydrothece© tubular, with 
entire orifice, adnata to the hydrocaulus in their entire length, 
alternate ; hydrothec® of each series closely approximate to one 
another, directed alternately (when viewed from the free side) to 
the right and to the left. 

Gonosome. Gonangia springing singly by a narrow point close 
to the angle of each subdivision of the dichotomous stems, broadly 
obovate, strongly annulated, opening at the broad distal end by a 
narrow tubular projection. 

Locality. Northern Island, New Zealand, Dr. Andrew Sinclair, 
Mr. Busk's collection. 

The very regular dichotomous ramification, with the gonangia 
situated in the axils of the branches, gives to this species a very 
striking aspect, and strongly suggests the form of inflorescence 
met with in certain common caryophyllaceous plants. 

Thuiaria pbrsocia lis. Piste XVII. figs. 4-6. 

Trophosome. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of about 2\ 
inches; main stem undivided, monosiphonic, sending off along 
its entire length pinnately disposed opposite ramuli, and having 
a well-marked transverse joint between every pair of ramuli ; 
ramuli with a joint here and there at irregular intervals. Hy- 
drothec® deep flask-shaped, with entire, semielliptical orifice, those 
of each series separated from one another by scarcely any interval 
on the pinn®, more separated on the main stem, subopposite, or 
opposite on the pinn®, more decidedly opposite on the common 
stem. Axis of pinn® frequently extended beyond the distal 
extremity as a cylindrical tube, destitute of hydrothec®, and 
serving for attachment. 



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272 PROF. ALLMA5T ON NEW GENERA 

Gonosome not known. 

Locality. Natal, Mr. Busk's collection. 

The opposite regularly disposed pinnate ramuli of this species 
give it an elegantly plumose habit, while one of its most striking fea- 
tures will be found in the curious tendril-like prolongations of the 
pinn®. The Hydroid grows in crowded groups ; and the tendril- 
like processes, after extending themselves for some distance, with 
a more or less tortuous course, finally adhere by their distal ex- 
tremities to some part of the same or of neighbouring hydro- 
phytons, so that the whole group becomes tied together into a 
complicated mass. The attachment of these processes is by their 
extreme ends, which are applied in a somewhat sucker-like fashion 
to the surface to which they adhere. 

Selaginopsis, gen. nov. 

Trophosome. Hydrophyton consisting of a single axile tube, to 
which the hydrothec® are adnate, and on which they are disposed 
in several longitudinal rows. 

Gonosome. Not known. 
. The genus Selagmopsis is allied to Grammaria, Stimpson, from 
which it differs chiefly in consisting throughout of a single axile 
tube, to whose sides the comparatively short hydrothec® are 
adnate, while in Grammaria the elongated hydrothec© are con- 
tinued into tubes which are combined into a fascicled stem. 
From Cryptolaria, Busk, it further differs in the polystichous 
disposition of its hydrothec®, these being distichous in Crypto- 
laria. 

With Pericladium, another Japanese genus, it has also strong 
affinities. From this, however, it differs in the disposition of its 
hydrothec® in longitudinal series as well as in its totally different 
type of ramification. 

Were we acquainted with its gonosome we should probably 
find other points either of alliance or divergence of which we are 
at present ignorant. 

Selaoinopsis pusca. Plate XII. fig. 1, and Plate XIX. figs. 1, 2. 

Trophosome. Hydrophyton attaining a height of 4 (or more) 
inches, irregularly branched, with joints at irregular intervals ; 
branches contracted at their origin. Hydrothec® with margin 
of orifice slightly waved, disposed in four rows along the stem 
and branches ; the whole very dark brown and opaque. 



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A5D 8P1CIE8 OF HYDBOEDA. 273 

Gonosome. Not known. 

Locality. Japan, Capt. St. John. 

The hydrophyton in the present species is very opaque and 
dark-coloured ; when boiled in a solution of caustic potash, it be- 
comes much lighter and more transparent ; and it is only then 
that a knowledge of the true form of the hydrothec© and of their 
relation to the other parts of the Hydroid can be obtained. It 
will be then seen that they are nearly cylindrical in form, with a 
very definite floor, and closely adhere to the sides of a continuous 
axile tube, with which the hydrotheca communicates by a central 
orifice in its floor. The hydrothec© are disposed so as to form 
four longitudinal rows, which are approximated in pairs, so that 
two rows run down one side of the stem and two down the other. 

The specimen was imperfect, and was in great part enveloped 
by the adherent tubes of the two Campanularians described 
above as O. grandis and C. gracilis. 

Pebicladium, gen. nov. 

Tropkosome. Hydrothec© more or less immersed and closely 
set round bifurcating ramuli, which spring from the sides of a 
common stem. 

Gonosome. Gonangia scattered, springing from between the 
hydrothec©. 

The genus Pericladium approaches Thuiaria, from which, how- 
ever, it differs in the disposition of its hydrothec©. In Thuiaria 
the hydrothec© are disposed distichally, being always arranged 
in two opposite longitudinal series, while in Pericladium they sur- 
round the ramulus on all sides. 

Pebicladium bidbntatum. Plate XX. figs. 1-4. 

Trophosome. Stem attaining a height of about 4 inches, simple, 
not fascicled ; hydrotheca! ramuli cylindrical, two or three time* 
bifurcate, attaining a length of about I of an inch, springing from 
the main stem in a close spiral. Hydrothec© flask-shaped, im- 
mersed for the greater part of their length and arranged in im- 
bricated or closely approximate alternating verticils, but towards 
the proximal end of the bifurcating ramulus separated from one 
another and irregularly scattered ; orifice with an acute tooth on 
each side. 

Gonosome. Gonangia carried on the upperside of the hydro- 
thecal ramuli near their origin from the common stem, obovate, 



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274 PHOF. JilLUAX OK ITKW GENIBA 

contracting below into a short curved peduncle, marked by shal- 
low transverse corrugations towards the summit, and terminated 
by a slightly elevated aperture. 

Locality. Japan, Copt. St. John. 

This Hydroid has much the habit of certain true Thuiarim. It 
is a large and beautiful species. The specimens were loaded with 
gonangia, which were confined to the basal portion of each system 
of bifurcating ramuli, where the hydrotbec® are separated from 
one another by intervening spaces ; it is from these spaces that 
the gonangia arise in two longitudinal rows upon the upperside 
of the ramulus. The gonangia-bearing portion of the ramulus is 
separated from the more distal portion by a transverse joint. 

PLUMULAB11DJE. 
Aglaophbxia. 

AOLAOPHBNIA ACANTHOCARPA. Plate XXI. 6gt. 1-4. 

TrophoMOtne. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of upwards of 
three inches, irregularly branched, pinna* springing from the 
anterior aspect of the stem. Hydrotheca? closely approxi- 
mate, rather deep, gradually expanding upwards, margin deeply 
toothed, with the second tooth from the front on each side 
strongly everted ; intrathecal ridge strong, extending from about 
the middle of the back of the hydrotheca transversely to within 
a short distance of the anterior mesial line ; mesial nematophore 
adnate to the front of the hydrotheca from its base to its margin, 
and then becoming free, and extending forwards and upwards aa 
a long thickish beak-like process, in which there is a lateral as 
well as a terminal orifice ; lateral nematophores overtopping the 
hydrotheca, very divergent in a front view ; rachis of pinna with 
an imperfect septum continuous with the intrathecal ridge, and 
another oblique one at the base of the lateral nematophores. 

Ghnotome. Corbulse open, with a short stalk, and with about 
eighteen pairs of free leaflets, which decrease in length towards 
the distal extremity of the corbula, and give off on each side 
numerous closely set, long, opposite, blunt spine-like nemato- 
phores ; each leaflet with a double nematophore near its base. 

Locality. New Zealand, Mr. Bmlc % $ collection. 

This is a very elegant species, with -much of the habit of our 
European Aglaophenia plutna. Its hydrotheca? are remarkable 
for the great development of the free portion of the mesial nema- 



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AHD 8PS0ISS OF HTDEOLDA. 275 

tophore — a character in which it agrees with Kirchenpauer's sub- 
genus Macrotynckia, with which it further agrees in the fact of 
this free portion of the mesial nematophore being provided not 
only with a terminal orifice, but with the lateral one to which 
Kirchenpauer first drew attention as occurring in those forms 
which he united in his subgenus Macrorynctoa. The species, how- 
ever, included by Kirchenpauer in this subgenus have a gonosome 
very different from that of the present species, the gonangia of the 
Macrofynekiw being unprotected by corbula), and merely sup- 
ported on the surface of more or less modified pinna). 

But the most striking feature of Aglaaphenia aamthocarpa 
will be found in its beautiful corbula). The leaflets which form 
the walls of the corbula are free in their entire length, and carry 
along their opposed edges opposite pinnately disposed nemato- 
phores, each in the form of a blunt spine, and having both a ter- 
minal orifice and, close to its base, a lateral one, exactly as in the 
mesial nematophores of the hydrothec®. The longest leaflets, 
which are situated near the proximal end of the corbula, carry 
about eleven pairs of nematophores ; the shortest, which are at the 
distal end, carry usually from five to seven pairs ; each leaflet, 
moreover, has a transverse joint between every pair of nemato- 
phores, and at its base carries upon one side two nematophores, 
which spring, by a common root, from the basal joint of the 
leaflet. 

This double nematophore is especially interesting in a homo- 
logical point of view ; for it represents the two lateral nemato- 
phores of a hydrotheca, the mesial nematophore being represented 
in a greatly modified form by the leaflet itself, and the hydrotheca 
being entirely suppressed. 

The short stalk by which the corbula is attached to the stem 
carries a single hydrotheca. 

Aolaophknia lax a. Plate XXI. figs. 5-7. 

Tropkosome. Stem attaining a height of about two inches, fasci- 
cled below, irregularly or subalternately branched ; branches all 
lying in the same plane, divided into rather long internodes, each 
interaode carrying a pinna ; pinna) distant, each supported on a 
short process, which springs from the latero-anterior aspect of 
the hydrocaulus. Hydrotheca) approximate, rather deep, gra- 
dually widening upwards, margin deeply toothed, with the second 
tooth from the front everted ; intrathecal ridge strong, situated 

LINN. JOUBN. — ZOOLOGY, VOL. XII. 20 



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276 PROF. AJJMAJS ok kkw genera 

near the middle of the hydrotheca, and running transversely from 
its posterior to its anterior wall ; median neroatophore adnate to 
front of the hydrotheca nearly as far as the margin, and then pro- 
jected as a free beak-like process, which is provided with a lateral 
as well as terminal orifice ; lateral nematophores slightly over- 
topping the hydrotheca; cauline nematophores broad, two on 
each internode, one being situated immediately below, and the 
other immediately above the supporting process for the pinna. 

Gonosome. None present in the specimen. 

Locality. New Zealand, Mr. Busk's collection. 

The length of the pinna-bearing internodes, and consequent in- 
tervals between the pinnae are unusually great in this species ; 
and the plumes thus present a rather open habit, which contrasts 
with the denser plumes of others. The hydrotheca! internodet 
have three distinct diaphragms — one which is a continuation of 
the intrathecal ridge, one at the base of the lateral nematophores, 
and one at the base of the hydrotheca. 

In the absence of all knowledge of the gonosome, the reference 
of the present species to the genus Aglaophenia is only provi- 
sional It will be seen that in the possession of two orifices by 
the free portion of the mesial nematophore we have a character 
which Kirchenpauer assigns to his subgenus Macrorynchia. This, 
however, is by no means an exclusive character of the forms 
which he would include under Macrorynchia (see description given 
above of Aglaophenia acanthocarpa) > while the general form of the 
hydrotheca in the present species agrees more closely with that 
of the true Aglaophenia. 

The specimen was growing over the surface of a litoral fucus. 

Haxicobxajlia, Bush (modified). 

Trophosome. Hydrocaulus with pinnate ramification. Hydro- 
theca) usually with an intrathecal ridge. Nematophores fixed; 
mesial nematophore adnate for a greater or less extent to the 
front of the hydrotheca, rarely free. 

Gonosome. Gfonangia not included in corbul® or protected by 
gonangial ramuli, but carried on the common stem, or on more 
or less modified hydrotheca! pinnae. 

The genus Halicomaria was originally instituted by Bosk to 
include certain Plumulariida, in which the reproductive capsules 
were not included in basket-like receptacles or corbuta. Within 
its original limits it would have included the species referable to 



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AND 8PECLBS OF HYDBOIDA. 277 

the type of Plwmulario tetacea, Linn. With our present more 
extended knowledge of the Plumulariid®, however, it must be re- 
stricted to species which, with a trophosome formed on the general 
type of Aylaophenia pluma, have their gonangia never included in 
corbuls, or connected in any way with the special gonangial ramuli 
which in certain other species we find developed for their pro- 
tection. 

Dr. Kirchenpauer, in his valuable memoir on the genus Agio- 
ophenia, institutes under the name of Macrorynchia a subgenus 
for certain forms with unprotected gonangia, giving, however, as 
the chief character of the group, the great development of the 
free portion of the mesial nematophore, and its being provided 
with a lateral as well as a terminal orifice. This condition of the 
mesial nematophore, however, we have seen to exist in a true 
corbula-bearing species (Aylaophenia acanthocarpa) ; and it pro- 
bably occurs in many others besides those which Kirchenpauer 
would refer to his subgenus Macrorynchia. The genus Halicor- 
naria would include not only the forms embraced by Kirchen- 
pauer in his Macrorynchia group of Aylaophenia, but others, 
which, with unprotected gonangia, do not possess the double- 
mouthed nematophore. 

Halicornaria saccaria. Plate XV. fig, 4, and Plate XXII. 
figt.1,2. 

Trophosome. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of about 9 inches, 
rooted by a spongy mass of entangled filaments, much and very 
irregularly branched, fascicled, yotj thick towards the base, and 
thence gradually thinning away as the polysiphonic condition 
becomes less and less, until towards their distal extremities the 
branches have entirely lost their fascicled condition and become 
monosiphonic ; pinna* alternate, arising from the anterior sur- 
face of the rachis. Hydrothec® with the orifice directed forward ; 
margin waved, but not dentate ; anterior walls deeply inflected 
just below the orifice ; intrathecal ridge rudimental ; mesial nema- 
tophore adnate to the hydrotheca for about half the height of 
the hydrotheca, and then forming a rather long, stout, free spine, 
having, besides its terminal aperture, a lateral one on its upper 
side close to the point where it becomes free; lateral nemato- 
phores nearly cylindrical, long, extending beyond the orifice of 
the hydrotheca ; a double cauline nematophore just below the 
origin of each pinna. 

Gonosome. Gonangia borne singly on a short pinna, which 

20* 



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278 PROF. ALLMAtf OK K£W GENERA 

carries usually two hydrothecae at the proximal side of the gonan- 
gium, and at its distal side is reduced to a short blunt spine 
destitute of hydrothecae; gonangia oval, greatly compressed, 
concave on one side and convex on the other, with a transparent 
wing-like margin ; sporosac encircled near its summit by a band 
of refringent roundish corpuscles. 

Locality. Ceylon, Mr. Holds worth. 

This is a loosely branched straggling species ; the peculiar form 
of the hydrothec®, with the deep inflexion below the margin, 
somewhat resembles that of a sac constricted by a cord below its 
mouth, and has suggested the specific name. 

The remarkable band by which the solitary sporosac which 
occupies the gonangium is encircled, is composed of highly re- 
fringent spherical corpuscles, which by mutual pressure have 
become more or less polygonal. They possess a central nucleus- 
like body, which, when the gonangia are subjected to a short 
boiling in a solution of caustic potash, becomes resolved into a 
cluster of granules. It is impossible to form any valid conclu- 
sion as to the significance of these bodies; they are certainly 
not ova. 

The gonangium is solitary, and is borne on a shortened hydro- 
thecal pinna whose proximate two hydrothecas present the normal 
condition, while the third hydrotheca is replaced by the gonan- 
gium, its mesial and lateral nematophores continuing, with but 
slight arrest, to occupy their usual position, so that the mesial 
nematophore is placed in front of the gonangium, where it re- 
mains free, and the lateral nematophores one on each side of it 
and distally. That portion of the pinna which lies at the distal 
side of the gonangium has become arrested and reduced to the 
condition of a thick blunt spine. 

Were it not for the much less modified condition of the pinna 
which carries the gonangium, the present species would form a 
typical example of Dr. Kirchenpauer's macrorynchial section of 
Aglaophenia. 

Halicornaria IN8IONI8. Plate XXIII. fig. 1, and Plate XXII. 

figi. 3, 4. 

Trophosome. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of 9 inches, simple, 
monosiphonic, closely set with opposite pinna*. Hydrothecc with 
a very long recurved and strongly divergent tooth on each aide, 
intrathecal ridge strong, extending from about the middle point 



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AND 8PECIBS OF HTDBOIDA. 270 

of the mesial line in front to a point about halfway between the 
anterior and posterior walls of the hydrotheca ; mesial nemato- 
phore very long, adnate to the whole height of the anterior wall 
of the hydrotheca, and then extending for a distance about equal 
to the length of its adnate portion as a free, gently recurved, hol- 
low spine, with a lateral as well as a terminal orifice. 

Gonosome. Not known. 

Locality. Ceylon, Mr. Holdsworth. 

This is a beautiful species ; its long flexile and eminently 
graceful plumes grew in rich masses oyer the stems of another 
large Hydroid( Halicornaria bipinnata). In some of the specimens 
examined an imperfect septum was apparent, stretching across 
the cavity of the mesial nematophore at a little distance from its 
terminal orifice. This, however, was by no means of constant 
occurrence. The opposite, instead of alternate, disposition of the 
pinnae on the common stem is a condition of very rare occurrence 
among the Plumulariid®. 

As no gonosome was present in any of the specimens examined, 
the reference of the species to Halicornaria is provisional ; the 
general character of the hydrothecs&, however, belonging as these 
do to the macrorynchial type, renders it probable that the species 
is correctly allocated to Halicornaria. 

Halicornaria bipinnata. Plate XXIII fig. 2, Plate XXII. fig. 5. 

Trophosomc. Hydrocaulus attaining a height of upwards of a 
foot, fascicled, rooted by a dense sponge-like mass of entangled 
fibres, strong and thick at its origin, where it measures about a 
quarter of an inch in diameter, and soon thinning away as it be- 
comes irregularly branched ; branches mostly in the same plane, 
sending off along their whole length rather closely set, short, 
alternate pinna, which are destitute of hydrothec®, and along 
the intervening spaces short, slender, hydrotheca-bearing pinnae ; 
non-hydrotheca-bearing pinna) rigid, fascicled at their origin, 
thinning away and becoming monosiphonic towards their distal 
extremities, carrying very short secondary, alternate, mono- 
siphonic hydrotheca-bearing pinna), each secondary pinna spring- 
ing from a short internode of the primary pinna). Hydrotheca) 
closely set, deep, with the anterior wall deeply involuted below 
the orifice, which is directed forward ; margin of orifice extended 
in the form of a broad wing-like cheek on each side ; intrathecal 
ridge situated near the base of the hydrotheca, and extending 



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280 PBOF. AALMAK ON HEW^ GEKXRA 

forwards for a short distance from its posterior wall ; mesial 
nematophore adnate for the greater part of the height of the 
hydrotheca, and then becoming free for a short distance ; lateral 
nematophores long, cylindrical, diverging ; each internode of the 
primary pinna carrying two cauline nematophores close to the 
base of the secondary pinna. 

Gonosome. G-onangia compressed, cup-shaped, opening by a 
wide orifice at the distal end, springing by a very short latero- 
basal peduncle from the back of each secondary pinna close to 
its origin. 

Locality. Ceylon, Mr. Holdsworth. 

The doubly pinnate ramification of JET. bipinttata impresses on 
the Hydroid a striking physiognomy. The species is rendered 
still further remarkable by the large size of its strong rigid 
hydrocaulus, while the branches, being given off to the right and 
left, lie mostly in the same plane, and confer on it somewhat the 
aspect of certain species of Antipathes or Qorgonia. The hydro- 
thecae are proportionally small ; and the pinnte which carry them 
are slender and easily detached from the rest of the hydrocaulus. 
Though the hydrotheca? resemble those of the macrorynchial 
species in the forward direction of the orifice and in the deep 
involution of the anterior wail, the free portion of the mesial 
nematophore is but little developed, and is provided with only 
the terminal aperture. 

The main stem and branches are strongly fascicled ; and the 
principal tube of the primary non-hydrotheca-bearing pinn» (that 
from which the secondary pinne arise) is accompanied by two or 
three tubes from the branches, which, however, soon cease ; and 
the primary pinna then continues its course as a single tube. 

Some of the specimens were loaded with gonangia, which were 
always very thin-wailed and provided with a very wide orifice ; 
but how far the form of these receptacles in the dried specimens 
corresponded with their condition in the living animal is somewhat 
doubtful. Their origin from the back of the hydrocaulus is very 
remarkable, and quite exceptional in the group. 



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AND SPECIES OF HYDBOIDA. 281 



DESCBIPTION OF THE PLATES. 

[All the magnified figures, and many of thoee representing the species of its 
natural sue, are from drawings made from nature by the author. The figures 
on Plate XXIII., and some of the other natural-size figures, are from drawings 
by Mr. A. T. Holliok,] 

Plate IX. 

Figs. 1, 2. Perigonimus midiicornis. 

1. Natural size. 

2. A portion, magnified. 

3, 4. Endendrium rigidum. 

3. Natural size. 

4. A portion, magnified. 

5. 6. Amatthtea idandica. 

5. Natural size. 

6. Magnified. 

7,8. Afonocaulus grctnUmdica. 

7. Natural size. 

8. Magnified. 

Plate X. 

Figs. 1-3. HydracHnia monocarpa. 

1. A colony, natural size, growing over the shell of TropKon cla- 

thratus. 

2. A portion of the colony, magnified. 

3. Longitudinal section of one of the chitinous spines : a, external 

laminated layer ; 6, internal laminated layer ; c, axile cavity. 

4, 5. Podocoryne inermis. 

4. Natural size, spreading over the shell of Nassa reticulata. 

5. Portion of a colony, magnified. 

6.7. Cladocoryne pelagica. 

6. Natural size, growing over the surface of an air-vesicle of Sar- 

gamtm bacciferum. 

7. Portion of a colony with hydranth and gonophores, magnified. 

Plate XI. 
Figs. 1, 2. Campanufaria crinata. 

1. Natural size. 

2. Magnified. 

3, 4. Campanularui juncea. 

3. Portion of a colony, natural size. 

4. Portion, magnified. 



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282 PBOF. ALLMAN OK NEW GENIBA 



Plati xn. 



Fig. 1. Selaginopsis fitsca and Campanularia grandis, natural size. (For mag- 
nified details of Selaginopsis fUsca, see PI. XDL figs. 1, 2.) 
1 a, a. Selaginopsis fusca. 

1 b, b, b: Campanularia grandis. 

2. Campanularia grandis and Campanularia gracilis, magnified. 

2fl, a. Campanularia grandis. 

2 b, b, b. Campanularia gracilis growing over the surface of Cam- 

panularia grandis. 
Young individuals with their bydrorhizal disks have attached 
themselves to the hydrothecue of the large Campanularia, 

3. Qonangium of Campanularia grandis, magnified. 

4. Campanularia gracilis, natural size. 

Plate XIII. 

Figs. 1, 2. Sertularella Johnstoni. 

1. Natural size. 

2. A portion, magnified. 

3, 4. Sertularella integra. 

3. Natural size. 

4. A portion, magnified. 

5-7. Sertularella episeopus. 
6. Natural size. 

6. A portion, magnified. 

7. Outline of transverse section of gonangium. 

Plate XIV. 
Figs. 1, 2. Sertularia arctica. 

1. Natural size. 

2. A portion, magnified. 

3-7. Desmoscyphus Buskii. 

3. Natural size. 

4. A portion of main stem and branch, magnified, lateral view. 

5. A portion of a branch, magnified, front view. 

6. Same, back view. 

7. Same, oblique view. 

Plate XV. 
Figs. 1-3. Syntheeium elegans. 

1. Natural size. 

2. Magnified. 

3. A portion with gonangia, still further magnified. 

Fig. 4. Halicomaria taccaria, natural size. (For magnified details of this 
species see PI. XXII. figs. 1, 2.) 



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and species o* hydboida. 288 

Plate XVI. 

Figs. 1-5. Thuiaria cramcaulis. 

1. A nearly perfect colony, natural size. 

2. Portion of a bifurcating branch, magnified. 

3. Portion of same, more magnified ; lateral view of hydrothecuB 

with gonangium. 

4. Same, front yiew of hydrothecn. 

5. Transverse section of stem near proximal end, magnified, show- 

ing the great central irregular canal and the peripheral canals 
in the thick ohitinous perisaro. 



Plate XVII. 

Figs. 1-3. Thuiaria coronifera. 

1. Natural size. 

2. Part of a branch, magnified. 

3. Hydrotheca, front yiew. 

4-6. Thuiaria personalis. 

4. Natural size. 

5. A portion, magnified, showing the tendril-like processes. 

6. Hydrotheca, front new. 



Plate XVIII. 

Figs. 1, 2. Thuiaria bidens. 

1. Natural size. 

2. A portion, magnified. 

3> 4. Thuiaria cerasHum. 

3. Natural size. 

4. A portion, magnified. 



Plate XIX. 
Figs. 1,2. Setaginopsit fusca. 

1. A portion of the hydrophylon in its natural condition, mag- 

nified. 

2. A portion after haying been boiled in a solution of caustic pot- 

ash, showing the form and relation of the hydrothec®. 
(For Selaginapau fusco, natural size, see PL XII. fig. 1 a, a.) 
3,4,4*. Thuiaria dolichocarpo. 

3. Natural size. 

4. Portion of a pinna, magnified, with proximal portion of hydro- 

theca. 
4: Distal portion of same hydrotheca. 

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284 PKOF. ALLMJLN OK KEW GINBBA. AND SPECIE8 OF HYDBOIDA. 



Plats XX. 

Figs. 1-4. Pericladium bidentatum. 

1. A portion of a colony, natural size. 

2. One of the bifurcating branches, magnified. 

3. A portion of a branch near its proximal end, with gonangia, 

still more magnified. ' 

4. A portion of a branch near its distal end, magnified still further. 



Plats XXI. 

Figs. 1-4. Aglaopkenia acantkocarpa, 

1. A colony, natural site. 

2. Portion of a pinna, magnified, lateral view. 

3. Same, front view. 

4. A oorbula, magnified. (In order to give the figure greater 

clearness the leaflets of one side are omitted.) 

5-7. Aglaophenia laxa. 

5. A colony, natural size. 

6. Portion of a pinna, magnified, lateral ?iew. 

7. Same, front view. 

Plats XXII. 

Figs. 1, 2. Halicornaria taccaria. 

1. A portion of stem with two pinna, one carrying a gonangiuro, 

magnified, lateral view. 

2. A gonangium, less magnified than in fig. 1, front view. 
(For Halicornaria saccaria, nat. size, see PL XV. fig. 4.) 

3, 4. Halicornaria insignia 

3. Portion of a pinna, magnified, lateral view. 

4. One of its hydrotheote, front view. 

(For Halicornaria uuigniz, nat size, see PL XXHX fig. 1.) 

Fig. 5. Halicornaria bipinnota, portion of stem and pinna, magnified. 
(For Halicornaria bipinnata, nat. size, ses PL XXHI. fig. 2.) 

Plats XXTTT. 

Fig. 1. Halicornaria inmgni*, nat. size. 

2. Halicornaria bipinnata, nat. size, drawn from a small specimen. 
(For the magnified details of this plate see Plate XXII. figs. 3, 4, 5.) 



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DB. T. S. COBBOLD ON THE LABOE HUMAN FLUKE. 285 

On the supposed Barity, Nomenclature, Structure, Affinities, and 
Source of the large human Fluke (DUtoma crassum, Busk). 
By T. Spencer Cobbold, M.D., F.B.S., F.L.S., Lecturer on 
Parasitic Diseases. 

[Bead February 10, 1875.] 

It will be within the recollection of some of the senior members 
of the Society that about thirty years ago Professor Busk disco- 
vered fourteen large flukes in the duodenum of a Lascar who died 
at the Seamen's Hospital. Not only were these parasites cor- 
rectly regarded as new to science at the time, but, what is more 
remarkable, no second instance of the occurrence of this entozoon 
has since been placed on record. To be sure, there are several 
human parasites that have only once been observed ; but these 
instances refer, for the most part, to minute helminths, such as the 
dwarf tapeworm (Tania nana) and the almost microscopic fluke 
known as the DUtoma heterophyes. It is therefore, J repeat, 
rather strange that during the interval elapsing from the winter 
of 1848 to the spring of 1874, this comparatively large Trematode 
should not have been again encountered — and the more so, since 
our professional friends stationed in India, and throughout the 
East generally, have of late years shown great activity in search- 
ing for entozoa. 

In reference to the assumed rarity of the parasite, it will not be 
out of place to refer to other instances of a similar kind affecting 
animal hosts. I will adduce only two cases, in both of which the 
entozoa, though now known to be abundant, were for a long 
time overlooked, and consequently supposed to be extremely rare. 

In the year 1858 I discovered a small fluke in the liver-ducts 
of an American red fox (Cants fulvut) that had died at the Zoolo- 
gical Society's Gardens ; but no second instance of the occur- 
rence of this parasite (DUtoma eonjunctum) was recorded until the 
year 1871, when Dr. Lewis found great numbers infesting the 
pariah dogs of India. The second and far more striking instance 
of verification after a long interval of time is that of Stephanurus 
dentatus. This rather large Nematode was originally discovered 
by Natterer at Barra do Eio Negro, Brazil, in 1834. He found 
it infesting a Chinese variety of the common hog. It was shortly 
afterwards described and figured by Diesing ; and nothing could 
exceed the accuracy of the description given by the Vienna hel- 



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286 DB. T. 8. OOBBOLD OK THE LABO* HUMAH. FLUKE. 

minithologist, who at the time was still in possession of his eye- 
sight. Here, again, however, no second instance of the occurrence 
of the " parasite " was made known until thirty-five years had 
elapsed. In the year 1869 Professor Verrili described what he 
very naturally supposed to be a new entozoon infesting the hogs 
of the United States. He called the species Sclerostoma pinguu 
cola. Specimens of these worms, however, having been forwarded 
to me by Professor Fletcher, of Indianapolis, I at once saw that 
VerrilFs Sclerostomata were the Stephanuri of Diesing and Nat- 
terer. Subsequently also I detected this self-same entozoon in 
a batch of parasites sent from Australia to the Microscopical So- 
ciety of London for the purpose of identification. It thus ap- 
pears, from the case of Stephanurus, that a parasite capable of 
producing serious mischief and even death amongst well-known 
animals may evade rediscovery for a very long period of time, and 
this, too, notwithstanding the ever-increasing number of natural- 
history observers. Of more importance, also, is the consideration 
that many a species, hitherto assumed to be extremely rare and 
local, may turn out to be both numerically abundant and of wide 
geographical distribution. As will be seen in the sequel, the latter 
part of this inference applies with some force to the parasite now 
before us ; and I should not be at all surprised if its supposed 
rarity were eventually proven to be without foundation in fact. 

For an opportunity of securing fresh examples of the Distoma 
crastum I stand indebted to Dr. George Johnson, F.E.S., who in 
the spring of last year recommended two of his patients — a mis- 
sionary and his wife — to call on me in order that I might have 
an opportunity of examining and identifying the parasites that 
were occasionally escaping their bearers per via* naturala. I 
should mention that Dr. Johnson readily recognized the trema- 
tode character of the helminths, and that he advised accordingly. 
Beserving purely professional details for publication elsewhere, I 
have to state that from the missionary and his partner I learned 
that they had been resident in China for about four years. During 
that time they had together freely partaken of fresh vegetables in 
the form of salad, and also occasionally of oysters, but more par- 
ticularly of fish, which, in common with the oysters, abound in tho 
neighbourhood of Ningpo. From their statements it appeared to 
me that to one or other of these sources we must look for an ex- 
planation of the fact of their concurrent infection. Fluke larvae, 
as we know, abound in mollusks and fish j but whether any of the 



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DR. T. 8. OOBBOLD OK THE LABGB HUMAN FLUKE. 287 

forms hitherto found in oysters or in fish have any genetic rela- 
tion to the flukes of man, is a question that cannot very well be 
settled in the absence of direct experimental proof. I should 
add that it was not until after their visit to the interior of the 
country, some 130 miles distant from Ningpo, that the symptoms 
which Dr. Johnson and myself consider to have been due to the 
presence of the parasites made their appearance. Whilst in the 
country they freely partook of freshwater fish, and on one occa- 
sion they received a quantity of oysters that had been sent up 
from Ningpo. The missionary assured me that the fish were 
always thoroughly well cooked. 

From the size and almost leathery texture of the two flukes 
which were in the first instance submitted to my notice, I at once 
recognized the species ; but as they were spirit-specimens, I re- 
quested that if any more examples were obtained they should be 
sent to me in the fresh state. Fortunately others were brought 
in a few days, when, from an examination conducted whilst they 
were still fresh, I was able to make out several details of struc- 
ture which had hitherto escaped notice. Altogether I secured 
seven specimens, three of them being in a mutilated condition. 
In what way these mutilations (as shown by the dried speci- 
mens) occurred I have not been able to make out, either by per- 
sonal observation or by questioning the bearers. Two of the pa- 
rasites look as though their bodies had been carefully excised 
near their centre. Such new facts as I have gleaned were derived 
from two comparatively small specimens, one of which, in the 
dried state, has since been deposited in the anatomical department 
of the University Museum at Oxford. I may add that I took the 
earliest opportunity of bringing some of the specimens under Mr. 
Busk's attention, when he at once recognized them as referable 
to the species he had so long ago discovered. 

Of the fourteen original specimens found by Mr. Busk, several 
have been lost. The one that he himself gave me I handed over 
to Professor Leuckart ; and it is figured in his work (Die mensch. 
Par. i. s. 586). A second is preserved in the Museum attached 
to the Middlesex Hospital ; and a third is contained in the Mu- 
seum of the Boyal College of Surgeons. This last-named speci- 
men is the best of the original set. It supplied me with the few 
details of structure figured in outline in my ' Introductory Trea- 
tise * (fig. 42, p. 193), published in 1864 ; and it also in part 
formed the basis of the description of the species communicated 



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288 DR. T. 8. COBBOLD ON THE LAROE HUMAN FLUKE. 

to this Society in Jane 1859 (Synopsis of the Distomicta, p. 5, 
Proceedings, vol. v.). The late Dr. Lankester, it is true, in his 
English edition of Kuchenmeister's work on Parasites, was the first 
to give a distinctive title to this entozoon (DUtoma Buskii)\ but 
as the discoverer objected to this nomenclature, and as Dr. Lan- 
kester's proposed terms were unaccompanied by any original de- 
scription, I requested Mr. Busk to suggest a new name for the 
worm, which he accordingly characterized as above. As I sub- 
sequently pointed out, Von Siebold had already employed the 
compound title Distotna crassum to designate a small fluke infest- 
ing the House-Martin (Hirundo urbica); but for reasons similar 
to those which contributed to set aside Dr. Lank eater* 8 nomen- 
clature, the title adopted in my synopsis at length came to be re- 
cognized by Leuckart and other well-known helminthologists. 
Before this recognition took place, however, Dr. Weinland, of 
Frankfort, had so far accepted Lankester* 8 nomenclature as to 
call the species Dicrocoelium Buskii. In my judgment there 
were no sufficient grounds for placing the parasite in Dujardin's 
unsatisfactory genus. Be that as it may, I have only further to 
observe that in addition to the original specimens above particu- 
larized, two others are preserved in the Museum at King's Col- 
lege. Thus probably only five out of the fourteen specimens are 
still in existence ; and such being the case, I have thought it 
worth while to collect and record these few particulars. 

The earliest literary notice of the entozoon appeared in Dr. 
Budd's classical treatise * On Diseases of the Liver;' and in it 
the author correctly stated, from data supplied by Dr. Busk, that 
these human flukes were " much thicker and larger than those of 
the sheep," being, it is added, from " an inch and a half to near 
three inches in length." The longest of my recent specimens, 
however, scarcely exceeds two inches, whilst the smallest and 
most perfect (the one at Oxford) measures less than an inch from 
head to tail. The greatest width of my broadest specimen is little 
more than half an inch, or *fc". None of the twelve examples 
that I have examined approach the length of three inches ; but 
Mr. Busk assured me that, judging from his recollection, some of 
his specimens were even longer than that. I fear, nevertheless, 
that the estimate given in my Synopsis is somewhat exaggerated ; 
at all events it is so for average specimens. 

The new anatomical facts made out by me bear reference 
principally to the reproductive apparatus. What else I have 



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DB. T. 8. OOBBOLB OK THE LABGE HUMAJT FLUKE. 289 

observed is, for the most part, confirmatory of the statements 
made by Mr. Busk. In particular, his brief account of the posi- 
tion and character of the digestive organs was not only confirmed 
by my earlier examinations, but is now reverifiecL In the repre- 
sentation given in my ' Introduction * I showed in dotted outline 
two largo organs which I supposed to be the testes. I distinctly 
observed radiating lines proceeding from each of these masses ; but 
I could not discover the slightest trace of any limiting border to 



Distoma erassum, Busk. 

a, oral sucker; b, digestive tube ; c, csecal end of the same; d, reproductive 
papilla ; c, central uterine duct ; /, lateral process or fold of the same ; g, vitel- 
iigen© gland ; h % diverticulum ; i. ovary ; j, probable shell-gland ; k, testis and 
seminal ducts. Magnified twice the natural size. 



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290 DB. T. 8. 0OBBOLD OK THE LARGE HUMAN FLUKE. 

either organ. I have now found in their place two irregularly 
spherical and flattened masses with clearly defined limits (*, k). I 
entertain no doubt as to the testicular character of the lower 
organ (&). Iu the outline drawing I further indicated the pre- 
sence of a third and much smaller globular mass, which I termed 
the ovary ; and this organ was seen with remarkable distinctness 
in most of my recent specimens (A). The radiating, broad and 
branching seminal ducts were in all cases beautifully distinct, 
forming the roost attractive feature of the parasite's organisation 
(k). Connected with the supposed ovary were a number of small 
but very conspicuous tubes, which stood out as if they formed 
a special organ (j), whose common ducts emptied themselves into, 
or were connected with, the ovary. In whatever way we may in- 
terpret its character, nothing could exceed its distinctness in the 
fresh state ; and it may still be seen with clearness in one or two 
of the dried specimens. The supposed upper testis (t) displayed 
no radiating seminal tubes ; consequently I now conclude that it 
is the ovary, whilst the small, black, spherical body lying immedi- 
ately in front of it is what Yon Siebold would call the internal 
seminal vesicle (A). It is probably a diverticulum formed at the 
junction of the ovarian and vitelligene ducts, whilst the singular 
branched tubes in all likelihood represent a special shell-gland 
(j). I made out the female reproductive organs with somewhat 
more completeness. In the outline drawing already referred to, 
I gave a diagram of the probable position of the uterine folds, re- 
ducing the organ to the simplest condition. The conjecture was 
right. In the fresh specimens, I found the uterus to comprise a 
large number of unevenly folded tubes, which apparently proceed 
laterally from either side of a large median duct (0). This duct 
could be distinctly traced to its outlet in the reproductive papilla, 
which, as usual in true Distomes, is placed in the middle line, im- 
mediately above the ventral sucker. In my examination of Mr. 
Busk's original specimens I could not find the slightest trace of 
vitelligene organs ; but in the present set of fresh examples I not 
only obtained proof that these organs were largely developed, but 
that their limitations could be fixed with accuracy (y y). They 
consisted of two large elongated masses, one on either side of the 
body, occupying about two thirds of the entire length of the para- 
site. Their yelk- vesicles were distinctly seen; but the main 
efferent canals were only .here and there traceable. Clearly the po- 
sition and character of the yelk-forming glands of the large human 



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3>B. T. S. COBBOLD ON THE LABGE Htf tfAtf TLTJKt. 291 

fluke are quite unlike those of any of its congeners. This fluke 
is a remarkably fine species, and, when viewed in the fresh state 
with a powerful pocket-lens, pre